Example Answers to Questions on Industrial Engineering

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By applying Industrial Engineering (IE) tools and techniques to the areas highlighted under the first Question, the Industrial Engineer seeks to optimize profit by optimizing resources and operations in the chain of themed fast food restaurants. This aim is in accordance with the aim of the business which is to make money. As described by Jonah from the book Goal [1], the goal of a company is to make money.

Determination of food preparation and delivery parameters from the Areas listed below using IE tools, techniques or considerations.

How the food should be prepared

What Volumes / Varieties of food can be offered

Size of kitchen required, equipment and customer service / requirements

Number of Staff required for both kitchen and service areas

1.1 How the food should be prepared:

In this area, there is a need to identify the process/processes to be used in food preparation. According to Vonderembse and Gregory [2], process selection is related to product design and capacity. The way a product is designed will affect the number of people who will buy it, this will in turn affect the amount of capacity the product producer seeks to supply, and then this also affects the process and the costs to produce this product, and this in turn is affected by the number of people that can afford to buy this product.

How the food should be prepared refers to the food processing methods. Of importance here would be hygiene, the pace of food preparation and the layout of the kitchen. To help achieve the objective of establishing a food preparation process, it is quite beneficial to use the following Industrial Engineering tools:

Work Study: This is a very useful tool which helps us examine human work. Work study helps due to its use of :

Method study

Work measurement

1.1.2 Ergonomics

Other tools that will be used and discussed within the context of method study and Work measurement are: Simulation, Standards and Costing, Operational Research as well as Sequence and time consumption.

Work Study:

Method study: Method study is often applied in improving processes. It checks the existing method or methods in place and analysis is done to improve the process [3]. It is important for the food restaurants to have an efficient food preparation system that could meet customer needs, keep customers and attract new ones.

Under method study, applicable areas of the food preparation system are:

The Department / Cell

The Products

The Department / Cell: Under this area, of great significance is the flow of materials such as unprocessed foods (potatoes, bread, vegetables, chicken, beef, stake and such likes) and food products (burger, sandwiches, potato chips and such likes) from one point within the kitchen (the preparatory area) to another point within the kitchen. It is also important to look at machine utilization. The distances materials and products have to travel within the kitchen should be taken into consideration in the planning of the kitchen layout.

Layout: It's necessary to design a layout which will allow ease of transportation in the kitchen. Before the layout can be designed, the company must decide on the food products it wants to sell, the types of equipment that will be used, and the capacity intended for the kitchen. This will in turn help to maximize customer satisfaction and utilize space more effectively.

The Products: The menu should contain all the products to be offered at the food restaurants. It is important to research into more effective ways of optimizing product design by value analysis (for existing products) and value engineering (for future proposed products) [3]. Both these two techniques mentioned above should be used in an attempt to reduce the product cost while ensuring that the product function did not reduce below its current level. In this present era, customer requirements (such as: "food should be delicious")leads to customer satisfaction and this plays the key role for success in any business. Nandini and Niladri [4], present the view that In the food restaurant industry, customer satisfaction has to be given top priority in-order to survive in this competitive market.

Method Study methodology [3]

In carrying out the Method Study, there are a select number of stages to improve the food preparation design process. These are as follows:

Firstly, different areas should be selected for improvement

Secondly, records from the Food Retailing Technicians (FRT) on layouts should be used as a reference point

The third step employed is to examine the options for improvement

The fourth step is to develop and define a solution

The fifth step is to install the improved method

Finally, the final step is to maintain the improved method

The sequence of operation of the stages should be strictly adhered to due to its importance in-order to achieve the desired final result.

This process of steps is abbreviated with the acronym S.R.E.D.I.M (Select, Record, Examine, Develop, Install, Maintain)

Firstly, different areas should be selected for improvement: Its important to select areas where improvement would lead to an advantage or gain and supports the company strategy. Factors considered in choosing areas for improvement include the following:

Costs of producing food products (Burger, potato chips, sandwiches and the likes): Different approaches will be applied to see how costs could be reduced compared to the cost offerings of competitors such as McDonalds and Burger king.

Quality: If Quality is stepped up in areas of production and taste, the restaurants would be able to attract more customers and establish themselves faster.

Demand and supply: The preparatory process should be checked using values from the FRT to ascertain demand levels for different products at the different restaurant branches.

