Examining the Theories and Processes of Management

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"According to Mary Parker Follett, Management is the art of getting things done through people". "Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected arms". This definition should be expanded to a clear view of management. Managers should carry out certain functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. It can be applied to any kind of organization and at any managerial levels. The main aim of mangers would be to make profit in the organization and for that they make others work accordingly. Managing is about productivity; this implies effectiveness and efficiency. The significance of principles of managements is: provides managers with useful insights into reality, scientific decisions, helps in meeting dynamic environment, fulfilling social responsibility. There are many management styles used in different organization. Management styles are theories and concept which influence the general work of organizations environment. There are many styles in management which may vary due to the change in leadership. But when it comes to theories and concepts it means the same. Scientific Management, Process Approach, Hawthorne Effect, Human Needs & Motives and Complex man are different types of managerial styles. As management is composed of man, money and material, many aspects are there which govern and governed by management styles. Since man is the first and foremost consideration, the leadership styles followed by different managers have led to making of different management styles as well. There are a few such popular management styles which are Autocratic or Authoritarian, Paternalistic, Democratic and Laissez-faire. The above mentioned styles are closed related in terms of personality and leadership qualities of leader- managers. They are based on styles and principles followed by a manager not as an organization as a whole. If there is any change in the managers, an autocratically managed organization can become a paternalistic one! In an organization, different requirements have led to developments in managerial styles. Study of these schools of thoughts helps us to understand how developments in the field of management contribute to the current practices. When we check the past, we get to know pros and cons of these schools. This idea helps us to become an efficient manger and to choose appropriate managerial styles. Scientific school of thought is the earliest managerial style. This school of thought is founded and developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1900; the concept of scientific management is also called as Taylorism. This method is considered 'the one best method' to perform certain task. In the words of Taylor, "Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way". The Bethlehem Steel company where Taylor himself worked achieved three-fold increase in productivity by application of scientific management principles. The principle of scientific management is published in 1911. The principles of management are Science Not Rule of Thumb, Harmony Not Discord, Cooperation Not Individualism and Development of Each and Every Person to His or Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity. Techniques of scientific managements are Functional foremanship, standardization and simplification of work, motion study, method study, time study, differential piece wage system, fatigue study. Hentri Fayol developed classical school of thought, administrative theory provides an important link. The fourteen principle developed by him are Division of work, Authority and responsibility, Discipline, Unity of command, Unity of direction, Subordination of individual interest to general interest, Remuneration of employees, Scalar chain, Centralization and decentralization, Order, Equity, Stability of Personal, Initiative and Espirit De Corps.

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Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory is considered fundamental to understanding of motivation. His theory was based on human needs. He felt that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs and they are Basic Physiological Needs, Safety/Security Needs Affiliation/Belonging Needs, Esteem Needs and Self Actualization Needs.

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational communication and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. He also thought that the key to connecting self-actualization with work is determined by the managerial trust of subordinates.

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Theory X assumes that the average person: Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it,

Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead, is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals, Resists change.

Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security.

Theory Y, the higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: Work can be as natural as play and rest, People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them, People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in places that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment.

Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.

For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum. Rather they are two different continua in themselves. Thus, if a manager needs to apply Theory Y principles, that does not preclude them from being a part of Theory X & Y.

McGregor's work was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He grouped Maslow's hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees. As management theorists became familiar with Maslow's work, they soon realized the possibility of connecting higher level needs to worker motivation.

The Hawthorne effect is an increase in worker productivity produced by the psychological stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important. Individual behaviors may be altered by the study itself, rather than the effect the study is researching was demonstrated in a research project (1927 - 1932) of the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. This series of research, first led by Harvard Business School professor Elton Mayo along with associates F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the physical and environmental influences of the workplace (e.g. brightness of lights, humidity) and later, moved into the psychological aspects (e.g. breaks, group pressure, working hours, managerial leadership). The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics of groups in the work setting had lasting influence - the collection of data, labor-management relations, and informal interaction among factory employees. The major finding of the study was that almost regardless of the experimental manipulation employed, the production of the workers seemed to improve. One reasonable conclusion is that the workers were pleased to receive attention from the researchers who expressed an interest in them.

According to Taylor, the working practices of his day proved to be barriers to

increased output instead of facilitating the same. The 'Rule of Thumb' method of

quantifying work, failure of management in directing the workers to full efficiency,

and workers' restriction of output in order to protect their interests ('systematic

soldiering')(Pugh. D, 1996) were seen by Taylor as the main obstacles

to maximum productivity.

The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee (Donnelly. R, 2008) Taylor believed that management could be improved if it came to be seen as a science (Donnelly. R, 2000).

Therefore, he came up with certain principles of management which would help them employers as well as the employees to attain maximum prosperity and productivity if used:

The human relations school of management was developed as a result of the findings

of the Hawthorne experiments (Agarwal. R, 2002). According to Mayo, to achieve its

goals, the organization must attempt to understand and respect the emotions, sense of recognition and satisfaction of non-monetary needs of the workers. The Human

Relations Movement held that

Individuals are motivated by social needs and good on-the-job relationships

and respond better to work-group pressure than to management control

activities (web, 2008).

Organizations are co-operative social systems (Graham. R, 2008) •

Satisfaction of psychological needs should be the primary concern of the

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management (Sridhar. M. S, 2008)

Informal work groups can have a substantial effect on productivity (Donnelly's, 2008)

The worker's main concern is satisfaction of their needs other than those of monetary nature.

Taylor believed that the sole motivator for the workers to do their job was money.

He believed that increasing the financial reward of the workers would help

increase productivity and maintain job satisfaction. According to Taylorism,

Workers are lazy and they would develop their own ways to reduce the amount of work assigned to them as much as they can and the sole best motivator to their work is economic incentive.

There is 'one best way' and it's the manager's job to find it (Graham. R, 2008)

Work should be divided in such a manner that the designing and planning of

the job must be done by the management and its execution must be carried out

by the workers without further thought or questioning.

With this view, Taylor devised a system known as the 'differential system' which he

said 'not only pulls the man up from the top, but pushes him equally hard from the

bottom' (Donnelly. R, 2000) This means that the workman would not only be

rewarded for accomplishing his tasks, but would also be punished for failing to do so.

This meant that the job of the worker had to be analyzed, objectives and targets had to be set in terms of what was to be done and how it was to be done and a standard

reward had to be fixed for the amount of work done within a certain time- scale by the manager and it was the worker's duty to complete the assigned task.

The above process also illustrates the division of work and the separation between the management and the workforce. (Note that most of the principles of scientific

management are applied).

Mayo believed that financial reward was not the only motivation for the workers.

The results of the Hawthorne Experiments showed that "social bonds within working groups were so strong that group interests were sometimes placed above individual financial rewards." (Web, 2008).

Human Relations Movement held that the output was determined by the informal

group where, if a worker valued the esteem of others and his/her acceptance in the

group and knew that extraordinary output would risk his existence in the group, he

would, but naturally follow the pre-conceived group norm of production and produce only as much as the other members of the group produced. Therefore, the

organization was to be developed around the workers and had to take into

consideration human feelings and attitudes.

In an organization, they should consider human values and let them work accordingly.