Finding the endogeneity of x variable

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ABSTRACT

Consumer complaining behavior was result of dissatisfaction from any product or services and may leads to complaining. At the result of dissatisfaction have two types of customers one who have taken no action and second are, who will take some complain action.

This study focus on finding whether endogeneity exist or not in consumer complaining behavior while other factors such as product characteristics, demographics, psychographics variable were explaining it. The instrument for this study was developed on the basis of Ian Phau and puspita Sari research work on engaging in complaint behavior An Indonesian perspective and the list of the actions was adopted from Krishnan and Valle (1979)

A total of 90 respondents were selected randomly from Iqra University and different shopping malls in Karachi. The purpose of the research was to find out endogeneity of x variable in consumer complaining behavior, the objective was to determine whether endogeneity exists or not. If there was endogeneity it was showing that there was variable or set of variables that can explain consumer complaining behavior but have not yet studied.

For testing hypothesis and finding result optimal scaling and correspondence analysis were used.

Result shows that endogeneity exist negatively in consumer complaining behavior which shows that there were some factor were not studied yet but having a negative impact on complaining behavior negative endogeneity means as the involvement of endogenous variable decreases it was causing an increase in complaining behavior.

Endogenous variables may be customer awareness, customer involvement, cultural civilization and literacy level. Such as low customer awareness was leads to increase in complaining behavior.

Consumer complaining behavior was a result of dissatisfaction from any product or services and may leads to complaining. At the result of dissatisfaction have two types of customers one were taking no action and second were who had taken some complain action.

For consumers who have take complain actions were further divided into two types of action which include private action and public action. In case of private action consumer warn friends, family and others and also stop using the product or services.

In case of public action customer have seek redress from firm or manufacturer or try to reform personally.

Also in public action dissatisfied complainer complain to government and private agency. Finally in public action customer may take legal action against the company or manufacturer.

Consumers who take public actions were more beneficial to companies than one who takes private actions since public actions not only make companies aware of the problems faces, but also provide a chance for them to hold customers

It has been observed that complaining by dissatisfied customer provide an opportunity to seller as well as manufacturer to take some action in order to satisfy the customer.

The firms and companies who understand the reason of consumer complaint behavior can build up useful complaint resolution strategy, which was result in a constructive impact on customer retention, and reduced harmful word-of-mouth, and develop base line presentation.

It is very important for the company to retain current customer as current customer were more willing to show loyalty by using a variety of the companies' products or services. The positive word of mouth of current customer will catch the attention of new consumers.

1.2: PROBLUM STATEMENT

The scope of this research was to find out the endogeneity of x variable in consumer complaining behavior when other variable such as demographics, psychographic and product characteristics are predicting it.

By finding whether endogeneity exist or not we were able to find some other variables which having impact on complaining behavior but were not study yet. So we find some important variables which were ignored earlier.

At the end of the research we were able to find out some other variable that explain consumer complaining behavior.

this research also have a limitation which include lack of data, there were no literature on finding the endogeneity in consumer complaining behavior.

1.3: HYPOTHESIS

H1: Endogeneity exists when predictors predict the taking complain

Action

H 2: Complaining attitude at the time of dissatisfaction predicts

taking complain action

H 3: Embarrassment predicts the taking complain action

H 4: Gender predicts the taking complain action

H 5: Monthly income predicts the taking complain action

H 6: Residence predicts the taking complain action

H 7: Political association predicts the taking complain action

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Consumer complaining behavior can be defined as the identification and analysis of all of the aspects involved in the consumer response to a product or a service failure and the resulting perceived dissatisfaction.

Consumer complaining behavior were the result of dissatisfaction which was neither psychologically accepted nor quickly forgotten with this is also. Underlined consumption of a product or service (Day, 1977; Day et al., 1981; Singh, 1988, 1990

As per expectancy disconfirmation theory, which holds that argue that dissatisfaction leading to consumer complaining behavior was a result of the gap between consumers' expectation and the actual performance of the product or service (Oliver, 1980).

Consumers' assessment of the purchase experiences was mainly affected by consumer expectation (Day, 1977). Consumer becomes dissatisfied when the actual performance of the product or service does not meet with the expected performance.

Because of the companies' mass promotions of the product and services result in increase in consumer expectation and this increase in consumer expectation boost in firm sales, and consumer will become frustrated if actual performance does not meet consumers' expectations, and twill result in complaining behavior (Mowen and Minor, 1998).