Speed of food preparation: Based on the demand and supply, evaluating the speed of delivery of finished goods (processed food eg Beef burger) helps on estimating waiting times in the advent of a large inflow of customers at the restaurants.

Secondly, records from the Food Retailing Technicians (FRT) on layouts should be used as a reference point: By considering the data from the FRT, a reference point can be established by which the new proposed solution to improvement of the food preparation system can be measured. Using tools such as outline and flow process charts will help to show the different types of operations performed and form a reference point to which improvements can be made.

From one of the records provided by FRT, the food preparation process in a sample restaurant of a famous fast food restaurant is as described below:

Food preparation sample data

Store-man is ordered by Chief cook to retrieve supplies. Store-man retrieves bags of supplies from store (supplies may include any of potatoes, bread, eggs, vegetables and such likes). Store-man walks to store, retrieves bags of supplies. Store man walks back to the kitchen and hands over supplies to Chief cook. Chief cook inspects supplies to check for defects and ensure they are consumable. Chief cook distributes to 1st line operators who then peel potatoes, vegetables, sort out bread sizes and slice out bread into pieces and such likes. 1st line operators pass over sliced up potatoes, vegetables, sorted out bread to 2nd line operators (the processors). There is one processor who operates a deep fryer for fried products, 1 processor dresses and prepares salads with vegetables and other required ingredients, while another processor prepares sandwiches and burgers. Another operator is responsible for sorting out fried chicken received from the fryers. 1 of the menu boys is responsible for entering into the kitchen at every 30 minute interval to fetch finished products (sandwiches, burgers, chicken, salads and the likes) and bringing them to the counter to place in the product display shelf.

A chart can be designed to show the records of these activities as follows:

Figure 1

From this sample flow process chart, its important to identify the areas in the system that makes it slower. There is a need to improve speed and meet customer requirements faster.

The third step employed is to examine the options for improvement: Several questions should be asked about the operational process of the system. There should be a good critical analysis, checking of value added and non-value adding work.

The fourth step is to develop and define a solution: A more effective procedural system may be redesigned to eliminate some non-value added using the flow process chart

The fifth step is to install the improved method: After having carried out all the previous steps, the time will eventually come for the new proposed solution or method to be installed and carried out.

The new method / process preparation system should be made in two stages [3]:

Preparation

Installation

Preparation: This can be further broken down into 3 stages: [3]

Plan

Arrange

Rehearse

Plan: A step by step plan should be drawn showing brief and detailed plan steps.

Arrange: All materials, tools and equipment should be properly arranged as required in the new method / process preparation system.

Rehearse: Undergo a trial run of the system, simulate the system and observe results.

Installation: The next step should be to install the new food preparation system.

Finally, the final step is to maintain the improved method: Its important to look at the system again and check its results.

Work measurement: Using Work measurement, a defined path or sequence of operations will be as follows [5] :

Select Work to be measured

Define the method to be used

Measure the work involved

Select Work to be measured: The work to be measured is the food preparation process. All the activities involved in this process from the transportation of materials from the stores to the final processing into finished products of consumable food items on the menu will be measured.

Define method to be used: Preparation of potato chips, burgers, sandwiches and such likes are going to be repetitive constant work cycles. The methods that will be used will include: Element breakdown method, Rating method, Use of Relaxation allowances and Pre-determined Motion time systems (P.M.T.S) method.

Measure the work involved: Apply these methods to measure the food preparation process.

Element breakdown method: Firstly, the elements involved in all the different work cycles will have to be broken down to separate productive work from unproductive work, to identify the types of elements present such as high fatigue elements and to analyze work much more easily on an elemental scale in-order to enhance overall efficiency and productivity.

A work element is:

A distinct part of an operation selected for convenience of observation, measurement and analysis…………………BS 42003 [6]

A work cycle is:

The sequence of elements which are required to perform a task or to yield a unit of production. The sequence may sometimes include occasional elements….BS 42001[7]

In the food preparation process, one of the work cycles present is that of the processing of potato chips. The process begins with the retrieval of potatoes from the store and ends with the frying of the potatoes.

