EXAMPLE ESSAY ON MANAGING HUMAN CAPITAL THROUGH BENEFITS

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Human Resource Management has become more complex over the last thirty years. These days, employers put more complex demands on their employees in terms of work and effort they expect from them, in the same time employees demands for flexible pay and benefits are growing as well. In the past, when employment relationship just started to exist in history, workers were always getting compensation for their hard work by the way of pay or benefits in kind. Seven hundred years ago in times of feudal system, people were getting food, accommodation and sometimes even rights to land, in return for their work.

In the eighteenth century, in times of The Industrial Revolution, employment relationship started to look as we see it today, with a large amount of employees engaged by organisations to undertake contracted hours of work or labour in return for compensation in form of salary. New industrial market started to require more skills, so the employers needed to become more competitive in terms of what they were paying. Therefore, by the beginning of nineteenth century, daily or weekly wage was not enough to satisfy a skilled worker needs. So, employers started to realise the importance of investing in education and training of their employees, providing various facilities for hygiene and meals for example. As a result they were more likely to recruit and retain the best workers and keep their services at a higher standard.(Cheatle, 2001)

The purpose of this assignment is to consider the question: 'If employees undervalue the cost of benefits, why should a company not drop benefits and simply add more direct compensation'. We will also examine the impact that reward and benefits have on today's employment relationship and give our recommendations to the problem mentioned above.

As we live in the age of technological growth, information and e-commerce revolution, the way of compensation trough benefits and pay has changed tremendously. Today's emphasis is on providing competitive payment packages including new methods of giving benefits that will create the difference in terms of retention and recruitment packages. Modern businesses are responding to the need to keep and attract highly skilled and talented people by adding more value to their attractiveness as an employer through a range of benefits to the basic reward package. Things like extra holidays, gym memberships and pensions are a great examples.

Direct compensation

The terms "compensation", "pay", "reward" and "remuneration" are closely connected to the contribution employees do, and to what they are expecting in return. Different people may have different ideas about these terms. Some people associate them with costs, others with recognition and motivation, for many people it is an expression of success, for some it is vital for recreation and leisure etc. (Kessler and Herwig , 2003)

There are three types of reward process:

Basic Pay is the "core" element of the pay package which employee receives on a regular basis, also known as standard rate . It is the rate of compensation that represents the rate for the job. It depends on the job grade and personal position within that grade. (Armstrong et al , 2004)

Processes used to determine basic pay are:

Job Analysis

Job Evaluation

Personal negotiation

Negotiation via trade union

Basic compensation can be paid at weekly or hourly rate, or even annually. But there can also be some additional allowances like shift and overtime payments.

Contingent pay is a reward paid above basic pay which can be given for great performance, skills, experience or competence.

Examples of contingent pay are:

Bonuses - paid as a performance or productivity reward. Can be team , individual or o related. It may depend on the overall organisational performance and may be rewarded at the end of the year which depends on profitability.

Incentives - it has a contractual connotation: You will get it if you do it. So, it is like up front agreement. Predominantly used in sales field. Used for employee motivation. Incentives are usually preferred over bonuses, but sometimes there are situations where it would be more appropriate to use bonuses. For

Commission - it is a kind of incentive given to sales workers as a percentage of sum they sold.

Profit/performance related pay - linked to individual. Also known as merit pay, which means paying employees extra for doing their job better than others, according to measurable criteria

Competence - related pay - depends on the employees competence level

Skill based pay - or in other words knowledge-based pay, it can vary according to existing skills.

Career development pay - is a reward for additional duties and responsibilities. (Gallagher et al, 2000)

Incentives as a motivation factor

It is probably the most effective motivator , because it defines company's goals and tells employees how much they will get after reaching their targets, which can be individual , team or company .In terms of period measurement it can be any length, but normally it is monthly, quarterly , or annual.

Objectives of incentives are to improve individual, organisation and team performance, to improve productivity and to create more competitive reward market position. It is very popular among managers and employees because the rules are quite clear.: Give me X results, and I will reward you with Y reward. And because of this clear rules it is very easy to focus on achieving wanted results. (Jensen et al, 2006)

Allowances are elements of compensation paid in addition for :

Overtime - payment for extra hours worked on top of contracted hours. Overtime compensation can be time and a third, time and a half or double time.

