Find Out The Driving Forces Or Motivation Within Customers Business Essay


1.1. Overview about the firm and the brand We all know that food is a very important part of our daily life. We do not only need foods to survive but also enjoy the cuisine art. Food is the fundamental part of human growing process and maintaining healthy life by supplying various kinds of necessary vitamins, nutrients and minerals. As playing a crucial role in human

being.s survival, have you ever minded or taken into account the original sources

of daily foods or just choose it randomly in supermarkets due to the incredible

cheap prices? Poisonous foods and foods containing unknown growing

chemicals have been the main concern of the society in developing countries

nowadays. Therefore, the concern related to organic food consumption is not

only for any each specific country but also becoming the global main growing


In general, organic foods are produced or involving production without the use of

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chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or other artificial chemicals (Oxford Dictionary).

According to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, 2003), only

products with either 100% or 95-100% organic ingredients can use the USDA

organic symbol Organic Valley. a cooperative owned by family farmers . was formed by just

seven members in January 1988. The cooperative was created with a strong

belief that a new, sustainable approach to agriculture could help family farms and

rural communities survive. They were looking for natural and nutritious food

grown without using synthetic and potentially harmful pesticides, herbicides, and

fertilizers. These founders began by growing organic vegetables, and very soon

later organic dairy products and Organic Valley was finally established and

rapidly became the number one source of organic milk in the U.S. Since then,

Organic Valley has been growing with over 200 premium quality certified organic

products including milk, cream, cheese, butter, yogurt, eggs, juice, meat and soy. Organic Prairie. A famous American food brand specialized in providing

customers high quality organic meats, poultry and many different products from

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


meat . is one of the leading brands of Organic Valley. All suppliers of Organic

Prairie are family farms instead of big commercialized factories. Without using

antibiotics, synthetic hormones and pesticides, their products are safe for both

consumers and the environment. The animals graze in organic pastures and eat

organic vegetarian feeds so products. quality always meet or exceeds USDA


Organic Valley and Organic Prairie.s motto is ¡°Organic is a philosophy and

system of production that mirrors the natural laws of living organisms with an

emphasis on the interdependence of all life¡±.

1.2. Problem discussion:

Nowadays, social concern about health care and the environment has been arising

all over the world. That is why people also pay more attention on green products in

general and organic foods in particular. Understanding the underlying motivation is a

crucial part of designing an appropriate products and marketing strategies.

The first problem here is what the company should do to find out customer

unsatisfied needs orienting consumer behavior. How these needs affects consumer.s

behaviors and how strong these driving forces are. Moreover, it is also important to

find out how the current trend and change in lifestyle motivate consumers in their

buying habit. Another interesting question should be taken into account is how can

the media or marketing message change the customer involvement. Besides the

obvious forces, are there any unconscious factors also influence buying decision?

Finally, it is essential to consider the factor that demotivates customer behavior in

buying organic foods.

2. The purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to gain more knowledge about consumers.

motivation and awareness about buying and consuming organic foods. By using

different methods and strategies in researching consumers. behavior, the

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


researchers will come up with necessary data which can be used in products

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innovating, marketing planning or business developing process.

The research.s first aim is to discover the awareness about organic foods among

consumers and their opinions about organic foods. An understanding of consumers.

motivations can be useful in marketing organic foods to these potential customers.

3. Theory

3.1. Motivation process

¡°Motivation refers to the processes that cause people behave as they do. From the

psychological perspective, motivation occurs when need is aroused that the

consumer wishes to satisfy¡±.

The motivational process begins when needs appear, the tension exists and drives

people take action to gratify their needs. People can satisfy their needs in numerous

ways, but the decision of how to fulfill those needs is determined by self-experience,

other cultural, religious factors as well as national background.

3.2. Motivational strength

Motivational strength reflects how much energy that one individual spends in order to

achieve one particular goal. This process is influenced by culture and cognition. The

strength of motivation depends on the distance between current states and the goal.