Rating method: This involves measuring the time it takes to perform an element of work and taking into consideration the speed and effectiveness of the work done. For instance, a particular worker makes 80 cheese burgers an hour while another worker makes 50 cheese burgers of the same size from the same materials as the previous worker who makes 80. Rating helps us to establish a standard amount of cheese burgers that should be made by any worker in a given hour. It could be that worker A is working too fast or worker B is working too slow [5].

Use of Relaxation Allowances: This helps to establish acceptable time limits for the body and brain to relax and recover from exertion. They are Ergonomic issues. The use of this concept is important as it helps to reduce fatigue in a work cycle.

Pre-determined Motion Time Systems:

Work measurement techniques in which times are established at implicit rates of working for classified human movements and mental activities……………………….BS41003 [8]

This can also be applied to analyze the pace of walking by the store-man and the other staff in the kitchen. It's a helpful tool that helps to decide on acceptable working practices in the kitchen for all staff, such as the speed of walking and the speed of cutting operations.

Ergonomics:

As stated above already, relaxation allowances within work measurement is concerned with Ergonomic issues. Kroemer and E.Grandjean [9], highlight Ergonomic issues to include: Body size, the design of work stations, Heavy work, handling loads, skilled work, human-machine systems, mental activity, fatigue, occupational stress, boredom, work hours, eating habits, night work and shift work, vision, noise and vibration and indoor climate.

What volumes / varieties of food can be prepared: Of chief concern here is to provide a large enough volume of food demanded by customers as well as to prevent waste of food. Wastage will mean that the company is incurring costs for unsold food products. Operations research as an IE tool is useful here to tackle optimality of which food products to produce given the required materials as well as putting price into consideration. A technique under Operations Research that will aid in this is Linear Programming.

Linear Programming:

This involves finding the optimum solution to an objective function given under certain linear constraints. By the use of linear programming, a solution can be deduced from the combination of two products given certain prices subject to certain company constraints which will maximize profits or minimize costs.

For example, using Hills data [10], here is a case in which the food restaurants will be selling a product A (Beef Burger) and another product B (potato chips), given that Beef Burger sells at a profit of $1.20 while potato chips sells at a profit of $1.40. The objective is to find that mix of these two products that will maximize the profit of the food restaurant. The constraints on product mix are due to the facilities used to produce Beef Burgers and potato chips.

In one hour of food preparation, a constraint is to cut up beef into 25 pieces of Beef or cut up potatoes into 40 stacks (where 1 stack = about 400 sliced pieces) of potato chips.

In one hour of cooking, it is possible to fry 28 pieces of beef or fry 35 stacks of potato chips (where 1 stack = about 400 sliced pieces).

A third constraint is constraint is to dress either 35 pieces of beef burger or 25 stacks of potato chips.

Using an LP model, the problem can be stated as:

Maximise Z = 1.20A +1.40B (Objective function)

Subject to

0<=25A + 40B<=1

0<=28A + 35B<=1

0<=35A + 25B<=1

The maximizing equation is the objective function. Using different LP tools, a result is generated which gives the optimal solution to this maximizing equation and thus gives the management of the food restaurant the best possible outputs attainable from a group of selected inputs.

The optimum solution of the above problem is to produce 16.9 of product A (Beef Burger) per hour and 12.9 of product B (Potato chips) per hour as well.

Another Industrial Engineering tool that will be useful here is Cost Accounting

From CIMA [11], It can be defined as:

"The establishment of budgets, standard costs and actual costs of operations, processes, activities or products: and the analysis of variances, profitability or use of funds."

Kaplan and cooper [12], define three primary functions for cost systems:

Valuation of inventory and management of the cost of goods sold for financial reporting;

Estimation of the costs of activities, products, services and customers; and

Providing economic feedback to managers and operators about process efficiency i.e decision making

Size of kitchen required, Equipment and Customer Service/Requirements

To decide on a size for the kitchen, there are several factors worth considering.

Firstly, the number of variety of products to be sold must be decided upon.

Secondly the different types of equipment that will be used and the number of these equipment must also be known.

A third point is that the location in which the restaurant will be situated must be investigated to know the sort of demand that will be generated by customers.

Facilities planning: Essentially, a layout strategy must also be decided for the kitchen.

In considering the layout strategy to be used here, factors such as customer satisfaction, efficient flow of materials, information and personnel, Ergonomic issues, health and safety, aesthetics, flexibility, building capacity as well as building and site quality must all be taken into consideration [3].

