Examining Corporate Social Responsibility in Karachi

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

ABSTRACT

In this paper, impact corporate social responsibility has been identified based on a review of the related literature and expert's opinion. A survey was conducted through the questionnaire about the effects of corporate characteristics on corporate choice of CSR strategy in the industry which is located in the different areas of Karachi on the basis of convenience sampling of 30 companies. Data analysis shows that these.

Keywords: ERP, Lack of Knowledge, Budget, Benefits

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………....

i

ABSTRACT…………………………………..........................

Ii

LIST OF TABLES………………………………….................

Iv

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION……………………………

Overview………………………………….....................

Problem Statement …………………………………......

Hypotheses…………………………………..................

Outline of the Study………………………………….....

05

05

07

07

07

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………

09

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS………………………

Method of Data Collection……………………………...

Sampling Technique...………………………………......

Sample Size...………………………………..................

Instrument of Data Collection…..…………………….....

3.4.1 Validity and Reliability test……………………….

Statistical Technique…………………………………….

26

26

26

26

26

26

27

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS………………………………………

Hypotheses Assessment Summary……………………...

28

28

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS………………………….

Discussions……………………………………………...

Implications and Recommendations…………………….

35

35

36

References……………………………………………………

37

Appendix……………………………………………………..

39

LIST OF TABLES

S.NO.

TABLE

PAGE NO.

4.1 Crosstab (H1)

27

4.2 Chi-Square Tests

28

4.3 Crosstab (H2)

29

4.4 Chi-Square Tests

29

4.5 Crosstab (H3)

31

4.6 Chi-Square Tests

31

4.7 Crosstab (H4)

32

4.8 Chi-Square Tests

32

4.9 Crosstab (H5)

33

4.10 Chi-Square Tests

33

LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO.

Description

PAGE NO.

Marketing strategies for the Emerging Markets

09

Internal dimensions

15

External dimension

18

Dimensions of CSR practice

19

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview

Corporate social responsibility can be therefore be merely defined as the added assurance and commitment by businesses to get better the economic and social status of different stakeholders concerned while fulfilling with all economic and legal requirements. There are three major fundamentals of CSR which are product usage which focuses on contribution of industrial business products which assist in quality of life and in well being of the society, industry practice which mainly focuses on superior corporate business authority and provide high momentum for the environmental well being and justice which strives for allocation of profits justifiably athwart different societies particularly the host society.

1.2 Problem Statement

To identify the association of corporate characteristic on the choice of CSR strategy

1.3 Research Hypothesis

H1: size of the firm has positive association on the choice of CSR

H2: sale of organization has positive association on CSR

H3: competitive situation has positive association of CSR

H4: marketing image has positive association on CSR

H5: local/foreign structure has positive association on CSR

1.4 Outline of the study

Nowadays Companies are starting to realize the reality that in order to get strategic inventiveness and to guarantee sustained existence and survival, business practices could have to be sort from the regular practice of exclusively focusing on earnings to aspect in public goodwill, accountable and responsible business etiquettes. An assessment of several reasons which leads to the development of the idea and the concept of corporate social responsibility would be perfect preliminary ground for the conceptual development of appropriate corporate business practices for rising and emerging markets.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is also defined as being socially responsible not only fulfilling legal expectations, but also going beyond compliance and investing more into human capital, the environment and relations with stakeholders (Mohan, 2001)

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a progressively more imperative activity to businesses nationally and globally. As globalization hastens and large firms provide as global contributors, these companies have increasingly recognized the remuneration of giving CSR programs in their diverse locations (Sandeep, 2003).

Firms can no longer continue to proceed as independent bodies despite of the concern of the general public. The development of the association among society and companies has been one of slow conversion from a humanitarian coexistence to the one where the entire stakeholder's common interest is attaining dominant significance (Goll, 2004).