Drive theory:

- This theory is based on biological needs. when consumption needs are not

fulfilled, unpleasant arousal appeared and motivates people to reduce it in some

ways. Tension reduction is considered as a basic ¡°mechanism governing human

behavior¡±. The process of trying to diminish the tension and get the balance is called

homeostasis. Those behaviors that succeed in gratifying needs are strengthened

and repeated.


Expectancy theory:

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1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


- This theory focuses on the cognitive factors driving consumer behaviors. The

expectation of achieving the more positive outcomes has a great impact in pulling


3.3. Motivational direction

Motives are goal driven and they oriented our behavior to satisfy our needs.

The particular way that people select to fulfill a need is depended on their own

history, learning experiences and their cultural background. Want is termed from a

specific consumption to satisfy needs.

Type of needs:

- Biogenic needs: needs for certain necessary factors to maintain the life.

- Psychogenic needs: needs of being a member of society such as status, power,

and affiliation.

- Utilitarian needs: needs concentrate on the tangible utilities of a product.

- Hedonic needs: needs focus on the experience and excitement when using a


3.4. Motivational conflicts

A goal may be positive or negative. A positive goal is the attempt to reach the goal

through consuming products. Likewise, a negative goal orients consumer to use a

product to avoid negative outcomes.

Types of conflicts:

- Approach-approach conflict occurs when a person choose between two desirable


- Approach-avoidance conflict happens when consumer desire and avoid a product


- Avoidance-avoidance conflict is confronted when consumer must select between

two undesirable alternatives.

3.5. Maslow.s hierarchy of needs:

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1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


Figure 2: Maslow¡¯s hierarchy of needs

According to Maslow.s hierarchy, the order is permanently fixed which means a

certain level must be gratified first before moving up to the next level. Individuals

will move up until they reach their ultimate goals.

3.6. Hidden motives

In Freudian theory, human behavior is driven by the conflict between the desire of

gratifying their needs and the responsibility of being a member of the society. There

are three systems including in this theory:

..The ID is oriented the behaviors by the wish of extending the pleasure and

avoiding the pain without considering the consequences.

..The superego is the system which tempts to prevent people from doing selfish

satisfaction and highly focuses on social responsibilities.

..The ego tries to balance the ID and the superego. It adjusts the desire of fulfillment

so that it is acceptable in social context.

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1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2

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3.7. Consumer involvement

Involvement indicates personal perception about the relevance of a particular

product, a brand, an advertisement or a purchase situation according to needs,

interests and values. It can be considered as motivation to process information which

means that consumer pay more attention on the information of the products that

match their needs or interests.

Types of involvement:

- Product involvement reflects consumer interest in a specific product.

- Message response involvement indicates consumer.s level of interest influencing

by marketing communication.

- Purchasing situation involvement refers to the differences might happen when we

buy the same product in varied contexts.

- Ego involvement points out the crucial role of a product in consumer.s conception.

3.8. Values

A value refers to consumers. evaluation toward benefits they get from consuming a

particular product. It changes across cultures and time.

Types of consumer value: efficiency, excellence, status, self-esteem, play, aesthetic,

ethics and spirituality.

3.9. Changes in lifestyle and sustainability

In a US survey, 8 of 10 US consumers assumed that using green products from

green company are better and they are willing to pay more for that. The increase in

global heath is associated with the improvement in personal health.

LOHAS, which stands for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability, indicates to the

segment of consumers who pay a lot of attention on environment and wish to

consume products which are produced sustainably. Therefore, a new giant market

for green products such as organic foods, energy-efficient appliances, yoga tapes

and eco-tourism emerged; it is called ¡°Lohasians¡±.

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1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


The new trend named ¡°Local first¡± also has a great influence in consuming changes.

Consumers tend to shift their purchase to local products to support local farms.