It is recommended in this case that the food restaurants use a retail layout strategy due to the functions of this layout strategy. This layout strategy will allocate shelf space and respond to customer behavior. It should maximize product exposure to customers.

The layout chosen here is also to be influenced by the size of equipment chosen by the management of the restaurant. The equipment chosen will be as a result of the required products the restaurant will have on offer as well as the sort of service the restaurant intends to deliver. Equipment such as fryers and cookers will be influenced by the volume of food products expected to be produced. Other equipment such as furnishings will be influenced by factors such as; sales strategies, Ergonomic issues and quality expected out of such equipment

Customer Service Requirements: These requirements include Ergonomic requirements, speed of attendance and delivery to order requirements and Marketing strategies such as making the menu items large and bold for ease of use. Promotional sales offering low costs and price. For example: buying two items for the price of one.

Number of Staff Required for both Kitchen and Service Areas:

To determine the number of staff required in the kitchen, tools such as work measurement and work study can be used. By using these tools as previously applied already in the food preparation process, the management can decide on a sufficient number of staff to carry out all required work in the kitchen efficiently. Tools of time compression and Ergonomic factors also come into play in this scenario as well.

To determine the number of staff required for the kitchen and service areas, useful IE tools used here include:

Queuing Theory

Ergonomics

Time compression tools

Standards and Costing methods.

Queuing theory: Queues form as a result of a high demand for products and services at restaurants. Full utilization of service space is required when queues tend to be long at restaurants. Through feasibility studies gained from the location of the restaurant, there should be estimates about what the highest queue demand Case would be like. The food restaurants will have to prepare for such a case if it will be an everyday scenario such as in a busy area or business district. The service time for a customer must be kept as short as possible. This involves the use of such techniques such as printing menu items with big lettering to enable customers choose with ease when they come into the restaurant or while they are on the queue. There should be an ideal maximum service time per average order. For instance an average order might be a serving of a day pack (A day pack is a pack containing 1 chips pack, 1 chicken and 1 beef burger). What will be the time it will take to serve a customer a day pack? There should be a modeled service time to achieve this for instance 70seconds per order of day pack. Using such a measure the time it will take for a customer waiting on the queue, for instance the 5th customer on the queue could be estimated. The restaurant can also use writings on their walls to pass across good will messages such as" kindly be patient, you will be served pretty soon." The restaurant could have a sweet or candy basket on tables for customers on the queue to eat or use while on the queue.

To model the queue, there will be need for average arrival rate as well as average waiting time. Customers will probably arrive in a poisson distribution.

In real life, the model can be represented as thus [13]:

E(A)……….Expected time between arrivals

Lander is the arrival rate = L = 1 / E(A)

E(S) is the expected time of service. And

E(S) / E(A) is the utilization of the server

The average delay time d is given by:

d = [ L ( Var (S) + E(S)2 ) / ( 2 ( 1 - LE(S) ) ]

Heres an Example [13]

Assuming that customers arrive at the restaurant on an average of every 5 minutes and the queue is to be serviced, in other words the customers orders need to be met and delivered. Attending to a customer takes 1.5 minutes on average to an average order (1 chicken pack, I fries pack and 1 milk shake). How much WIP should be expected in front of attending to a customer?

Assuming arrival and service processes are exponentially distributed with means of 5minutes (0.083hours) and 1.5 minutes (0.025 hours)

Where for an exponential distribution, variance = mean squared

E(A)) = 5mins, L = 0.2, E(S) = 1.5mins, Var(S) = 1.52 = 2.25

Thus the average time to wait in the queue is given below

D = [0.2 (1.52 + 1.52)] /[ 2 (1 - 0.3)] = 0.64 mins

Customers will be served on the basis of first come first served basis. This is often called a first in first out queue. So the first customer who comes in, gets attended to before others .Except in special cases such as where there will be quite elderly citizens. For these special cases, a priority is given to these elderly citizens. Thus priority should also be taken into consideration. By modeling as shown above, based on the number of customers the restaurant will expect in a minute, an hour, in a day, proper modeling can be done and several queuing counters can be set up to attempt to meet expected demand.

According to Baker [14], in cases where there is a group of tasks waiting for service and a one-at-a-time facility provides that service, the sequencing problem often represents the essential decision. Thus a queue is very much applicable here.

