Examining the Theories and Roles behind Management


Manager is people who are work with and through other people by coordinating and integrating their works activities to achieve their organization goals. A manager's job is not about personal achievement, its about helping do their work. That may mean coordinating the work of a department group, or it might mean supervising a single person. Coordinating and monitoring other work activities is what distinguishes a manager's job from non managerial one. The management process is the set of ongoing decision and work activities in which managers engage as the plan, organize, lead, and control. Managers are also often taking decision and action in organization to achieve company goals. Furthermore, manager can be classified by their level in the organization, practically for traditional structured organization.

First line manages are the lowest level of management. This manages manage the work of no managerial employee who typically are in involved with producing the organization's products or servicing the organization's customers. First line manager are often called supervisors.

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Middle line manager are those found between the lowest and top levels of the organization. These manages manage the work of first line manager and often call such as project leader, store manager, or division manager.

Top manager who are responsible for making organization decision and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individual typically have title such as executive vice president, president, managing director chief operating officer, or chief executive

Mintzberg's managerial roles

Henry Mintzberg, known as management researcher studied actual manager at work and concluded that what manager does their best by described the look at the management roles the use at work. Management roles refer to specific behavior expected of a manager. According to Henry Mintzberg, manager fulfill several roles, one of which he call the interpersonal role. Interpersonal roles are one that involves people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. The interpersonal role also calls on the manager to perform some symbolic duties such as signing legal and company documents. The three interpersonal roles are figurehead, leader and liaison. That, the next role is information roles. This role involves collecting, receiving and disseminating information. The three informational roles are monitor, disseminator and spokesperson. Finally, the decisional roles entail making decision or choices. The four decisional roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. Below shows that Mintzberg 10 roles are grouped around interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information and decision making.











Resource allocator


Important skills the manager needs One of that skills are Technical skills, this skills are the job specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform work task. This skill tends to be more important for first line manager because they typically manage employees who use tools and techniques to produce the organization product or to services the organization's customer. Furthermore, human skill is also one of the skill that manager need to have. These skills involve the ability to work well with other people both individually and in group. Because all manager deal with people, these skill are equally important to all level of management. Manager with good human skill get the best out of their people. They know how to communicated, motivate, lead and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Finally, conceptual skills are this skill, manager sees the organization as a whole, understand the relationship among various subunits, and visualize how the organization fit broader environment. These three skills are equally important to a manager. But in my opinion, the most important skill that manager should have is the human skill. This is because, most manages have to deal with people and they should know how to communicate, motivate, lead with other people. If this skill is poor for a manager they might face some problem to work with other people.

Functions of management

According to the function approach, managers perform certain activities or function as they efficiently and effectively coordinate the work of others. The four management functions are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. As managers engage in planning, they define goals, establish strategies for achieving those goals and develop plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Managers are also responsible for arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization goals. This function calls organizing. When manager organize they determine what task are to be done, who is to do them, how the task are to be group, who reports to whom, and where decision are to be made. Furthermore, manager's job is also work with and through people to accomplish goals. This is the leading function. When manger motivate, subordinates, help resolve work group conflicts, influence individual or team as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they are leading.

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The final management function is controlling. After planning, organizing, and leading, there has to be some evaluation of whether thing are going as planned. To ensure the goals are being met and that work is being done as it should be, manager must monitor and evaluate performance. If those goals aren't being achieved its management job to get work back on track. This process of monitoring, comparing and correcting is the controlling function.

Sales representative

Sales representative is consider a manager because any company that creates a product or products may employ a sales representative, a person who represents the company and showcases and sells products. The range of jobs available to the sales representative can vary significantly. The job of a sales representative can be highly variable. Many people are expected to travel, at least locally, and sometimes nationally or internationally. Some representatives work on leads only, those people or companies who express interest in their products. Others must employ other methods, like cold calling, or simply showing up at a potential buyer's place of business or residence in order to try to engage interest in products or services A representative definitely requires product knowledge of whatever he or she is selling, and is more successful when skilled at talking to people and learned at various sales tactics. Furthermore, Companies may advocate that the representative learn specific sales tactics, and some companies even train employees on the way they want their products sold. Based in this information, we can say that work for a sales representative in almost same as manager in a organization. So, we can consider that a sales representative a manager.

Six Management Theories

The six Management Theories are scientific management, General Administrative Theory, Quantitative Approach, Organizational Behavior, Systems, and Theory Approach.

General Administrative Theory

How Today's Manager Use General Administrative Theory: Several of our current management ideas and practice can be directly traced to the contributions of general administrative theory. For instance, the functional view of manager's job can be attributed to Fayol. In addition, his 14 principal serve as a frame of reference from which many current management concepts, such a managerial authority, and centralized decision making, and reporting to only one boss. Weber's bureaucracy was an attempt to formulate an ideal prototype for organization. Although many characteristics of Weber's bureaucracy are still evident in large organization, his model isn't as popular today as it was in twentieth century.

Scientific Management

How today's Manager use Scientific Management : Many of the guidelines and techniques that Taylor devised for improving production efficiency are still used in organization today. When manager analyze the basic work task that must be performed, use time and motion study to eliminate wasted motion, hire the best qualified workers for a job, or design incentive system based on output, they're using the principles of scientific management.

The Organization Behavior

How Today's Manager Use The Organization Behavior : The behavioral approach has largely shaped how today's organization are managed. From the way that manager design jobs to the way that they work with employee teams to the way that they communicate, we see element of the behavioral approach.