4. Method

In order to seek the solutions for the existed market problems of organic food and

excite awareness of consumers, focus groups . one of the qualitative methods . is

adapted in this project. ¡°Focus groups are an excellent method at establishing the

.why. behind the .what. in participant perspectives¡± (Morgan, 1990)

In order to gather information and feedback from different perspectives, we

convened focus group session which invited six students as participants from

different countries which major in different programs in Linnaeus University. Six

participants will be provided with twelve questions then a discussion about the

motivations, the needs and variety of barriers for consumers to purchase the organic

food will be conducted. Questions are formed based on the market existing situation

and the theory with the lead of a moderator who is one of our group members. The

whole session took about two and half hours which include the intermission and ¡°fika

¡± time. Two of our group members took the notes and one provided the cookies,

coffee and record the whole session. All the relevant details, answers and opinions

had been recorded to make sure there are no information missing and to make the

final analysis about the motivation of purchasing organic food in different regions.

5. Result

5.1. Empirical investigation

The focus group session was held on February 5th in the dining room of Lyan 61, 1st

floor, green corridor which located in campus. We invited 9 students from different

countries but only 6 showed up. Their ages are from 20 to 28. Most of them have no

previous knowledge of the organic food, thus it avoid the disturbance of the

specialized view and can represent the ordinary student consumers. point of view.

The session lasted from 14:00 to 16:30 which included the intermission providing

with coffee, tea and cookies. The questions and answers are in the appendix.

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


5.2. Analysis

In order to discover the motivation, it is necessary to find out the customer

knowledge about organic foods. According to the answers in focus group, organic

foods are grown without any chemical substances. Three students in the survey

assumed that organic foods are fresher and taste better especially after being

cooked. However, it is hard to recognize the differences between organic and nonorganic

foods in the supermarket without looking at the labels. The correct answers

of organic foods definition also reflect the increase in student awareness on organic

foods recently.

According to drive theory and expectation theory, consumers are driven by two main

forces in consuming organic foods: need of foods (biological needs), expectation on

organic foods (cognitive factor). From the answers, most of students expect that

organic foods will bring them more benefits on health and environment. However,

under the consideration about motivational strength, students do not have strong

effort to buy organic foods due to its high prices. Besides, they do pay more attention

on what types of foods they buy than if it is organic or not.

From the responses of the participants about the real experience of buying organic

foods, one hidden motivation affects consuming behavior is the meaning of organic

food in customer perception. ¡°Organic¡± not only means fresh, healthier, nutritious to

human health but also eco-friendly.

Seeking for the different customers. needs that the organic food may fulfill, we

formed some questions to ask them about their own needs. Only one of the

participants mentioned about the need of hunger can be satisfied, which is the

lowest level of needs, physiological needs in Maslow.s hierarchy. Most of the

participants consumed organic food with the needs of feeling safe which is related to

second lowest needs in Maslow.s hierarchy, safety needs. Since the process of

producing or growing organic food is much more ecofriendly, strict and low chemical

level, it gives the consumer sense of being secured. Some of them felt when they

consume organic food; they had taken their responsibility to protect the environment

which belongs to the highest degree of needs in Maslow.s pyramid, so called selfactualization.

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


About the category of the organic food, the participants pay more attention on fruits

and vegetables more than the others. As the normal fruits and vegetables growing

process, pesticide, herbicides and other chemicals are employed. There, they

considered organic fruits as a priority choice. Another reason for people only

consume organic fruits and vegetables is that people can afford them. As to organic

meat, the price is far more expensive which the biggest obstacle is for consumer

Being asked about the affordability of organic foods, most of the participants agreed

that organic foods are not affordable in some cases. Organic milk, rice, noodles,

pasta, vegetable and fruits are affordable while organic meat and poultry are

overpriced. Since consumers do not aware of the true value or not believe in organic

foods, they tend to allocate their budget for other needs rather than purchasing

organic foods. For those who have awareness of benefits of organic foods for their

health, they are willing to purchase basic organic items like vegetable and fruits.

Once again, they mentioned different decisions made depending on different

markets. It is cheaper to buy organic foods in small and local markets than in big and

modern ones.