Ergonomy: The size of the kitchen should be a size in which all the tasks and operations performed will be done in a safe and healthy environment. There should be adequate space for movement of man, materials and labour. The operations performed must be done in such a way that the working methods of the staff considers good hand and body movement where human body parts are concerned in action.

According to Resnick [15], Ergonomy is important to the industry because of the prevalence of humans within industrial systems. It is humans who are often called on to design, manufacture, operate, monitor, maintain, and repair these systems. In the kitchen case, Ergonomy should be used to ensure that the design will meet system requirements in performance, productivity, quality, reliability, and safety.

Vonderembse and Gregory [16], are of the opinion that In the past, quite a number of companies have not paid enough attention to the safety of their employees. As a consequence of this, state and federal governments have stepped in with various regulations to aid in the practice of safety in the workplace.

Using Time Compression techniques:

Management has to constantly look for ways to cut down the time spent in operations. Time spent can mean money lost. Some diagnostics techniques useful in time compression according to Hughes [17], include: Visioning, Customer surveys / visits, designing logic models, brainstorming, IT sourcing, throughput analysis and resource analysis.

A 4 stage approach to time compression [17]:

Map the process

Distinguish between value adding and non value adding activities

Calculate time spent on non value adding activities

Develop solutions and strategies

Mapping the process involves using tools to visually represent and analyse the key interconnecting processes which collectively constitute the supply chain and product introduction processes in relation to time [17].

The different processes are stated out in clear details along with the time involved in each process.

An activity adds value if [17]:

the customer cares about it

It physically changes the item

It is done right the first time

Standards and costing: Cost control also comes into play when deciding the size of the kitchen. Costs should be minimized as much as possible. All materials and resources paid for should be value adding to minimize costs. If the kitchen will be a certain size, it should be that size because all the requirements of the kitchen being that size are required.

Cost management includes [18], inputs of:

Cost determination

Setting standards

Measuring Performance

Cost analysis

Cost planning

Outputs [18], include:

Cost control

Directs effort

Organises resources

JUSTIFICATION OF ROLE OF IE'S

Industrial Engineering brings benefits to all industries where its applied. Industrial Engineering is beneficial to just about every department of an Enterprise. The major goal of every business Enterprise is to make genuine legal profits from its business activities [1]. IE helps in process evaluation and process improvement in the various departments of an Enterprise and will in the long run help the Enterprise to make profits while striving to deliver optimality in the operations the Enterprise is involved in.

To clarify, the role of IE, her is a definition. The US institute of industrial engineers [19], gives the following as a definition:

"IE is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of men, materials, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate results to be obtained from such systems."

From Taylor [20], IE helps to answer important questions in the running of an Enterprise such as:

How do you know if you are in control?

How do you know how much to use

How do you decide the best process?

How do you know you are competitive?

How do you explain plans for improvement?

How do you involve people?

Also from Taylor [20]:

"IE is concerned with integrated systems and thus recognizes the systems approach taken in manufacturing over the last 20 years"

and

"The IE methodology can be applied equally well to improving the efficiency of almost any activity"

Thus IE is quite applicable to a wide range of various fields and Enterprise departments

In an Enterprise, IE areas of interest include but are not limited to the following:

Purchasing: IE plays an active role in this area by using models based on Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), regulating Supplies in Inventory management and improving Quality Assurance.

EOQ: According to Leroy [21]:

"The economic order-quantity model considers the tradeoff between ordering cost and storage cost in choosing the quantity to use in replenishing item inventories."

Management has to make important decisions such as choosing which vendors to make purchases from, choosing which products to purchase that will present and offer the best benefits to the Enterprise compared to other similar products as well as when to make purchases and increase stock. IE plays an important role here in using EOQ, JIT, MRP and other such similar tools and approaches to solve problems pertaining to this area.

According to Leroy [22], The EOQ business scenario essentially involves choosing an order quantity that will minimize the average inventory management cost/time for an item with an unending demand at a demand rate that always remains constant. Its often impractical to find such scenarios in business, but by modeling along these lines and adjusting factors involved in the EOQ models, good beneficial decisions can be made by purchasing.

Supplies: IE can evaluate using certain tools, techniques and experience on how to manage Supplies, when to order goods, how much goods should be produced with the available resources and how costs should be allocated to purchasing activities.