Stan-by payments - when employees have to stay at home until they needed. A good example would be computer engineers, waiting until they called in case of emergency.

Large city "weighting" - London is a perfect example. Wages are higher due to the higher costs of transport, rent etc.

Market subsidy - due to market scarcity paid on top of job-evaluated grade . It is often applies to IT(Gallagher et al, 2000)

Indirect compensation (Benefits)

Employee benefits are elements of reward given in addition to the direct compensation. It is a non- monetary reward given to staff in return for contribution they make to the company. Some benefits are set by law such as pensions and holidays, and every single employee is entitled for it. But there are also benefits in kind which are optional.

The main objectives of providing benefits are :

To increase employees commitment

To show employees that the company cares about their wellbeing

To ensure that the company has an attractive and competitive remuneration package which can attract and retain highly-skilled employees

Types of benefits:

1.Pension schemes: these are normally regarded as the most important benefit. In the United Kingdom they are financed throughout employees working period in order to provide income after their retirement.

Personal security: these are enhancing employees personal and family security in terms of health, safety , illness , accident , redundancy .

3.Financial assistance : discounts, loans, house purchase help, relocation assistance etc.

4.Personal needs: these are benefits such as child care, career breaks, retirement, counselling, eg holidays and other forms of leave

5.Company cars

6.Other benefits : for example discounted meals, refunds of telephone costs, clothing allowances, credit card facilities etc.

Intangible benefits

(Armstrong, 2004)

Analysis and recommendations

Why employees may undervalue the cost of benefits?

People may undervalue benefits simply because they do not meet their needs and expectations. Benefits will work better in attracting and retaining employees if they satisfy individual needs of employee. Employees needs, beliefs, values an expectations may vary so much that it will be almost impossible to satisfy every member of stuff equally. Young workers may be more interested in housing assistance rather than in a company pension plan. Some may have political or ethical concerns towards medical insurance schemes. (Armstrong, 2004)

Solution to a problem of undervaluing cost of benefits

Due to factors mentioned above, some employees may prefer direct compensation instead of receiving benefits they are not taking advantage of. So, here the question arises, would it be better to simply increase direct pay? I disagree with this statement. As Cheatle (2001) said: 'Pay does not necessarily guarantee improved motivation, output or productivity. Depending upon the sector an occupation, pay, whilst clearly important, will not always be number one determinant that motivates or attracts an employee' (p.84) Modern organizations begin to realize that the majority of employees are not motivated by money, they are looking for other ways how to encourage and motivate workers. One servey research which was organized by Ipsos MORI on behalf of GMB union shows that, for the majority of employees, money is not the top stimulus in employment. It shows that feeling of being valued is more significant aspect in employees decisions to retain or leave. (Armstrong,2004) Therefore, if money is not the key stimulus, then it obvious that increasing direct compensation instead of benefits will have limited success in terms of motivation. However, if benefits are undervalued there is not much motivation either. So, my advice would be to implement flexible benefits system, which will allow employees to choose benefits they want. In this case employees will have a great choice, and everyone can enjoy benefits which fits their needs. In the next section we will have a look at flexible benefits more in details.

Flexible Benefits

Research and analysis

Flexible benefits schemes give employers an opportunity to allow their employees to choose the benefits that suit their needs. They benefits are also known as cafeteria benefits in the United States, it is known as a common way to integrate benefits packages during acquisitions an mergers and also at other times of organizations change. Flexible schemes include a wide variety of alternatives for employees to choose from. It includes tax efficient benefits for example child care vouchers , salary sacrifice pensions contributions and mobile phones.

By providing choice, flexible benefits help to improve recruitment and retention, and increase employees perception of the benefits pack. Flex benefits are becoming very popular, as they respond to employee demands and it meets various needs of a modern diverse workforce. People don't have to take benefits they don't really need and can get exactly what they want.

Five years ago, according to Towers Perrin flexible benefits research (2006) 23% of companies offer a formalized flexible benefits plan while 30% of organizations are thinking of introducing it.