Dissatisfaction can be communicated in a number of ways and there were different Typologies which differentiate complainer from non Complainer (Singh, 1988; Krishnan and Valle, 1979).

In general, four sets of actions can be summarized first dissatisfied customer take no action and not repurchase the firm's product or services were logical responses to dissatisfaction (Day, 1984; Day et al., 1981; Richins, 1983).

Second, consumers can also take some form of private actions. This may include changing the brand/supplier, stop using the product or service, or warning family and friends. (Singh and Wilkes, 1996, p. 9). This group is classified as "voicers" (Singh, 1990).

Third, consumer can take some form of public action. Public actions involve trying to reform directly from the seller and manufacturer and taking legal action against the seller or manufacturer.

Consumers may also be registering a complaint with the supplier or producer, a public consumer protection agency, or a private consumer organization (Davidow and Dacin, 1997). Complainers may also create a new company to provide a better product or service (Mowen and Minor, 1998).

As compare to private action those consumers who take public actions were more beneficial to companies since public actions not only make companies aware of the problems they face, but also give an opportunity for them to grip their customers (DavidowEngaging incompliant behavior 409 and Dacin, 1997)

As a result of dissatisfaction consumer blame seller and manufacturer and as a result stay away from sellers and manufacturers by stop using their products or services and also involved in negative word of mouth by spreading negative information about the products and services. (Singh and Wilkes, 1996). This last group was classified as "activists" (Singh, 1990).

It has been observed that complaining by dissatisfied customer provide an opportunity to seller as well as manufacturer to take some action in order to satisfy the customer.

All firms and companies who understand the reason of consumer complaint behavior can build up useful complaint resolution strategy, which will result in a constructive impact on customer retention, and will also decrease in unconstructive word-of-mouth, and better the base line performance (e.g., Bolfing 1989, and Davis 1993). and Bharadwaj 1992, Kelley, Hoffman, Fornell and Wernerfelt 1987

It was very important for the company to retain the current customer as current customer were more willing to show the loyalty by using a variety of the companies' products or services. The positive word of mouth catches the attention of new consumers and was likely to feel concerned when companies face a problem such as product or service failures (Hofmeister).

Furthermore, suitable complaint treatment can improve customers' perceptions of service quality and boost customer affiliation with and commitment to the firm (Chandrashekaran 1998 and Tax, Brown,).

Consumer becomes satisfied when his experience meets the expectation (positive disconfirmation); on the contrary, when the expectations were not fulfilled by the experience, the customers were dissatisfied (negative disconfirmation).

A neutral reaction normally was the result of an even match between expectations and experience (confirmation) (Blodgett, Granbois and Walters, 1993, p. 403).

For that reasons, dissatisfaction should be measured as an antecedent of complaining (Landon, 1980) while the intensity of dissatisfaction seems to play a secondary role (Oliver, 1987; Prakash, 1991).

However, dissatisfaction was not enough for complaining and consumer complaint behavior could not simply be incorporated "into a theoretical model of consumer satisfaction" (Bearden and Teel, 1983, p. 21). Day (1984, p. 496) underlines that "complaining behavior is reasonably

following to disappointment and a different set of activities which was influenced by a mixture of personal and Situational factors which appear to be unrelated to the intensity of dissatisfaction".

Complainer always expects different possible outcomes for complaints. Complainer expect for a tangible solution of a problem, through repayment, exchange, repair; a psychological compensation obtaining apologies; a social benefit, "preventing the cause for the dissatisfaction from occurring to other consumers" (Landon, 1977,)

Consumers who complain are divided into two groups in first category include complainer who complain because wish for assistance in resolving a problem, and in second group include complainer who complain because want sympathy.

Complainer who falls in first category were easier to deal with and have a problem and sincerely want the problem solved.

As compare to complainer in the first category the complainer in the second category were more complicated to handle and second category complainer were not actually looking for solution but wee more willing to have sympathy.

Such type of people may sense overwhelmed by definite conditions and probably by life in general. And want to believe that were not without help in the perception of things being the way.

Complainer in the second group of complainer were looking for a sense of sharing that help them to face the world and give them a confident that no matter how terrible the world might be, were all in this together.

The complainer who never complains falls into another category. Such type of complainers were in nature positive, and perceive the good in most situations, and hardly ever complain because see nothing to complain about.

When in case of non complainers were never enthusiastic to complain if such non complainers engage in problem then keenly try to solve it. And in case of need a help than request for it rather than going for complaining.

