Methodology is the central part of any scientific or empirical study in that findings deduced from such research can be replicated by other researchers who may wish to conduct similar investigations in years to come. For the research, the method of data collection in this study will be the questionnaire and interviews which will help me to statistically analysis the results of the questioners. The basic purpose to conduct this study is to examine the impact of motivational factors on the employees work performance and secondly the strategies that are currently practising in HBL to increase the motivation level of the employees in HBL. To examine the influence of motivational factors on employees work performance experimental design was used. The independent variable were Herzbergs theory factors. The dependent variable was employee work performance.
In the the research convenience sampling technique was used in which data was collected from the employees of HBL. Sekaran (2001, p. 225) defines a population as "the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate". Every employee within a company is different and, therefore, is motivated to perform well for different reasons. Due to the differences within an organization, it is important for the management to get to know their employees and understand what motivates their performance. The population for the research will be obtained from Habib Bank Limited In order to collect the data visits were made to the different branches of HBL and with the help of structured questionnaire data was collected. Our population was comprises of the employees belong to the different level working in HBL these level were senior officers, assistant managers and branch managers too .
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A self-administered questionnaire was developed, and then pretested with a selected group of respondents to augment its overall design. Results of the pretest revealed minor instances of ambiguous wording (which were subsequently changed) and confirmed the expected completion time for the questionnaire. A sample size of 80 employees working in the HBL were selected for the analysis. Each perspective participant received a cover letter explaining the purpose and importance of this research. Along with this cover letter, each participant received a survey, instructions, and a postage paid envelope to return the completed survey within 14 days. Surveys were serialized for tracking purposes only. Strict confidentiality was a prerequisite of permission to conduct this research in the targeted organization
The instrument used in this questionnaire entails almost forty five questions which entail questions to measure motivational factors explain in the herzberg theory as well as current strategies practising in the HBL current strategies were studies with the factors that were how important is it to you to have challenging work assignments, are you given opportunities to work on challenging assignments, Are you given opportunities to participate in important decisions affecting your work, Are there adequate opportunities for you to advance within your current organization, Is the training you want and need available to you, Do you understand your role in achieving the organizational goals, Do you feel that you are given the opportunity to make an impact, Do you feel that your organization values your contributions, Do you feel that your organization recognizes your contributions, Do you feel that your pay fairly compensates you for the work that you do, How would you rate your benefits package relative to private industry, Whom do you perceive as being your supervisor, Does your "perceived" supervisor tell you how to do your job, Does your "perceived" supervisor allow you the freedom to define your own work processes, Do you feel that your job and home life are properly balanced, Rank the stress level of your job, In your opinion, HBL is attaining its stated goals and Do you think that you are achieving your job related targets on time Brand attitude and direct mail and demographic information of the employees. The motivational factor that have an significant impact on the employees performance were also measured with the help of factors derived from the Herzbergs theory these factors were Low stress working environment, Opportunities for advancement, Availability of training appropriate to my current position, Great work environment, Recognition for work well done, Cost of living, Good supervisor, Exciting work and challenge, Job security, Fun on the job, Cutting-edge technology, Being part of a team, Being part of a team, Meaningful work, making a difference and a contribution, Inspiring leadership , Effective Leadership, Telecommuting ,pleasant working conditions, Current level of job satisfaction, Quality of my co-workers, High level of responsibility, Opportunity for creativity , Cash Awards, Flexible work schedule, Spouse/Significant other's employment, Quality of public and private schools, Geographic location, and Retirement Package
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Why Herzbergs Theory for Questionnaire?