According to Jahns [23], Supply management is mostly influenced by the management perspective, in other words, it starts on a strategic level, and aims at optimizing complex value chains.

Corsten and Kaufmann [24], specify that it is this holistic viewpoint at the Enterprise level as well as the contribution to the achievement of competitive that make up the decisive aspects of supply management.

Talluri and Lee [25] explain that, some methodologies have been proposed for use in optimally selecting contracts under some business conditions. One of these is the mixed-integer programming approach.

Quality Assurance: By applying tools and techniques, implementing standard guidelines and practices of quality to the Enterprise such as ISO 9000 and ISO 9001, the Industrial Engineer brings Quality Assurance into the operations of the Enterprise where and when required.

Perceived quality according to Owlia [26], is all about the reputation issues that influence the customers' image of the Enterprise.

Garvin [27], proposed eight dimensions that can define quality. These are: Performance, Features, conformance, Durability, Reliability, Serviceability, Aesthetics, Perceived quality

Personnel: The Industrial Engineer uses distinct tools to aid Personnel in making their job easier, more efficient and their results more accurate.

Recruitment: The Enterprise requires certain different types of staff for the different operations in its different departments. The Personnel Unit is often responsible for this role of selecting required candidates to fill in job positions. By applying IE tools such as work measurement, method study and ergonomics, the Industrial Engineer evaluates the requirements of the job and helps personnel to draft out efficient candidate selection criteria to select the required types of candidates for the different job roles.

According to Armstrong [28], one of the aims of human resource management (HRM) is to achieve strategic integration and coherence in the development and operation of HRM policies and employment practices. This is very much a task the IE can deliver.

Training: By applying work study and work measurement tools, the IE uses results from these techniques to determine the training required by enterprise employees and provide useful training outlines, drafts and descriptions to personnel on detail training for employees and different job roles.

Steffan [29], believes that Simulation can be used to train new employees. E.g: to train them on incident management processes.

Health and Safety: By applying studies in Ergonomics, the Industrial Engineer helps to ensure that the enterprise work environment is safe for all employees especially for those involved in risk taking activities such as in cutting and machining operations in the Enterprise. Industrial Engineers provide guidelines and safe practices to which Employees should follow to ensure their safety in the work place. This helps to prevent accidents as well as make legal and accidental issues clear, especially where and when employees do not adhere to such safe practices clearly written down.

Skill bases: Industrial Engineers apply tools to evaluate the required skill bases for the different job roles in an Enterprise.

Engineering: Here is another important division of an Enterprise where IE's are invaluable.

Development and Testing: Industrial Engineers help Engineers to develop required products as well as conceptualizing new services. Engineers need to develop products and services beneficial to the Enterprise. Industrial Engineers help in setting out the criteria for what should be developed and tested. By using Simulation, tests can be carried out to check the outputs to certain systems given certain inputs.

Functionality: Industrial Engineers evaluate the functionality of products, machine, men, and equipment of the Enterprise. What do all these resources contribute to the Enterprise? How do they contribute to the Enterprise? Of what importance are they? IEs help to answer such important questions so as to provide relevant resources that will be beneficial to the Enterprises at the end of the day.

Specifications: By acquiring, goods, items, products, materials at the required specifications for its intended users, IEs help to get what is required at relevant costs to provide specified benefits for the Enterprise.

Sales and Marketing: The job of Sales and Marketing becomes a tad easier by applying various IE techniques. IEs help to evaluate required inventory by the Enterprise, deduces volume production rates of products, helps identify which product mixes provide the optimal use of resources, helps identify value adding and non-value adding activities, reduce costs and inevitable increase sales of products as well as providing improved marketing strategies.

Advertising and Product requirements: IEs can help evaluate markets and thus determine which product or products the enterprise should focus more on as the case may be in terms of advertising. IEs also help to identify product requirements such as level of quality, cost, dependability and flexibility required by different products to enable them enjoy better customer patronage.

Service: IE offers the view that services can improve. By applying tools and techniques of work measurement and method study, services can be improved to become more efficient and cost less.

Field trials: Using Simulation tools, IEs can mimic the behavior of certain systems to check how the system will respond to different inputs and determine what kind of outputs such inputs to the system will generate.