It was usually a more useful way on the road to problem resolution, and it was much less annoying to family and friends.

For such type of non complainer complaints rotate into "war stories" story shared over dinner or gathering about problems facing and how the problem was come acrossed as well as avoided. The war-stories approach gains the same kindness and friendship that complainers seek, but not including the annoying negative side effects

Conflict between the consumer and the service provider may also result in consumer complaining behavior. Complaining may also is the result of higher expectation of the consumer than actual quality of product or service.

Consumer complaining was the indicator of firm unsatisfactory performance and in case of absence of complaining firm was not aware of the problem and thus were not be able to improve their performance (Davidow and Dakin 1970)

It was also observe that consumer who do complain and were dissatisfied with the service or product had higher level of repurchase intention as compare to non complainer.

Complaining provides firm an opportunity to correct their mistakes. So it was very important for firm to resolve the complain and satisfy the complainer so than firm be able to retain the customer. Firm need to train employees to handle the complains and appropriate response to complain can avoid the customer switching.

Consumer complaining behavior was also influenced by cultural background (Heung and Lam 2003, Yuksel 2006) there was more differences in complaining behavior of customer from different cultural background.

In individualistic culture complaining for customer was the right of every consumer and was the necessary part of the purchasing process where as consumer in collectivist culture was afraid to complain.

It was also observe that who complain are more socially responsible and were more willing to take risk these were the psychographic characteristics.

Product characteristics was also having a relationship with complaining behavior as product was not performing as promised by the firm it will leads to negative impact on the firm's image(Day and Lando 1977).

Price was also considered an important characteristic in complaining as price of product increases and product become expensive people will more engage in complaining. A useful exercise for getting closer to the customers and understanding them better.

If complaints were transformed into knowledge about customers, it can provide a significant amount of assets for enterprises. To utilize this capital, companies have to design, build, activate and continuously improve systems for managing complaints.

Such systems were named as customer CCM systems. However, Tax et al. (1998) state that in general, firms were not well informed on how to deal with either service failures or with the impact of CCM system

Complaining behavior was also influenced by the level of experience consumers who were more experienced were more willing to complain when dissatisfied as compare to one who were less experienced in the market place. (Morel, Poiesz, and Wilke 1997).

Consumers who were more experienced in the marketplace were more confident and were more comfortable to deal with the firm or seller, and for them there was more probability to complain on a regular basis. .

It was observed that firms were unaware of consumer complaint actions because the minority consumers actually complain directly to the producer or very few customer voice complain directly to the firms.

Consumers who were not satisfied with the product or service normally share negative experiences with other firm, and it may have a major impact on the performance as well as sales and profitability of the firm. (Day et al. 1981).so firms need to give confidence to the complainers to complain directly to firms specially to avoid negative word of mouth.

By encouraging the customer to complain it outcome in raise in fulfillment with a service. This raise in happiness was even superior among the primarily less satisfied customers, so it shows that encouraging complaint behavior may do wonders

There were several benefits of customer complaining such as for those who complain and when their problem was solved hey have become more loyal as compare to those who had never any problem and those who have never had any problem were less loyal to the company..

Customers who actually do not complain when have a problem and actually did not spend sufficient in the product to put effort into fitting it. So were relatively throwing it and prefer to purchase a different from someone else. If customers were not interested in fixing it, surely were not interested in making recommendations to others.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

As know that two types of data which was primary data and secondary data. In this research data was collected from primary sources and was primary data. Secondary data was also use in this research from different journals, articles and books available on internet.

In this research main focus was on primary data obtained from questionnaire survey conducted in university, super store and shopping malls.

3.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

In this Research of consumer complaint behavior sample size of 90 questionnaires was filled by both male and female in Iqra University and different shopping malls and super stores located in Karachi. The respondents were selected on random basis due to the convenience because I was not having an access to the proper list of respondents

3.3 SAMPLE SIZE

In this research the total sample size was of 90 respondents including both male and female which include 58 male and 32 female belonging to different age group and all of them were from Karachi

3.4 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION

In this research questionnaire was developed as a research instrument for the purpose of data collection through questionnaire survey and SPSS was used as a testing tool.

For this research questionnaire was developed based on Ian Phau and puspita Sari research work on engaging in complaint behavior An Indonesian perspective and the list of the actions was adopted from Krishnan and Valle (1979)

Questionnaire was used to collect the information of complainer and non complainer and also the action taken by them.