Employee benefits(2006) Towers Perrin flexible benefits research [Online]Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#editorial [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Another research showed that 80% of companies think that the main advantage of running a flexible benefits scheme is that it recognises the varied needs and values of employees 57% think it improves retention while 35% said it makes the most of tax breaks

Employee benefits(2006) Making a case for flex [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#editorial [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Today , according to research from Thomsons Online Benefits most of the companies (90%) are going to implement flex packages. According to Employee Rewards Watch report which questioned around 400 companies within the UK ,claimed that 90% of respondents agreed that one of the most important benefits of proposing flex scheme is staff engagement.

Tynan Barton(2011) Thomsons Online Benefits research: Employers are keen to offer flexible benefits to staff[Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12575/23/316/3 [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Key findings in flexible benefits research

Employee Benefits(2011) Watson Flexible Benefits Research : Key findings[Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?ap=1&id=12354 [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Resent attitudes towards flexible benefits

This year 84% of companies believe that one of the biggest advantages of flexible benefits is the opportunity to choose benefits which will fit employee's needs and expectations, when year ago 80% believed so. Another important reason have changed slightly over the last years. Recognizing values and diverse needs of employees in 1998 was 84%, this years figure is 79%. In 2010 50% thought flex scheme is important for retention and 47% for recruitment, but in 2011 these figures has grown up to 55% and 52%, respectively. However, the main barrier to offering it is the cost of implementation. In 2008 cost and complexity was 54% but it has grown up to 56% this year.

How the economic climate has affected flex scheme for the last year and how it will effect it in the next 12 month

Approval for the business case is another barrier of implementing flex scheme. In 2011 48% of organisations thought so , which is a similar figure to the last couple of years. Probably these group can not prove the savings from NI savings and/or tax savings.In 2010, 34% intended to review providers in the following year to get a best deal. This year 45% claimed thayalready did so. Another 40% are going to do it in 2012

What flexible benefits plans have been effective in achieving

According to this table, overall picture has not changed dramatically in recent years. Flexible benefits are thought to be effective at recognising employees diverse needs, promoting workers appreciation and understanding of benefits and promoting understanding of the cash value of benefits.

Employee Benefits(2011) Watson Flexible Benefits Research : Atittudes[Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?ap=1&id=12355 [Accessed 16 April 2011]

I want to highlight the last sentence , as it is really important point in this assignment . It proves the idea of how implementing flex benefits can sort the problem of undervaluing benefits.

Recommendations on how to implement flexible benefits scheme

In order to implement flex scheme it is vital to put in place appropriate administrative support. Secondly, it is crucial to communicate the scheme to employees. For successful implementation of flex scheme, we should put aside enough of time. This depends on who you communicate to in the industry, and it can take from twelve to three month.

Director of flexible benefits at consulting firm "Entegria" , Mr. Cripps recommends not to launch a scheme during the period when compensation is due to renewal. He claims it is the busiest period for human resources , and it will be incredibly difficult for them to work on flex during this time.Another advice is from Mr. Tim Johnson who is a managing director of "Risk and Reward". He cautions not to launch a flex scheme during Christmas, as it has always been a hard time.

There are different ways how organizations implement the scheme. Mr Clive Cripps from "Entegria" says that more companies are offering a basic total reward before introducing flex in order to help employees to understand the value of benefits more.

Benefex's principal flexible benefits consultant Mr.Waller has agreed that a staged process of implementation and communication can light up peoples interest. However, before implementing flex scheme , organization has to research peoples attitudes towards benefits. After that it is up to the company whether to work with a provider to implement, maintain and design the scheme , or to do it on their own. Most of the organizations prefer the former option, sometimes partly because it is easier to manage one supplier relationship than couple. Specializing providers have a lot of advantages such as contacts, experience and industry understanding.

A lot of companies today are using online or self service systems in order to reduce the price and administrative problems. But Mr. Johnson from Risk and reward cautions companies to make sure they use appropriate IT systems. From his experience many companies have issues with their IT systems which are unable to perform a required task, for example enabling employees to join mid year. He also added that it is important to always question vendors in details regarding software before committing to something.