Figure 1: Marketing Strategies for Firms in Emerging Markets

Source: Sandeep, 2003

Nowadays Companies are starting to realize the reality that in order to get strategic inventiveness and to guarantee sustained existence and survival, business practices could have to be sort from the regular practice of exclusively focusing on earnings to aspect in public goodwill, accountable and responsible business etiquettes. An assessment of several reasons which leads to the development of the idea and the concept of corporate social responsibility would be perfect preliminary ground for the conceptual development of appropriate corporate business practices for rising and emerging markets (Maignan, 2001).

The corporate social responsibility has been uttered in a numeral of ways. In concentrate it is concerning sustainable businesses which require strong economies, communities and markets. The main drivers for corporate social responsibility are the following:

Enlightened self-interest is about building a synergy of moral values, a unified society and a sustainable global economy where labor, markets, and communities are capable to function collectively.

Social investment - contributing to social capital and physical infrastructure is progressively more as seen as a compulsory part of doing business.

Transparency and trust - companies has ratings of trust in public perception at lower end. There is rising anticipation that companies will be further open, more responsible and be organized to report in public on their performance in environmental arenas and social that augmented public expectations of business (Prahalad, 1998).

The business and the industries environment have undergone enormous revolutionize in the latest years that includes both the nature of rivalry and the beckon of globalization that has been far-reaching across markets. Companies are intensifying their precincts from the country of their source origin to the developing markets in the emergent countries which have been at times referred to as rising markets (Bhattacharyya, 2003).

The existing trend of globalization has made recognition among the companies that in order to participate and compete successfully in an aggressive and competitive environment; they require noticeably definite business practices with a clear and sound focus on the common interest of the public in the marketplace.

Various companies are paying interest in implementing the strategies with the intention of attaining the higher market share of customers in examination of the beneficial effects on the monetary value for the organizations. For this matter companies always consider all the ways that can efficiently cut the cost and also play a vital role in the flow of the activities. For that reason companies are emphasis on the CSR of their companies. CSR is a chain of structured task which engages in business environment where there is an internal and external competition which engages in the industry. The raise in rivalry between the multinational companies to get first mover benefit in diverse developing countries by ascertaining goodwill relations with mutually the civil society and the state is generous indication to this change. Therefore, in most of the rising and emerging markets, the state governments still grip the key to business victory for the reason that due to the business and trade set of laws, rules and regulations confining the liberty of multinational companies to integrate their formerly successful business set of guidelines that have been tested in the developed countries (Porter, 2002).

Rising markets have been acknowledged as a basis of enormous ability and talent with the growing levels of education. To illustrate from this vast talent pool coming up in developing countries, companies require adding a grip in these markets by setting up sound business practices concentrating on cultural and social anxiety of the people. It is observed that customers believes switching to any other company's products and services, speak out not in favor of the company to family or friends, snub to spend in that company's stock, reject to work at the company and refuse the company's services and product in case of pessimistic corporate business citizenship attitudes and behaviors. As a result, CSR encourages firms to deviate from their solitary aim of make the most of profits and to put down more weight on improving the social standards and the economics of the community in their states of operation (Orlitzky, 2003).

Corporate social responsibility can be therefore be merely defined as the added assurance and commitment by businesses to get better the economic and social status of different stakeholders concerned while fulfilling with all economic and legal requirements. There are three major fundamentals of CSR which are product usage which focuses on contribution of industrial business products which assist in quality of life and in well being of the society, industry practice which mainly focuses on superior corporate business authority and provide high momentum for the environmental well being and justice which strives for allocation of profits justifiably athwart different societies particularly the host society (Johnson, 2003).

There are several barriers to attaining corporate responsibility, particularly in various developing countries where the establishments, standards and appeals system, which provide life to CSR in developed countries are relatively weak. CSR is considered ingrained in the industry existence of the conventional firms in the rising markets (Jensen, 1976).

An escalating number of companies are promoting their strategies regarding corporate social responsibility as a response to an assortment of societal, economic and environmental pressures. They aspire to send an indication to the different stakeholders by whom they interrelate: Shareholders, investors, and employees, customers, NGOs and public authorities. Companies are investing in their prospect and they anticipate that the intentional commitment they accept will facilitate to increase their profitability (Aurpele, 1985).