Without using preservative during producing progress, organic foods need to be

consumed faster than non-organics ones. It takes more time, resources and money

to produce organic foods so the price is always the biggest issue in purchasing

organic foods. Moreover, the real quality of organic foods is unclear in some

countries, which makes consumers hesitate in purchasing them.

Another interesting we found in our focus group session is that consumers do not

have enough information about organic foods as well as the standard of organic

foods. Participants all agreed that they need more scientific articles about the pros

and cons in producing, buying and consuming organic foods in order to evaluate the


Under considering about the conflicts in the decision making process toward

consuming organic foods, customers tend to confront with two situations. The first

situation occurs when consumers have to choose between expensive organic food

and inexpensive non-organic food, so-called approach-approach conflict. On the

other hand, they also face with approach-avoidance conflict. In this case, organic

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


foods have a good impact on health but the price is much higher than non-organic


According to the answers of participants in the survey, organic food consumption all

over the world is increasing due to the rising in health care awareness and the

improvement in environmental concern. With an improvement in education along

with innovations in technology and scientific development, people believe that

consuming organic food can help them live healthier and longer, that is also the first

and main reason leads to this trend. Moreover, due to the increase in global

problems such as global warming and urbanization, people realize that they should

have more responsibilities for the environment, for themselves and next generations.

Therefore, they tend to turn their habitual consumption into ecofriendly products. In

the other hand, when people look back to the past and find out that without the use

of artificial pesticides or synthetic chemicals, people can live longer although it will

take more time and efforts to produce naturally. It leads to the changes in life style

which involve the increase in purchasing green products in general and organic

foods in particular.

Regarding to the main motivation relevant to process information, so called

involvement, which drives the change in habitual consumption mostly comes from

outside. The external sources which are officially certified by governmental

institutions or popular to the society for instance media, advertisements, scientific

articles have the great impacts on changes in consumer behaviors. Likewise, social

pressure, current trend should be taken into account when considering about

changing in buying pattern.

The last question is aimed to discover unconscious motives which affect customer

decision-making process. In this interview, two people ended up with the answer of

having no previous experience but the rest gave varied answers:

1. Because it is more convenient to do that. (Two individuals)

2. Eye catching. (One individual)

3. In order to try something new. (One individual)

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


The purchasing decisions can be changed due to unconscious factors, for instance,

how the products are arranged on the shelf, shop decoration or the way that product

is packaged (eye catching) and the carrying messages from producers.

6. Conclusion and reflection

6.1. Conclusion

After analyzing all the answers, the motivation toward organic foods firstly comes

from the need of foods associated with the expectation from the better impacts on

health and the environment. However, motivational strength is not too big due to high

prices. There is also a hidden motive that directly affects consumer behaviors, which

is called the meaning behind the word ¡°organic food¡±.

According to Maslow.s hierarchy, three needs are satisfied by consuming organic

foods. They are physiological needs (needs for foods), safety needs and selfactualization

needs (the responsibility for environment). Belong the social and living

standard development, the requirement of fulfilling top needs like self- actualization

is expanding and strengthening. Thus, it can be a great motivation for customer to

buy organic foods.

When global issues in health care and environment are arising, consumer concerns

about their health also appear. It motivates them shift their purchase to green

products to protect not only themselves but also their next generation. Another

factor also affect consumer behavior is social pressure. People tend to change their

buying behaviors to adapt to the new social trend.

In addition, consumer purchasing decision is also influenced by the media

messages, scientific articles and advertising. The effectiveness of these reflects on

the level of consumers. involvement in organic foods. However, the responses of the

focus group show that the involvement in organic is low and the lack of information

about the standard also caused a great doubt about the quality of organic foods.

Besides, other factors such as shop decoration, packages, convenience must be

taken into account when researching about motivation in consuming organic foods.

Linnaeus University . School of Business and Economics . Marketing Programme

1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


Two categories, that consumer pay the most attention on when they make buy

decision of organic foods, are fruits and vegetables. The reason of this selection is

up to the affordability of these categories. Therefore price is an obvious obstacle of

consuming organic foods.