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory divides motivation and job satisfaction into two groups of factors known as the motivation factors and hygiene factors. According to Frederick Herzberg, "the motivating factors are the six 'job content' factors that include achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and possibility of growth. Hygiene factors are the 'job context' factors, which include company policy, supervision, relationship with supervision, work conditions, relationship with peers, salary, personal life, relationship with subordinates, status, and job security" (Ruthankoon, 2003). Basically the theory differentiates the factors between intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators. The intrinsic motivators, known as the job content factors, define things that the people actually do in their work; their responsibility and achievements. These factors are the ones that can contribute a great deal to the level of
job satisfaction an employee feels at work. The job context factors, on the other hand, are the extrinsic factors that someone as an employee does not have much control over; they relate more to the environment in which people work than to the nature of the work itself (Schermerhorn, 2003). Herzberg identifies these factors as the sources for job dissatisfaction. "Hertzberg reasoned that because the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather, no satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. While at first glance this distinction between the two opposites may sound like a play on words, Herzberg argued that there are two distinct human needs portrayed" ("Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory," 2002).Therefore, the basic premise of the Two-Factor Theory is that if an employer or manager is trying to increase job satisfaction and ultimately job performance for an employee or co-worker, they need to address those factors that effect one's job satisfaction. The most direct approach is to work on the intrinsic, job content factors. Giving the employee encouragement and recognition helps them to feel more valued within the company, as well as giving a sense of achievement and responsibility. Herzberg says, that "the only way to motivate the employee is to give him [her] challenging work in which he [she] can assume responsibility" (Leach, 2000). I think that this statement can be applied to any job within any industry. If the employee does not feel some responsibility associated with a certain task or department, he/she will not feel like their work is worthwhile. Also "people must believe that they are capable of attaining a goal before they will commit serious energy [or motivation] to it" (Hunsaker, 2005). Therefore, it is important to include your employees in the decision making and at times the job assignment or delegation. This will help the employee to feel more responsibility and in turn a higher level of motivation. On the other hand, employers need to consider the level of job dissatisfaction among their employees as well. To directly approach the issue of dissatisfaction in the work place and to try and revitalize the environment a bit, employers need to focus on the hygiene or job context factors.
Following are the description of the Herzberg's theory factors that we have used in our study
An example of positive achievement might be if an employee completes a
task or project before the deadline and receives high reviews on the result, the satisfaction the employee feels would increase. However, if that same individual is unable to finish the project in time, or feels rushed and is unable to do the job well, the satisfaction level may decrease.
When the employee receives the acknowledgement they deserve for a job
well done, the satisfaction will increase. If the employees work is overlooked or criticized it will have the opposite effect.
Work itself. This involves the employees' perception of whether the work is too difficult or challenging, too easy, boring or interesting.
Responsibility. This involves the degree of freedom an employee has to make their own decisions and implement their own ideas. The more liberty to take on that responsibility9the more inclined the employee may be to work harder on the project, and be more satisfied with the result.
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Advancement. This refers to the expected or unexpected possibility of promotion. An example of negative advancement would be if an employee did not receive an expected promotion or demotion.
Possibility of Growth.
This motivation factor includes the chance one might have for advancement within the company. This could also include the opportunity to learn a new skill or trade. When the possibility/opportunity for growth is lacking or if the employee has reached the peak or glass ceiling, as it is sometimes referred to, this could have a negative effect on the satisfaction the employee feels with their job and position.
Company Policy or Administration.
An employee's perception of whether the policies in place are good or bad or fair or not, changes the level of dissatisfaction that employee will feel.
Personal or Working Relationships. This is those relationships one engages in with their supervisors, peers, and subordinates. How someone feels about the interaction and discussions that take place within the work environment can also effect dissatisfaction.
This includes the physical surroundings that one works within, such as the facilities or location.
Salary. This factor is fairly simple, the increase or decrease of wage or salary effects the dissatisfaction within a company a great deal.
Although people try to separate the two, work and personal life, it is inevitable that one will affect the other.
Feeling a Job Security.
This is a pretty significant factor. The sense of job security within a position or organization as a whole relates to the dissatisfaction as well.(Ruthankoon, 2003).
Measurement of Variables
Each of the independent variables and the dependent variable were measured in subsequent sections of the questionnaire. Demographic data were also collected, to allow the researcher to obtain a deeper understanding of the participants' responses. Variable were measured on likert scale rating 1 to 5 from 1 being strongly agree and 5 is strongly disagree. Furthermore for statistical application analysis questions were recode as 5 as strongly agree and 1 is strongly disagree.
Employee Work Performance
Subjects were asked to describe their feelings using Herzbergs motivational two factor theory. Using a 5-point scale, participants circled the number that represented how well the they are achieving their targets specified in their jobs. Multiple Linear Regression was used to generate the results. The Herzberg's two factor theory is renowned over the last 50 years and works as an important tool when companies are developing strategies with respect to HR practices.