The Corporate social responsibility ongoing to figure notably in public debate in the wake of growing societal troubles such as poverty, scarcity, redundancy, race, religious, gender discrimination, and pollution. These social problems are innate outcomes of uninterrupted transformation in the market due to reason of economic globalization, technological revolution as well as political and demographic change (Erol, 1990).

Corporate social responsibility classifies various driving forces following the rising trend towards corporate social responsibility inventiveness. Primary, there is a rising market force whereby employees, customers or capital markets put forth some form of predilection, signal or pressure. Ethical and social issues have received rising public attention apart from the conventional price value and brand preferences. The expansion of the ethical investment business is a further indication of how much importance public are now actually placing on the ethical and social behaviour of companies. Succeeding, there has been a growing regulatory anxiety ranging from reporting necessities to government policies that initiate obligatory business standards ahead which businesses of all sizes have to bear (Jensen, 1976).

The rising of ethical banking and finance beside with the promulgated policy of corporate social responsibility in the West is actually an observable fact that entails an enlightening examination from the Islamic point of view. The focus of social responsibility banking is of significance for those concerned in Islamic banking and finance who consider their morals and social responsibility as being more durable ever since they are eventually based on blissful revelation, while ethics resulting from secularist integrity are unavoidably momentary (Asyraf, 2008).

Increased power of different communications medium that have driven customers and pressure groups like social objector, NGOs and trade unions to scrutinize the actions of businesses more efficiently and build up strategies that may persuade companies to take actions in a socially responsible manner. There is a competitive advantage that companies consider they can harvest by being socially responsible. They predict that by communicating efficiently about their environmental, social and economic contributions, they can reinforce their brand, improve their corporate standing with suppliers and customers, attract and preserve committed and capable workers. Certainly, corporate social responsibility will in turn escort to better performance in requisites of competitiveness, profitability, and risk management (Porter, 2002).

Figure 2: internal dimensions

Source: Sandeep, 2003

In terms of human resource, corporate social responsibility can be effectively executed in an organization through specific management of its own employees. The inside dimension of CSR comprise fundamentals like giving an environment for enduring knowledge and knowledge for workforce, employee empowerment, information flow in a better way, developing the balance between family, work and spare time, diversified workers, sharing of profits and share possession schemes, anxiety for employability as well as security of job among others. Management of workers who are rancid job due to disabilities or wound have moreover been revealed to end result in cost reserves for the business. Molding of staffing policies and procedures to include people from minorities, old age workers, women and the unemployed would be a major step onward to incorporating CSR strategy in Human Resources Management (Sandeep, 2003).

The augmented focus on safety standards and employee benefit has lead to the improvement of standards athwart industries. Methods are being premeditated particularly in rising markets for documenting, measuring and communicating these traits thus saving time, cost and work in the purchasing process (Goll, 2004).

Various companies are paying notice in implementing the strategies by means of the meaning of attaining the senior marketplace share of clientele in test of the helpful possessions on the monetary worth for the organizations. For this matter companies always think everyone the ways that can efficiently cut the cost and too engage in recreation a vital position in the run of the performance. For that reason companies are pressure on the CSR of their companies. CSR is a chain of set task which engages in trade environment anywhere present is an internal and outside competition which connect in the developed.

Corporate social responsibility classifies various driving forces after that the rising trend towards business communal responsibility inventiveness. major, there is a rising market force whereby workers, customers or assets markets put forth a figure of form of fondness, sign or force. moral and social issues have conventional rising community attention separately as of the conventional cost value and brand preferences. The enlargement of the ethical investment trade is a further symbol of how much importance group of people are now actually insertion on the ethical and shared behaviour of companies. next, there has been a growing narrow nervousness ranging from reporting provisions to government policies that create obligatory business standards in face which businesses of every one sizes have to place (Jensen, 1976).