Also it is very important to know the location and the state of employees data within an organisation. Because sometimes employees data is spread across multiple databases which later on will affect the implementation of flex scheme in terms of time. Therefore, project management is vital in this process. However, the most important factor in implementation of flex is how the scheme is communicated to people, because without employees awareness the whole investment would be pointless. It can be done through emails . posters, intranet, brochures etc. Another effective way is to elect company champions who will be trained and their mission would be to spread the word about the scheme within the organisation. And it really works, because those people are the ones staff know and trust, and they can explain their colleagues how the scheme works, and what are the benefits of the scheme.

Employee Benefits(2006) How to manage flexible benefits[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#getting [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Conclusion

In this assignment, as were required, we considered the problem of undervaluing the cost of benefits and gave our recommendations on how to add more value to benefits by implementing flexible benefits scheme. We disagreed with the statement proposing to add more direct compensation if employees undervalue benefits, on the grounds that pay is not a motivator any more. However, it is fair enough that some workers may undervalue benefits on the grounds that they do not really need some of the benefits provided by a company, which results in undervaluing the cost of benefits and demotivation. In this case employer will not receive expected effort from stuff. For example, giving employees £10 in cash and £10 in benefits employer will expect to receive £20 worth in effort, but if people do not value benefits they were given employer will only get £15 worth in effort which is a big loss for a company. In order to add more value to benefits we recommended to implement a flexible benefits scheme which allows employees to choose benefits they need.

In this assignment we also included information from recent researches in order to give more details regarding flexible benefits scheme, to show how this scheme has been used for the past years, and how the scheme will look in the next few years. We also gave recommendations on how to successfully implement the scheme.

Flexible benefits are an effective tool in recognising employees various needs, promoting workers appreciation and understanding of benefits and promoting understanding of the cash value of benefits.

Examples of companies who follow compensational benefits schemes

Example 1:

Healix International has introduced a range of medical services for their stuff in order to support airlines and their staff around the world

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Healix International launches medical service for airline staff[Online]Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12627&d=23&h=0&f=0[Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 2:

Sainsbury gives their staff 10% discount, which rises up to 15% on special occasions

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Sainsbury's staff appreciate retail therapy [Online]Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12567/23/5/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 3:

GeoPost UK adds offers childcare vouchers, top-up life assurance, bikes for work, pensions and payroll giving.

Jennifer Paterson(2011) GeoPost UK extends flexible benefits[Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12594/23/316/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 4:

Vinci Construction offers gym discounts, dental and optical discounts, holiday trading. It also offers staff a range of online discounts, discounted vouchers, voucher codes.

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Vinci Construction adds to flexible benefits scheme[Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12620&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 5:

Construction and facilities management firm Sewell Group combines voluntary and flexible benefits. In March 2011 they have added volunteering days , payroll giving and bikes for work.

Jennifer Paterson(2011)Sewell Group adds to benefits scheme [Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12505&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 6:

Enrich provides its employees with a variety of online and offline discounts on a range of products and services.

Tynan Burton (2011) Enrich adds People Value's discount shopping scheme to its flexible benefits offering[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12493&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 7:

Equity Insurance Group has added to their voluntary benefits scheme. It includes will writing services and tax advice. Their employees can get 10% discount on a will planning session, and up to 25% on a tax advice.

Nicola Sullivan(2011) Equity Insurance Group adds to voluntary benefits scheme [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12605&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 8:

Edenred employees get discounted vouchers and re-loadable cards which can be used across fifty retail organisations . This offer can also be passed to family members.

Jennifer Patterson (2011) Edenred adds cash-back offers to employee discount schemes [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12619&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 9:

McDonalds gives its staff a discount card as soon as they start working.

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case Study: Tasty bonus for McDonalds employees [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12581/23/305/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 10:

With a help of salary sacrifice scheme Seven Trent Water workers are able to pay their water bills.

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Salary sacrifice buoys Severn Trent Water staff [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12560&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 11:

Asda gives its employees a 10% discount card after 3 month of work. Not only can it be be used in Asda stores across the UK but it can also be used in any walmart around the globe. Using a card Asda's employees save around 60 million each year.

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Employee savings check out at Asda [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12560&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 12:

Northumbrian Water helps its 3.000 employees to make saving through a tax-efficient benefits. Since 2006 it has offered bike for work, childcare vouchers , opportunity to buy a holiday via salary sacrifice. Since 2008 they introduced a scheme where their employees can pay their water bills via salary sacrifice , and in 2009 they launched a car salary sacrifice scheme.

