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Recruitment is the process that the organization or company used to attract the candidates, for its need to employ someone for some post. Selection is a process of selecting the right person for the post by subjecting the candidates to variety of tests and choosing the appropriate candidate needed. Training consists of range of processes that involve in making the job holders to have the right skills with required knowledge to help the organization to achieve its targets and goals.
This recruitment and selection process can be defined with operational management theory as by considering Inputs are candidates and the Transformations are various selection methods and techniques and the Outputs are skilled or qualified candidates or employees.
While the organization approaching the recruitment and selection activities, the organization should allow the recruiters free hand. the organizational constraints in recruitment and selection activities should include the degree of flexibility within organizational recruitment and selection procedures, experience of pervious recruiters and their results, resources available with time, skilled recruiters, relative cost of the process, and conditions and nature of the work. [Stephen Pilbeam, People Resourcing and Talent Planning: HRM in practice, Pearson Education UK, 4th edition,2010, p.156]
In recruitment and selection there are two types of recruiting, internal recruitment and external recruitment.
The internal recruitment, in which the vacancies filled internally by promoting the existing employees or providing incentive to work, or demonstrating their commitment and stay in the organization. This internal recruitment give more offers to organization by reducing cost for advertisement and recruitment agencies, less expensive to recruit, less staff turnover. The main important advantage is the internal employers will know more about the organization and its goals then fresher. The main drawback is staff turnover gets mature in certain stage, and is difficult to maintain the equity among the existing employers and the organization cannot carry out the work effectively.
The external recruitment, is the one which recruiting the employees outside the organization like, universities/colleges, job centers etc. which provides huge benefits for the organization by introducing new skilled candidates, increasing the popularity of the organization, and which help the organization in further expansion. There are various things should be consider while using external recruitment method they explained detail as follows.
Recruitment advertising is the vital source of recruitment and selection process. The aim of advertising is to attract the job seekers. The advertising should reach either active job seekers or who thinking about doing so, except in the tight labour market where many requirements in the same time.
Drafting of the advertisement is another important thing; the organization should enclose the content needed in an attractive manner. For example Name and brief details of employing organization, job roles and duties, training to be provided, key points of the personnel specifications, salary, instructions about how to apply.
In recent years the employer branding is also emerging as an important thing to consider while recruitment process carried out. The employer branding is a survey which defines distinct and positive about working in the organization. When the company maintains a good employer branding with a unique selling proportion, then it can use in all forms of communication while engaging applicants, and can repeat the message again and again in advertisements to attract the applicants. Torrington, Derek; Hall, Laura; Taylor, Stephen, human resource management, 6th edition, Pearson Education UK in 2005, P.124-128.
Method of selection involves initially short-listings of the applicants, collecting information of the applicants and design and preparation of the selection process. The short-listed applicants will be undertaken by comparing against the information provided by the job analysis. In the case of more number of applicants the Two-tiered selection process will be carried out which involves shifting of applicants to more manageable level by HR department as first tier and comprehensive assessments for applicants as the second level selection process. Then finally the short-listed or selected applicants were checked with their references or testimonials by university/college reports, service discharge documents and may be with medical certificates if needed for the final confirmation.
This selection level will be carried out by various tests such as, graphology, peer rating, in-tray exercise, personality test, group exercise, assessment centers, individual or panel or board interviews. The selection method should always be appropriate for the post that the organization needs.
Graphology is the way of analyzing the hand writing of the applicant in the application letter for examines personality and ability of the candidate. This type of method mostly used in western countries like UK, still graphologist can find rarely the right applicant with this method.
Peer rating is nothing but which involves the candidates nominating or rating other candidates, this method will help to indicate the feelings of acceptance and/or rejection among the group members.
In-tray exercise will stimulate a state of interaction that applicants can indentify as a relevant to an actual working situation, number of problems and range of materials will be presented. This helps us to measure the intelligence, interests, development skills, social attitudes of the applicant.
A personality test aims to describe aspects of a person's character that remain stable throughout that person's lifetime, the individual's character pattern of behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions; Extroversion, Emotional stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to experience.
Group exercise is the very most important selection process which gathers number of candidates together for a debate or discussion or business games or some problem solving exercise which helps the selectors to differentiate the candidates with various qualities like leadership, responsibility, team work problem solving capacity etc.
Assessment center supports with multiple task together as combination of various test and questionnaires. This helps the selector more to find the right candidate from numbers of candidates with the expected qualities of organization for the post. This assessment center is also used in the case of training, development and promotion purposes.
Finally the panel or board interview will serve in a proper plan by dividing the questioning among the selectors. This panel interview will cover various areas related to the post: and mainly the panel members will be a top head of particular department or managers of various department and HR members. This panel interview is one which not allows the chance of discrimination and undue influences in decision-making. Mullins, Laurie J. "Management and organizational behaviour" 7th edition, Pearson Education UK in 2010, P.575-580,810-814
After recruiting and selecting the right candidate of the post the organization should maintain employment relationship, which is the main key feature in managing the employment. It cover the sources of power, rights and obligation that management and employees seek for themselves and apply on others.