3.4.1 Validity and Reliability Test

Content validity of questions was tested by showing it to the professors who are actively involved in class room teaching to get their expert opinion and get a judgment as to whether the items meet the criterion. The questionnaire was developed by (Ian Phau and puspita Sari).

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

No of Items

.624

6

Number of items include in the reliability test were 6 and Alpha =.624

3.5: STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE

The data collected through questionnaire filled directly by respondents was tabulated in SPSS software; Correspondence analysis and Optimal scaling were used for the analysis of variables and the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

Correspondence analysis was used as a test method as it is applied when we have categorical variable as our dependent variable and we have both scale and categorical predictors, which made it necessary to apply Correspondence model on this research

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS

4.1: FINDING and INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS

OPTIMAL SCALINIG

Table .1

Model Summary

Multiple R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Apparent Prediction Error

.837

.701

.645

.299

Dependent Variable: take complain action

Predictors: always complain when dissatisfied complaining distasteful to me find it embarrassing to complain gender monthly income Where do you live political association

The above mentioned table of model summary shows that total variation explains by the model is 64.5% that is of adjusted r square.

Table .2

ANOVA

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

63.059

14

4.504

12.539

.000

Residual

26.941

75

.359

Total

90.000

89

Dependent Variable: take complain action

Predictors: always complain when dissatisfied complaining distasteful to me find it embarrassing to complain gender monthly income Where do you live political association

After applying optimal scaling technique on SPSS table 2 of ANOVA was obtained the important value to be considered in table 2 is the p (sig) value which is significant. Which shows that model is significant.

Table .3

Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

df

F

Sig.

Beta

Bootstrap (1000) Estimate of Std. Error

always complain when dissatisfied

.744

.068

2

118.874

.000

complaining distasteful to me

.257

.151

2

2.895

.062

find it embarrassing to complain

-.263

.162

3

2.646

.055

gender

-.047

.078

2

.359

.699

monthly income

-.078

.116

2

.444

.643

Where do you live

.129

.094

1

1.872

.175

political association

.282

.094

2

9.021

.000

Dependent Variable: take complain action

.

The above mentioned table shows the standard regression coefficient. The result shows that largest coefficient was for Always complain when dissatisfied that was .744 and second largest coefficient for political Association that is .282

The results shows that only two variables were significant among all it include always complain when dissatisfied and political association

Correspondence Analysis

Correspondence Table

Take complain action

Complainer Action

Chang Brand /Supplier

Stop using product

warned friends and families

tried to reform personally

wrote a complain letter

Non Complainer-take no action

Non Complainer-change brand

Non complainer-stop using product

Non Complainer-warned friend and family

Active Margin

yes

5

12

11

10

9

0

0

0

0

47

no

0

0

0

10

8

13

12

43

Active Margin

7

16

11

10

9

10

6

9

12

90

The correspondence table shows the distribution of Complainer Action for complainer action category of Yes and No. The rows of the correspondence table represent that whether customer take complainer action or not in term of Yes or No. The columns represent the Complainer and Non complainer actions.

The marginal row totals show that the totals of customer who take complain action is 47 which are higher than those who did not take complain action. For non complainer the total is 4

Looking at the column totals we can observe that for Complainer the mostly taken action is Stop using product having a value of 16 followed by second mostly taken action of warned fried and family with total of 11 and also another action of complainer that is Tried to reform personally is having value of 10.

Looking at the column totals for Non Complainers the mostly taken action is stop using product by having total of 12 out of 43, followed by warned friend and families having a value of 12.we can also observe that out of 43 non complainers 10 are those who have taken no action

Finding Endogeneity

In order to find out whether endogeneity exist or not in consumer complaining behavior a two step regression analysis was applied and the result shows endogeneity exist negatively in consumer complaining behavior. Which means that there were ignored variable in complaining which have negative impact of dependent variable.

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

1

Ignored X Variable(a)

.

Enter

a All requested variables entered.

b Dependent Variable: take complain action

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.637(a)

.406

.399

.38940

a Predictors: (Constant), Ignored X Variable

ANOVA

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

9.112

1

9.112

60.090

.000(a)

Residual

13.344

88

.152

Total

22.456

89

a Predictors: (Constant), Ignored X Variable

b Dependent Variable: take complain action

In order to find out the endogeneity in complaining behavior two step regression was applied and above mentioned table of ANOVA was obtained.