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Northumbrian Water taps savings through tax-efficient benefits [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12427/23/323/3[Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 13:

Tesco gives its workers a great selection of benefits such as child care vouchers, discounts, pensions ,employee share schemes. Tesco also gives its employees 10% discount card with a £730 a year. Staff also gets a discount at tesco's bank and on Tesco mobile network as well. On Christmas everyone receives money-off vouchers as a thank you.

Tynan Burton (2010) Case study: Tesco offers wide choice of benefits[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/11826/23/323/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Example 14:

Arbuthnot Banking Group gives a wide range of flexible benefits to its employees, including such benefits like health screening, car servicing, wine club, and a tax return service.

Tynan Burton (2011) Arbuthnot Banking Group adds to flexible benefits [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12613/pg_dtl_art_news/pg_hdr_art/pg_ftr_art [Accessed on 18 April 2011]

Example 15:

Starbucks relaunched its employee share scheme and awarded staff £4 million worth shares.

Jeniffer Paterson (2011) Starbucks awards UK staff £4million worth of shares [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12128/pg_dtl_art_news/pg_hdr_art/pg_ftr_art [Accessed on 18 April 2011]

References

Armstromg (2004) Reward Management , Kogan Page Ltd.

Armstrong, Michael Brown, Duncan (2006) Strategic Reward : Making It Happen, Kogan Page Ltd.

Cheatle, K (2001) Mastering Human Resource Management, London Palgrave Publishing.

Employee Benefits(2006) How to manage flexible benefits[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#getting [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Employee benefits(2006) Making a case for flex [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#editorial [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Employee benefits(2006) Towers Perrin flexible benefits research [Online]Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/1819#editorial [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Employee Benefits(2011) Watson Flexible Benefits Research : Key findings[Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?ap=1&id=12354 [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Gallagher, Peter O'Conor, Darren (2000) Human Resource Planning , Scitech Educational.

Jeniffer Paterson (2011) Starbucks awards UK staff £4million worth of shares [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12128/pg_dtl_art_news/pg_hdr_art/pg_ftr_art [Accessed on 18 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Employee savings check out at Asda [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12560&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Northumbrian Water taps savings through tax-efficient benefits [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12427/23/323/3[Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case study: Salary sacrifice buoys Severn Trent Water staff [Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12560&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson (2011) Case Study: Tasty bonus for McDonalds employees [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12581/23/305/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson(2011) GeoPost UK extends flexible benefits[Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12594/23/316/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Healix International launches medical service for airline staff[Online]Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12627&d=23&h=0&f=0[Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Sainsbury's staff appreciate retail therapy [Online]Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12567/23/5/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson(2011) Vinci Construction adds to flexible benefits scheme[Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12620&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Paterson(2011)Sewell Group adds to benefits scheme [Online] Available from:http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12505&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jennifer Patterson (2011) Edenred adds cash-back offers to employee discount schemes [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12619&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Jensen, Doug McMullen, Tom Stark, Mel (2006) Manager's Guide to Rewards : What You Need to Know to Get the Best For and From Your Employees, AMACOM Books.

Kressler, Herwig (2003) Motivate and Reward : Performance appraisal and Incentive Systems for Business Success, Palgrave Macmillan.

Nicola Sullivan(2011) Equity Insurance Group adds to voluntary benefits scheme [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12605&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Tynan Barton(2011) Thomsons Online Benefits research: Employers are keen to offer flexible benefits to staff[Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12575/23/316/3 [Accessed 16 April 2011]

Tynan Burton (2010) Case study: Tesco offers wide choice of benefits[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/11826/23/323/3 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

Tynan Burton (2011) Arbuthnot Banking Group adds to flexible benefits [Online] Available from: http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/item/12613/pg_dtl_art_news/pg_hdr_art/pg_ftr_art [Accessed on 18 April 2011]

Tynan Burton (2011) Enrich adds People Value's discount shopping scheme to its flexible benefits offering[Online] Available from : http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=12493&d=23&h=0&f=0 [Accessed on 17 April 2011]

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