6.2. Suggestions

The following recommendations to enhance the competitiveness of the certified

organic food sector and to promote farmers. participation in it are offered to the

diverse implementation agents.

For governments, priority should be given to supporting institutional development

and setting up national norms and standards to facilitate small-scale farmers.


For supportive organizations (government, buyers and NGOs), i) intervention

strategies on technology development should be implemented with a long-term view;

ii) Financing mechanisms should be established to support the initial phases of

organic projects; iii) Market development should be supported in three major areas:

strengthening of value chain linkages, development of information technologies and

development of local markets; iv) Strategies should be implemented to reduce costs

of training activities in order to improve efficiency.

For development organizations: i) Cost-effective technologies should be investigated

and disseminated among farmers to help them meet certification requirements; ii)

Assistance should be given to incorporate small-scale farmers in the organic supply

chain; iii) Training should be provided on management and market development

along the organic food supply chain in order to increase transparency and better the

linkages between actors, and to improve specific managerial skills for better

production planning and market development.

For long term plan, the government should start with promoting education of children

in schools about organic food and agriculture, establishing and funding of vocational

education programs especially for organic farming, funding of practical studies and

training in organic farming organizations.

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1FE102 . Consumer Behavior - Group B2


6.3. Reflection

This project reflects a general overview about consuming organic foods in some first

steps along with discovering certain motivations made by within driving forces which

is turned into decision changing in consumer behavior.

Today, global consuming tendency about food is changing to be healthier and more

friendly to the environment so this is a great chance for organic food company to

make a logical and applicable customer- oriented marketing plan in order to

dominate and seek new market place segmentations. The focus group in this project

is just able to reflect a view at glance of ideas from wide multi-cultural students and it

is also the main advantage of this focus group because the authors will have a more

comprehensive conclusion based on the data collected. Besides, there are still some

existing limitations such as the number of participants (only six individuals) and in

addition, all of them are students so the ideas we got are not able to be diversified in

ages and experiences. If this focus group was made again with an increased budget,

it will be organized in a more professional way and a larger scale. Furthermore, it

would not only include students in campus but also the real customers who differ

from ages, social class and education as well. The survey could be associated with

some attractive rewarding forms for participants along with relaxed coffee break time

to make them feel more comfortable throughout the process and then they could be

able to come up with some more exactly and specific answers instead of some

straightforward and basic ones.

However, with the combination between given theories above and the chosen focus

group in the analyzing part, which is considered to be effective to find out the

motivations that influence in consumer behavior, there is a solid belief in the

trustworthiness of those results released from this survey.

APPENDIX: Questions used and answers collected during Focus

Group session

1. What do you know about organic food in general? What do you

think is the differences between organic food and non-organic


. Johan: ¡°When I mention organic foods, I immediately come up

with vegetables¡± and actually I do not like it too much! In

general, I cannot distinguish the differences between the organic

and the normal one!¡±

. Mario: ¡°In my opinion, organic foods are grown in a traditional

way with non artificial chemicals and I cannot know the

differences between them.¡±

. Anna: ¡°I do not have any certain ideas about organic foods as I

have not cared too much before!¡±

. Takefumi: ¡°Organic foods should be healthier to me without any

synthetic pesticides. In my own experience, organic foods are a

little bit sweeter and better in taste compare to non-organic


. Eric: ¡°Organic food means fresh, without chemicals and hard to

produce due to high techniques required and in general I cannot

recognize if it is without labeling.¡±

. Amir: ¡°For me, organic food is less beautiful and not as big as

the non-organic ones due to being grown in the natural way, but

it is obvious healthier for me. Sometimes, I can recognize the

difference after it is already cooked.¡±

2. What do you think are the advantages that using organic brings to

your health and the environment?