In circumstances of human resource, social responsibility can be professionally executed in an organization as of side to side specific organization of its own personnel. The inside measurement of CSR comprise fundamentals alike to giving an surroundings for enduring information and information for labor force, worker empowerment, information sprint in a better technique, developing the balance in the middle of family, work and extra occasion, diversified workers, distribution of proceeds and share manage schemes, anxiety for employability as well as security of job flanked by others. Management of workers who are rancid job due to disabilities or injury have moreover been exposed to end result in cost reserves for the trade as the molding of staffing, policies and procedures to include people from minorities, old age workers, women and the without a work would be a major pace forward to incorporate CSR in Human Resources organizations (Sandeep, 2003).

Streamlining in a corporate socially responsible way means to equilibrium and take into contemplation the interests and anxiety of everyone including those who are exaggerated by the changes and judgment. Put into practice the process is regularly as vital as the matter to the achievement of restructuring (Johnson, 2003). The significance of this characteristic of CSR cannot be exaggerated. Resource utilization at optimization level and plummeting environmentally injurious effluents can decrease the environmental impact. This allows the firms to influence considerable cost savings in pollution costs and energy bills. Numerous firms in rising markets had to countenance staid outcome from the society and the state for more than utilization of natural resources and take no notice of for environmental safety and protection measures. Lots of multinational companies are realizing to their cost that early acquiescence with accepted standards will give strategic advantages in the long run even if cost ineffective in the near prospect (Maignan, 2004).

Figure 3: External Dimension

Source: Sandeep, 2003

Profound indulgent of the local community is an asset which can be employing by the companies to achieve strategic advantage due to the development of affirmative relationships with the local community and thus the accumulation of societal capital is predominantly appropriate for non-local companies.

Companies must comprehend their corporate social responsibility practices will be adjudicator taking into account that put into the practice of their associates, partners and suppliers all through the supply chain. The consequence of corporate social responsibility actions will not remain restricted to the company itself, but will also handle upon their economic partners. Companies have a straight responsibility to make sure the safety and protection of human rights in their own personal operations. Moreover they also cover a responsibility to make use of their influence to alleviate the breach of human rights by government agencies, the law forces and resistance groups in the nations in which they operate (Mohan, 2001).

Figure 4: Dimensions of CSR Practice

Corporate social responsibility is one of a key element of today's business strategies. Interests integrate, environmental and social performance have not at all been superior, and numerous leading companies are choosing to converse with a wide range of stakeholder cluster groups in the course of the publications of yearly reports, environmental and social reports. During the last decade, emergent numbers of companies acknowledged the importance of CSR worldwide. Today's delicate importance in the right role of businesses in society has been encouraged by augmented sensitivity to ethical and environmental issues (Orlitzky, 2003).

Corporate social responsibility is supposed to be excellent for society and business. Better indulgent of the likely remuneration of corporate social responsibility for the competitiveness of companies and for nationwide economies can facilitate encourage the increase of corporate social responsibility practice. Society and business are mutually dependent. The well individual of one depends on the individual on the other (Ahmed, 2003).

Corporate Social Responsibility wants companies to recognize that they ought to be openly responsible not merely for their financial performance but also for their environmental and social record. Furthermore Corporate Social Responsibility includes the degree to which companies must promote community improvement human rights, democracy and sustainable growth objectives right through the world (Warhust, 2001).

An underlying supposition is that the commercial vital is not the only driver of Corporate Social Responsibility decision making in private division companies, but that the ceremonial espousal and completion of Corporate Social Responsibility by companies could be related with the altering individual standards of individual managers (Jensen, 1976).

Standards may find expression through the opportunity to put into effect discretion, which may occur in diverse ways. It is suggested that in so far as Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives symbolize individual's values and standards, so the reliability in particulars is less perceptibly business. Our stress on individual proposal is anticipated to oppose a propensity to sight the business as the mediator, and may provide to remind us that persons can, certainly, create a difference (Maignan, 2001).

Company would proactively support the public attention by cheering community growth and development, and eliminating practices that harm the public orb, despite of legality. Corporate Social Responsibility is the planned insertion of public significance into corporate decision-making and the veneration of a triple base line People, Planet, Profit (Orlitzky, 2003).