Maintenance/Training: By constructing and designing well stated out procedures and guideline, IEs help to maintain and improve services. Applying Deming's cycle amongst other tools; maintenance and continual improvement is ensured. IE also helps to determine training parameters for different services such as the type of training required to carry out a service or to be part of a service, the duration of the required training, as well as the number of people required for the training. IE helps to determine how the training will be of benefit to the Enterprise it also evaluates already established training and checks for their efficiency in helping to meet the Enterprise's vision and goals.

Quality: In every Enterprise, there has to be some sort or form of quality control. It might be quality in the products being produced, the products being marketed, quality of the equipment and facilities used in the Enterprise, quality in the operations, quality in the services being offered and many other such examples. IEs use tools to check and evaluate quality where and when it is required. IEs can guide Enterprises along the lines of international quality standards such as ISO 9000 series.

The highest level of corporate quality plan is the quality manual [30]. It formally states the Enterprise's policy on quality and gives a summary of the governing principles in the main areas of the company's business. The manual usually applies to all operations of the Enterprise.

Consistency: By applying work measurement and method study, consistency patterns can be established to ensure the required level of quality in services and manufacturing processes.

Conformity Levels: These levels can be checked by IEs using evaluating techniques and guidelines such as stating the required BSI on a shop floor by employees or ergonomics issues to be adhered to while working, or the safety standards of equipment made available in a factory or the required and specified level of output required from a system.

Simulation is a useful tool in this area, it can be used for Proof of quality assurance as well as fault management [29].

Manufacture: IEs can apply tools of work measurement and method study to design better manufacturing processes. IEs use linear programming to prescribe optimal product mix quantities while considering constraints on the manufacturing process and products involved.

Robert [31], sees the philosophy of value added manufacturing as a much widely accepted one in this age. Total Quality control, Just in time (JIT) manufacturing, Total people involvement are just a few of the concepts involved here.

Product: Using sequence and time consumption techniques, IEs tend to look for alternative ways to make product manufacturing faster and more efficient by considering all the components involved in the manufacturing system. These tools help to evaluate and identify value adding activities and non-value adding activities and can thus be used to improve product manufacturing / development process.

Capacity: IEs help to manage inventory as well as use layout design tools to determine required manufacturing capacity for Enterprises.

The JIT philosophy of avoiding waste leads logically to cost minimization and a level schedule will avoid costly overtime by evenly loading the plant [32].

Assembly: IE's help to formulate better and more efficient production assemblies through tools such as simulation, work study and method study.

Raul [33], is of the belief that assembly and manufacturing automation consists of different problems, several of which are derived from the physical interaction between parts, where any imprecision could produce failures and consequently an increasing of the manufacturing costs

Stores: The activities that occur in the stores provide valuable data for IEs to formulate more efficient working practices using tools such as method study and work measurement.

Goods received: How are the goods received into the stores? What process is involved in receiving them in? Is a JIT approach being used? IEs use tools to help answer some of these questions and enhance the efficiency of the process or processes involved here.

Production and Material Control: Industrial Engineering uses unique tools to offer solutions to regulate production volumes. Use of JIT approach, EOQ analysis and such similar tools help regulate production volumes to reduce costs and increase Enterprise profits. IEs use tools to evaluate the efficiency of a process. IEs can determine whether a process is better suited to be automated in terms of cost and resources required, or whether it should be manually operated. IEs help to determine what and which types of processes to program, where programming should be involved in the process and what type of program is required in the process.

Civil Engineering: The Industrial Engineer uses his tools for process evaluation and improvement. Where Civil Engineering is involved, IEs analyse the system involved and find ways of improving the process. Tools such as Work measurement, method study, Simulation and Ergonomics help in some way to improve systems involved here.

Layouts and Facilities: IEs use tools to plan and design layouts for facilities. By using Muthers approach and such other similar tools, IEs help to develop layouts and facilities with a high functional efficiency.

Finance: Finance is linked to every area of Industrial Engineering discussed above. The Industrial Engineer plays an important role in improving productivity, supplying data for planning and costing systems as well as striving towards Enterprise efficiency in all activities in-order to reduce costs to its lowest acceptable or desired minimum within the Enterprise, while increasing profits to its maximum. IE will help optimize thus reduce costs and increase profits.

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