. Johan: ¡°I have no specific idea about the benefits that organic

foods can bring to but in my own opinion, they should be grown

by some basic and necessary pesticides and certified

chemicals to against some kind of insects¡±

. Mario:¡± The advantage is that organic foods are good for my

heath but it is not possible to be sufficient to the whole world

and for environment, it will not be polluting¡±

. Anna:¡± Organic foods bring to us more natural vitamins which

are good for health but they can get balance to the environment

in some way like it is good for the soil without synthetic


. Takefumi:¡±May be it is better for our health in some ways but

it¡¯s not always as I think. For the environment, it should be good

but because it uses limited pesticides to grow the plants or feed

the animals so it will need more resources (land, soil, water)

like in normal situations.¡±

. Eric:¡±It is better for health because it stops or limits some

possibilities for heart disease. To some extent, it is better for

ecological system, it brings balance to the food chain between

life cycle of trees and the other creatures.¡±

. Amir:¡± It is good for our health but for the farmers, perhaps it

must be more difficult to grow the organic foods because it

takes much more time and efforts than in the normal process.¡±

3. Have you ever bought organic foods? How do you feel about

consuming organic foods?

. Johan: ¡°I have bought organic foods before and whenever I feel

affordable, I will grab it. I feel safer along with the belief of living

longer with consuming organic foods¡±

. Mario: ¡°I have no experience about buying organic foods

because I am not the one to go shopping for my family at home

but when I use it, I feel good to the environment, it likes I am

more responsible for our living surroundings!¡±

. Anna:¡± I have never bought organic foods because my

grandparents have a big garden and I think it is hard to find the

true organic foods in big cities. When I eat organic foods I feel

fresh and full with natural nutrients for health.

. Takefumi:¡±I have never been to shopping in Japan and when I

come here I have to save money to other purposes so I just care

about the prices when I consume foods!¡±

. Eric: ¡°I have not bought organic foods and if I can be affordable

to buy it I will have some kind of mental beliefs of consuming

something good for environment but it decays so fast thus I

cannot keep it too long in the fridge like the others¡±

. Amir: ¡°In my country, organic foods are cheaper than nonorganic

foods because it looks less beautiful in shape and I feel

that I am consuming something has a good effect for my

physical aspect!¡±

4. What kinds of your needs that organic foods can fulfill?

. Johan: Feeling safe and can help him to live longer when consuming

and eating organic food

. Mario: It¡¯s good for environment.

. Anna: the need of hunger.

. Takefumi: health condition will be improved.

. Eric: maybe in 20 century, the traditional way to produce the food can

be the safest way. Nowadays people consume organic food for kind of

belief reason and mental feeling.

. Amir: Organic food in meat part is quite different from the non-organic

meat, the blood is much purer and good for your health.

5. a. (If yes) what is the difference between your expectation of

organic food and what you really get when you use it in reality?

(Seeking the expectation of using organic food)

b. (if no) what do you expect from buying organic food?

(Seeking the expectation of using organic food)

(Indicating the consumer involvement in particular type of organic


. Johan: bought organic milk and banana, but the milk tasted so bad.

. Mario: the Mexico, the local food shop which the supplier is the local

farm which is much more organic. But for him, he only consumes

organic fruit.

. Anna: bought organic vegetable and fruits, never buy organic food

since it is too expensive.

. Takefumi: wanted to buy organic rice and pasta since they are his

daily food.

. Eric: only consumed organic fruit.

. Amir: consumed organic fruit.

6. When you go to the supermarket, what types of organic food that

you pay attention the most? What do you think is the good aspects of

consuming this type of organic foods?

. Johan: bought certain thing.

. Mario: maybe consume organic food in Mexico not in Sweden.

. Anna: no, will save money to buy some other desirable things.

. Takefumi: no, save money for travelling.

. Eric: some certain things.

. Amir: paid lots of money on food to make sure he bought the best one.

7. What do you think about the affordability of organic foods in your


. Johan: Yes, I can afford some certain things like milk, vegetable and

fruit. Organic meats are pricey for my budget.