Critics quarrel that Corporate Social Responsibility distracts from the basic economic role of businesses. Also some other argues that it is nothing than outward window dressing. CSR has been redefined all through the time. Conversely, it fundamentally is patrician to help to an organization's task as a guide to what the corporation stands for and determination sustain to its consumers (Maignan, 2004).

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Method of data collection:

Data would be collected through questionnaire by visiting at companies personally and through emails.

3.2 Sampling technique

The sampling technique used in this study was convenience sampling method. The data used in this research was collected from the managers of different companies involved in corporate social responsibility.

3.3 Sample size:

Sample size used for this study was 50 respondents.

3.4 Instrument of data collection:

Questionnaires were used as an instrument for data collection and this instrument is in the form of closed ended questionnaire.

Pre-Testing

The instrument was pre-tested where 10% of the sample questionnaires were filled to identify if there were any problem found with this instrument and whether it was easy to understand. Reliability analysis allows studying the properties of scales of measurement and the things that build them up.

3.4.1 Reliability test

The instrument was pre-tested where 4 to 5 sample questionnaire were filled to identify if there are any issues with the instrument and whether it was easy to understand and comprehend the questions or not. Through pretesting it was found that all respondents felt comfortable in responding and found the instrument interesting as well.

Reliability analysis allows studying the properties of scales of measurement and the things that build them up. The Reliability Analysis procedure calculates a number of frequently used procedures of level reliability and also gives information about the associations between individual items mentioned in the scale.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

0.712

15

Cronbach's Alpha is the internal consistency model which is based on the average correlation. Here the value of Cronbach's Alpha is 0.712 which indicates that the data is consistent and reliable.

3.5 Statistical tool used:

In this research cross tab and chi- square test was used.

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

4.1 Hypotheses Assessment Summary

H1: Size of the firm has positive association on the choice of CSR

TABLE 4.1

Crosstab

Type of CSR activity

Total

running own activity

environmental friendly product

Donation

Supporting social cases

No of employees

100 - 500

5

15

6

3

29

600 - 1000

3

6

6

0

15

1100 - 1500

0

3

3

0

6

Total

8

24

15

3

50

A cross tabulation displays the number of cases in each category defined by grouping variables. In the above table, it has been showed that with the increase of number of employees, companies are unable to fulfill the corporate social responsibility of any type.

TABLE 4.2

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

5.737a

6

.453

Likelihood Ratio

7.712

6

.260

Linear-by-Linear Association

.249

1

.618

N of Valid Cases

50

This chi-square measures test the hypothesis that the row and column variables in a cross tabulation are independent. While the chi-square measures may indicate that there is a relationship between two variables. Here H1 is rejected because there is no relationship btw the variables indicating by the significant value that is greater than 0.05

H2: Sale of organization has positive association on CSR

TABLE 4.3

Crosstab

Count

type of CSR activity

Total

running own activity

environmental friendly product

Donation

Supporting social cases

The sale of the Firm

1 to 10 million

0

3

0

0

3

11 million to 20 million

5

12

6

0

23

21 million to 30 million

3

9

9

3

24

Total

8

24

15

3

50

The above table has indicated that with the increase of sales the companies are more involved in the CSR activities.

TABLE 4.4

Chi-Square Tests

Value

Df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

8.179a

6

.225

Likelihood Ratio

10.289

6

.113

Linear-by-Linear Association

3.646

1

.056

N of Valid Cases

50

a. 8 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.

This chi-square measures test the hypothesis that the row and column variables in a cross tabulation are independent. While the chi-square measures may indicate that there is a relationship between two variables, they do not indicate the strength or direction of the relationship. Here Hypothesis is rejected because there is no relationship btw the variables indicating by the significant value that is greater than 0.05

H3: competitive situation has positive association of CSR

TABLE 4.5

Crosstab

type of CSR activity

Total

running own activity

environmental friendly product

Donation

Supporting social cases

No. of competitors

1-5

3

6

3

0

12

6- 10

3

3

6

0

12

more than 10

2

9

6

3

20

5

0

6

0

0

6

Total

8

24

15

3

50

The above table showed that with the increase in the number of competitors, companies are more focused on the CSR activities as shown that the company with more than 10 competitors is more involved in the CSR activity.