The Quantitative Approach

How Today's Manager Use The Quantitative Approach : The quantitative approach contributed directly to management decision making in the areas of planning and control. For instance, when manager make budgeting, queuing, scheduling, quality control, and similar decision, they typically rely on quantitative techniques. Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for manager. make budgeting, queuing, scheduling, quality control, and similar decision, they typically rely on quantitative techniques. Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for manager. Make budgeting, queuing, scheduling, quality control, and similar decision, they typically rely on quantitative techniques. Specialized software has made the use of these techniques less intimidating for manager.

System Theory

How today Manager Use System Theory is: Researchers envisioned an organization as being made up of "interdependent factors", including individuals, group, attitudes, motive, formal structure, interaction, goals, status, and authority. What this mean is that as manager coordinated work activities in the various part of the organization, They ensure that all these parts are working together so that the organization goal can be achieved. In addition, the system theory implies that decision and action in one organization area will affect other area.

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Contingency Approach

How Today's Manager Use Contingency Approach: This approach is intuitively logical because organization and even units within the same organization differ, in term of size, goals, work activities, and the like.

Seven dimensions of organization culture

This culture is degree to which employees are expected, to exhibit precision, analysis and attention to detail. Secondly, Outcome orientation is degree to which manager focus or result of outcome rather than on how these outcomes are achieved. Thirdly, People orientation, is degree to which management decisions take into account the effect on people in the organization. Fourthly, Team Orientation, which degree to which work is organized around teams rather those individuals. Fifthly, is Aggressiveness, that degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative? Sixthly, is Stability, that degree to which organization decision and action emphasize maintaining the status quo? Finally, is innovation and Risk Taking, that degree to which employee are encouraged to be innovative and to take risks.

In my opinion, the most important dimension is People Orientation, because these dimensions managers have to take a right decision because their decision will affect the people in the organization. If they take wrong decision, it might affect the employee and also organization goals. In my point of view, manage should concentrate more in people orientation so that managers can take the right decision to achieve the organization goals.

Eight Characteristics

Rank for eight characteristics of innovative culture is:

Challenge and insolvent

Trust and openness

Idea time

Risk taking


Conflict resolution



Stakeholders of a company

Stakeholders are the constituencies in an organization's environment that are affected by that organization's decision and actions. The stakeholders that have in a company such are Customers, Social and political action Groups, Competitors, Trade and Industry Associations, Governments, Media,Suppliers,Communities,Shareholders,Unions and Employees.Allthough all of the stakeholders in organization's are important but in my point of view customer is important in stakeholders. The customer is important because there are the most needed person in organization, without customers there will be no organization will existed.

CEO Of Global Corporation

If I the CEO of global corporation, I would prefer to choose geocentric attitude, because geocentric attitude is award oriented view that focus on using the best approaches and people regard less of origin. By this plan, I can find many different ideas and information's from many of people point views it will be easy to achieve organization goals it also will help us to develop and understanding of cross cultural difference.

Eight steps in the decision making process

Manager at all level and in all area of organization make decision. While doing decision, manager will go through eight steps in decision making process. Below how the eight steps in decision making process.

Step 1: Identifying A Problem

Manager should need to know the weaknesses' in their organization or their products. Manager also have to be cautious not to confuse problems with symptoms of the problem. In addition, a manager who resolves the wrong problems perfectly is likely to perform just as poorly as manager who doesn't even recognize a problem and does nothing.

Step 2: Identifying Decision Criteria

Once a manager has identified a problem, they must identify the decision criteria that are important or relevant to resolving the problem the problem. Every decision maker has criteria that guide his or her decision, even if they not explicitly stated

Step 3: Allocating Weight to the Criteria

Manager should give weight to each important decision that have taken so they it will make them easy to decide which action have to take first or important.

Step 4: Developing Alternatives

This is the step where a decision maker needs to creative. At this point, the alternatives are only listed, not evaluated.

Step 5: Analyzing Alternatives

Data represent an assessment of the weight. If one alternative scored highest on every criterion, you wouldn't need to consider the weight because that alternative would already be the top choice. Or, if the weight were all equal, you could evaluated an alternative merely by summing up the assessed value for them all.

Step 6: Selecting An Alternative

The next step in the decision making process is choosing the best alternative. In this step, manager will choose the best and effective decision to solve the problem.

Step 7: Implementing The Alternative

You put the decision into action by conveying it to those affected and getting commitment to it. We know that if the people who must implement a decision participate in the process, they're more likely to support it than if you just tell them what to do. Another thing manager may need to do during implementation is reassess the environment for any changes, especially with a long term decision.

Step 8: Evaluating Decision Effectiveness

The final step in the decision making process involves evaluating the outcome or result of the decision to see if the problem was resolved. If the evaluation show that the problem still exists, then manager need when went wrong.

If am Entrepreneur

If I 'am an entrepreneur who have just started a company, I will choose nonlinear thinking style. This is because in this style, I can make my decision or action by my own opinion and not referring other source or information to take some action. Besides that, I can move freely to take decision that right to my company. In addition, in nonlinear thinking style ,I can use my knowledge, intelligence, talent, innovation, quality, emotion, and cooperated value to take the right decision for my company .For managing complex processes based on these concepts we need to adopt nonlinear thinking.

Decision Making Errors

When manager make decision, they not only use their own particular syte, they may use "rule of thumb", to simplify their decision making. Heuristics can be useful because they help make sense of complex, uncertain and ambiguous information. Even though managers may use rule of thumb, that doesn't mean those rules are reliable. Because they may lead to errors and biases in processing. There were 12 common decision errors and biases that manager make.

Overconfidence bias

Immediate gratification bias

Anchoring effect

Selective perception

Confirmation bias


Availability Representation

Randomness bias

Sunk cost error

Self serving bias

Hindsight bias


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