. Mario: Here in Sweden, I don¡¯t think I can afford organic foods but it is

possible for me to purchase organic foods in Mexico.

. Anna: Yes, it is affordable for me but I¡¯d rather save that money for

other things.

. Takefumi: Me too. I¡¯d rather save that money for travelling.

. Eric: To me it¡¯s 50:50. I can afford organic rice, noodle or pasta but not

other things.

. Amir: It¡¯s not a problem for me. I can afford that.

8. What are disadvantages of consuming organic foods in your


. Johan: I bought the organic milk once accidentally and it tasted really

bad. If it¡¯s more expensive and doesn¡¯t taste the way you want, there

is no point buying it.

. Mario: I have the same opinion with Johan.

. Anna: The price is quite high and the food goes rotten quite fast.

. Takefumi: Growing organic foods can cause some side effects on the

environment like insects and rotten foods.

. Eric: It takes more resources and money to produce and distribute

organic foods and I have the same opinion with Takefumi as well.

. Amir: The only disadvantage I can think of is the high price of organic


9. What are the obstacles of decision making in purchasing organic


. Johan: As I mentioned before, the price and the taste are important to


. Mario: Some countries can¡¯t produce everything they need due to their

geographic position or they can¡¯t produce enough for the whole

country. Therefore, it is impossible to have organic foods for everyone.

. Takefumi: The price of course and the real quality of organic foods are

unclear in some countries.

. Amir: Depends on the market. The meat market in Iran is own by the

government that¡¯s why it¡¯s much more difficult to have choices.

10. Nowadays, organic food consumption all over the world is

increasing. What do you think are the reason of this trend?

. Johan: this trend is occurring because the improvement in

environmental care and mental effect, which means consuming

organic foods makes consumer feel better and responsible for their

own life.

. Mario: the increase in consuming is due to the fact that people,

nowadays, are more concerned about healthy lifestyle.

. Anna: I think the trend occurring because people care more about

their health. They look back the past and they find out that people

were healthier without using any chemical substances in agriculture.

. Takefumi: I think this trend happens because the improvements in

health care concern.

. Eric: This trend is not permanent. One of the reasons for this trend is

the new concept emerging:¡± Returning back to nature¡± and the desire

of trying something new.

. Amir: this trend is happening because of health care improvement and

organic foods are more delicious.

11. How do you come up with the idea of consuming organic foods

instead of the normal one? What is the driving force that makes you

change your habitual consumption? (From your own conception or

being influenced by someone who are knowledgeable and has a strong

impact on you?)

. Johan: I think the articles and news are two important factors that

have a great impact on my decision. For example: when I read an

article or hear about a news that organic foods has many good

influences on my health, of course I will shift my consumption to

organic foods.

. Mario: I think the sources that influence my decision a lot are media,

advertising and education.

. Anna: I think everybody has a fear of harm from using non-organic

food. And the social pressure also has a big effect on my decision.

. Takefumi: if I hear about the news of using organic food is good for

health. And I can change my mind if buying organic support local


. Eric: I will change my buying decision if I read scientific articles that

support organic foods.

. Amir: I think I will shift to consuming organic foods when I read

something about the good impacts of organic foods on health. Or

maybe it comes from social pressure and the current trend.

12. Have you ever bought organic foods without any previous

planning? Just came to the shop with the aim of buying the others but

finally end up with organic foods randomly and why did you do that?

. Johan: I remember that I did it once. When I went to a supermarket a

long time ago, I intended to buy something else but ended up with

buying organic banana. I bought it because the banana was in a bag

and it was more convenient to take it than the non-organic ones.

. Mario: I have no idea. I think I just bought it randomly.

. Anna: I think I bought it because it was eye catching. I remember that

the organic foods in Hungary are always sold in the big hall in front of

the supermarket, so it is really convenient to buy.

. Takefumi: I have not thought about it before.

. Eric: I think I did it because I wanted to try something new.

. Amir: actually organic foods in my country are cheaper than nonorganic

one. So, I often bought organic foods there.


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