TABLE 4.6

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

15.375a

9

.081

Likelihood Ratio

18.231

9

.033

Linear-by-Linear Association

.744

1

.388

N of Valid Cases

50

a. 12 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .36.

This chi-square measures test the hypothesis that the row and column variables in a cross tabulation are independent. While the chi-square measures may indicate that there is a relationship between two variables. Here Hypothesis is accepted of competitors and CSR activity indicating by the significant value that is less than 0.05

H4: Marketing image has positive association on CSR

Table 4.7

Crosstab

type of CSR activity

Total

running own activity

environmental friendly product

Donation

Supporting social cases

Consumer comparison to competitors

Better

5

9

12

3

29

Same

3

15

3

0

21

Total

8

24

15

3

50

Table 4.8

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

9.360a

3

.025

Likelihood Ratio

10.677

3

.014

Linear-by-Linear Association

3.793

1

.051

N of Valid Cases

50

a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.26.

This chi-square measures test the hypothesis that the row and column variables in a cross tabulation are independent. While the chi-square measures may indicate that there is a relationship between two variables, here Hypothesis is accepted of marketing image and CSR activity indicating by the significant value that is less than 0.05

H5 local/foreign structure has positive association on CSR

TABLE 4.9

Crosstab

type of CSR activity

Total

running own activity

environmental friendly product

Donation

Supporting social cases

structure of the firm

Local

2

15

3

3

23

foreign

6

9

12

0

27

`Total

8

24

15

3

50

TABLE 4.10

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

11.655a

3

.009

Likelihood Ratio

13.230

3

.004

Linear-by-Linear Association

.130

1

.719

N of Valid Cases

50

a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.38.

This chi-square measures test the hypothesis that the row and column variables in a cross tabulation are independent. While the chi-square measures may indicate that there is a relationship between two variables, here Hypothesis is accepted because there is a relationship between the variables indicating by the significant value that is less than 0.05.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.1 DISCUSSION

The conclusion has drawn from this research that corporate social responsibility is the added assurance and commitment by businesses to get better the economic and social status of different stakeholders. The inside dimension of CSR comprise fundamentals like giving an environment for enduring knowledge and knowledge for workforce, employee empowerment, information flow in a better way, developing the balance between family, work and spare time, diversified workers, sharing of profits and share possession schemes, anxiety for employability as well as security of job among others. Corporate social responsibility is supposed to be excellent for society and business. Better indulgent of the likely remuneration of corporate social responsibility for the competitiveness of companies and for nationwide economies can facilitate encourage the increase of corporate social responsibility practice. Society and business are mutually dependent. The well individual of one depends on the individual on the other. Corporate social responsibility is one of a key element of today's business strategies. Interests integrate, environmental and social performance have not at all been superior, and numerous leading companies are choosing to converse with a wide range of stakeholder cluster groups in the course of the publications of yearly reports, environmental and social reports. During the last decade, emergent numbers of companies acknowledged the importance of CSR worldwide. Today's delicate importance in the right role of businesses in society has been encouraged by augmented sensitivity to ethical and environmental issues. Corporate social responsibility can be therefore be merely defined as the added assurance and commitment by businesses to get better the economic and social status of different stakeholders concerned while fulfilling with all economic and legal requirements. There are three major fundamentals of CSR which are product usage which focuses on contribution of industrial business products which assist in quality of life and in well being of the society, industry practice which mainly focuses on superior corporate business authority and provide high momentum for the environmental well being and justice which strives for allocation of profits justifiably athwart different societies particularly the host society.

5.2 IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The results from statistical tools has indicated that competitors, market image and management and local/ foreign structure has a positive association with the CSR activity but the sale and the company size has no association with the CSR activities. Companies who are more focusing on CSR they would be more successful and people know those companies very well. It's not necessary that company has huge or fewer Sales can perform CSR activities and on the same way the companies bigger in size or smaller in size not necessarily perform the CSR acitivity.

CHAPTER 6

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.