ANOVA table shows that the p value (sig) for model is less than .05 which means that model is significant. it means that endogeneity exist

Coefficients (a)

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.935

.072

26.933

.000

Ignored X Variable

-.309

.040

-.637

-7.752

.000

a Dependent Variable: take complain action

Above mentioned table of coefficient shows that the value of Beta is negative which means that there is negative impact of ignored variable on dependent variable.

It means that there are set of ignored variables causing the endogeneity as these ignored variables are increases it will result in decrease in consumer complaining behavior and also by reducing there variable it will result in increase in complaining behavior.

Ignored Variable (X Variable)

In order to find out whether endogeneity exist or not a two step regression analysis was applied and as a result a new ignored variable was obtained which was named as X variable.

Ignored variable ( X Variable )

2.68662

2.8464

1.40086

2.49011

1.76394

0.64475

0.64475

1.40086

2.2868

2.32354

3.01296

-0.4445

1.36412

1.36412

1.92372

2.49011

2.2868

1.20435

1.36412

0.64475

0.64475

2.48332

3.0497

-0.0814

2.32354

1.36412

-0.4445

-0.4445

1.76394

2.12703

3.77587

2.68662

-0.0814

0.07836

0.07836

-0.1182

0.44144

1.20435

2.12703

0.44144

1.7272

1.7272

1.36412

2.12703

2.32354

2.32354

2.49011

-0.2847

-0.2847

0.84126

2.12703

1.92372

1.76394

0.80452

1.36412

1.36412

1.40086

-0.2847

2.8464

2.64988

0.80452

0.64475

0.64475

-0.0814

2.68662

2.12703

3.77587

0.64475

-0.2779

-0.2779

1.40086

0.64475

2.85319

3.41279

0.44144

1.36412

1.36412

3.0497

1.20435

2.49011

0.44144

0.07836

0.64475

0.64475

1.76394

1.40086

2.12703

0.64475

0.84126

1.20435

1.20435

1.92372

2.12703

2.12703

1.36412

0.80452

-0.0814

-0.0814

Results for Endogeneity

As the purpose of the study was to find out whether endogeneity exist or not, result shows that there is endogeneity in consumer complaining behavior .Endogeneity was find by applying two step regression and table of ANOVA shows the value of p less than .05 which is significant it means endogeneity exist.

Result also shows the coefficient table in which the value of Beta was -.637 which is negative it means that endogeneity has negative impact on dependent variable. it means as as these ignored variables are increases it will result in decrease in consumer complaining behavior and also by reducing there variable it will result in increase in complaining behavior.

These ignored variables may include,

Customer Involvement

Literacy Level

Cultural Civilization

Customer Awareness

Cost of Complaining

Customer Loyalty

As these variable increases it will result in decrease in complaining behavior. Like as customer involvement with product increases customer become more aware of it and will better understand the product and it will result in decreases in complaining behavior.

Same is for Cultural civilization as customer become more civilized less chance for complaining.

4.3 HYPOTHEIS ASSESMENT SUMMARY

After applying the statistical test and based on p (sig) values below mentioned table of coefficient was obtained which shows all the significant attributes of the complaining behavior.

Dependent Variable: take complain action

Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

df

F

Sig.

Beta

Bootstrap (1000) Estimate of Std. Error

always complain when dissatisfied

.744

.068

2

118.874

.000

complaining distasteful to me

.257

.151

2

2.895

.062

find it embarrassing to complain

-.263

.162

3

2.646

.055

gender

-.047

.078

2

.359

.699

monthly income

-.078

.116

2

.444

.643

Where do you live

.129

.094

1

1.872

.175

political association

.282

.094

2

9.021

.000

.

4.3.1 ACCEPTED HYPOTHESIS H1:H2: H7

Based on statistical test and results of table shows that following hypothesis have not been rejected and was found that these factors highly influenced consumer complaining behavior

H1: Endogeneity exists when predictors predict the taking complain

Action

H 2: Complaining attitude at the time of dissatisfaction predicts

taking complain action

H 7: Political association predicts the taking complain action

4.3.2 REJECTEDTED HYPOTHESIS H3:H4: H5:H6

Based on statistical test and results of table shows that following hypothesis have n been rejected and was found that these factors have no influenced on consumer complaining behavior

H 3: Embarrassment DO NOT predicts the taking complain action

H 4: Gender DO NOT predicts the taking complain action

H 5: Monthly income DO NOT predicts the taking complain action

H 6: Residence/Location DO NOT predicts the taking complain action

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSION,

IMPLICATION and FUTURE RESEARCH

5.1 CONCLUSION

As the purpose of the study was to find out endogeneity that whether endogeneity exist or not in consumer complaining behavior, the result from two step regression analysis shows that endogeneity exist negatively in consumer complaining behavior. It means that there was an ignored variable in consumer complaining behavior and this ignored variable is named as X variable.

For the resultant ignored variable (x variable) the value of Beta is negative which means that endogeneity exist negatively in complaining behavior.

It means that there are set of ignored variables causing the endogeneity, as these ignored variables increases it will result in decrease in consumer complaining behavior and also by decreasing these variables it will result in increase in complaining behavior.

After going through different research papers and literature review related to complaining behavior researcher have list of ignored variable and these ignored variable may include Customer Involvement, Literacy Level, Cultural Civilization, Customer Awareness Cost of Complaining and Customer loyalty.

As per results these ignored variable have negative impact on complaining behavior so as these variable increases it will result in decrease in complaining behavior. Like as customer involvement with product increases customer become more aware of it and will better understand the product and it will result in decreases in complaining behavior, Same is for Cultural civilization as customer become more civilized less chance for complaining.

DISCUSSIONS

The main purpose of the study was to find that whether endogeneity exist or not in consumer complaining behavior. Total samples of 90 questionnaires were filled by both male and female.

In order to obtain the result a Correspondence analysis and Optimal scaling techniques were applied.

Result shows that out of 90 respondent 47 have taken complain action while remaining 43 have taken no action. In this research complainer actions were divided into two categories which include action taken by complainer and non complainer.

Result for complainer and non complainer action have shown that that for Complainer the mostly taken action is Stop using product having a value of 16 followed by second mostly taken action of warned fried and family with total of 11 and also another action of complainer that is Tried to reform personally is having value of 10.

Where as for Non Complainers the mostly taken action is stop using product by having total of 12 out of 43, followed by warned friend and families having a value of 12.we can also observe that out of 43 non complainers 10 are those who have taken no action

By applying Optimal scaling we had obtained standard regression coefficient which shows that only two variables are significant among all it include always complain when dissatisfied and political association.

In order to find out whether endogeneity exist or not in consumer complaining behavior a two step regression analysis was applied and the result shows endogeneity exist negatively in consumer complaining behavior. Which means that there were ignored variable in complaining which have negative impact of dependent variable.

By applying two step regression researcher has obtained ANOVA table which shows that the p value (sig) for model is less than .05 which means that model is significant. It means that endogeneity exist .

A table of coefficient was also obtained which shows that shows that the value of Beta is negative which means that there is negative impact of ignored variable on dependent variable.

It means that there are set of ignored variables causing the endogeneity as these ignored variables are increases it will result in decrease in consumer complaining behavior and also by reducing there variable it will result in increase in complaining behavior.

After going through different research papers and literature review related to complaining behavior researcher have list of ignored variable and these ignored variable may include Customer Involvement, Literacy Level, Cultural Civilization, Customer Awareness Cost of Complaining and Customer loyalty.

As per results these ignored variable have negative impact on complaining behavior so as these variable increases it will result in decrease in complaining behavior. Like as customer involvement with product increases customer become more aware of it and will better understand the product and it will result in decreases in complaining behavior, Same is for Cultural civilization as customer become more civilized less chance for complaining.

5.3 IMPLICATION and RECOMMENDATION

As a result of this research we have come to know that there are set of ignored variable in complaining behavior and this ignored variable are known as X variables. In the previous researches related to consumer complaining behavior these X variables were ignored though they have an impact on complaining behavior.

This research will help to understand the complaining behavior of consumer that how they react to the dissatisfaction of the product and services.

This research is useful to handle the complainer and non complainer and also help to differentiate the complainer from non complainer.

For the research to be conducted in the future it is recommended for the researchers that they should also consider the impact of the ignored variables as these variable have an influence on complaining attitude of the consumers.

It is also recommended that it is very important to understand the complaining behavior of the consumer because it helps them to improve their performance.

5.4 FUTURE RESEARCH

This research identify the list of ignored variable and broader the dimension of the research on consumer complaining behavior. This research will help the future research on complaining behavior as the researcher will also considered these lists of ignored variable in their research as were previously ignored.

This research will be very helpful for the future research as researcher can get help from this research to find out that besides consumer demographics, psychographics and product characteristic there are also other variable need to be consider in the research.

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