Strategies followed by HBL
Strategies followed by HBL was measured by providing a set of 17 questions to the participants and instructed them to respond their views with respect to the each variable provided in the list. The purpose of giving the subjects is to study that on the basis of the variables given which variable would they thought that HBL do follow in order to enhance the motivation level among employees. The final set of dependent variables were selected after all the above careful consideration and it included 17 items and a bipolar five point scale was designed to obtain the degree of agreement of the respondent on the product placement. Thus the independent variables used for the study include motivational factors that have an direct impact on the employees work performance. A bipolar 5-point scale was used to measure respondent attitude about motivational factors. All the items in the scale were adopted from the Herzbergs two factor theory and suitable modifications were done on the basis of the practitioners' opinion obtained during the preliminary discussion with industry people. Few variables were selected to represent the employees evaluative and ethical judgements.
This was collected by providing the list of factors (derived from the Herzbergs two factor theory) in the questionnaire and asks them to check the responses from the rating scale of 1 to 5 showing their interest to stay or not to stay with HBL. This was provided to determine either what factors do employees of the HBL consider important to be a part of the HBL in future..
The final set of dependent variables were selected after all the above careful consideration and it included eleven items and a bipolar five point scale was designed to obtain the degree of agreement of the respondent on the product placement.
Thus the dependent variables used for the study include subject's attitudes about product placement, recall and recognition of brands directly after watching the movie clippings. A bipolar 5-point scale was used to measure respondent attitude about product placements. Some of the items in the scale were adopted from the scale developed by d'Astous and Seguin (1998) and suitable modifications were done on the basis of the practitioners' opinion obtained during the preliminary discussion with industry people. Few variables were selected to represent the consumer's evaluative and ethical judgments.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The main method of collection of raw data for this study will be an effective questionnaires and interviews which broadly deal with both the personal characteristics of the respondent and the area under debate mater of inquiry. The questionnaire is purely made up of close-ended questions. In line with the fact that the study population entirely are well learned employees,. the questionnaire were given to the employees of the Habib Bank Limited for completion.
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data which collected for the research purpose and analysis is done by the help of the regression analysis. Regression is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e one dependent and one independent variable. After performing an analysis, the regression statistics will be used to predict the dependent variable when the independent variable is known. Correlation is a measure of association between two variables. The variables are not designated as dependent or independent. The two most popular correlation coefficients are: Spear man's correlation coefficient rho and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. The regression analysis on this study is conducted on Employee work performance treated as an dependent variable and Motivational Factors are treated as independent variable.
3.6 FIELD REPORT
During my research for investigation in the field, several factors may serve as obstacles in the collection of qualitative data and as a result these could have a negative affect on my work.
First of all, obtaining information from the management (Zonal Chief, Staff Manager, Staff Officer, Manager, sub Manger, Cashier, Technical and non-technical staff.
Secondly, senior employees(i.e Zonal Chief, Staff Mnager) are always busy in their work due to workload, their response to the questionnaire could be slow and some may refuse to complete it.
Additionally due to workload and time restriction, some respondents may take their questionnaires home and eventually when it comes to collection some may say that they have forget it at home or have misplaced theirs. These can be overcome by reminding them either by calling them or mailing them.
4. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Reliability of the questionnaire for analysis of the data is important. This information throws light on the internal consistency of the questionnaire and enables a more efficient design of this instrument by eliminating the least reliable items. (good but say how - piloting the questionnaire?) The benefit is an end product or instrument that is shorter, but has improved reliability (Carmine and Zellner, 1980). The questionnaire consists of questions that are demographic and socio-economic .To see how closely the sample replicates the known population. The more closely the demographic distribution of survey respondents matches the population, the more confidence will have in the data. The validity and reliability of the content of instrument is assessed by an overview of the items through pilot study. Initially, data was collected from 10 employees who are working in HBL. They give their opinions about the relevance of the questions and about the assurance of their formulation.
The reliability test of the instrument strengthened the validity of the instrument. The value of cronbach's Î± is .753 which is more than .5. That simply means that the questionnaire is valid in measuring the dependent and independent variables. Following table shows the value of reliability test.
ACCESS AND RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS
Without accessing to organisation, its staff, customers, and or data, research cannot be conducted. I planned to prepare questionnaires and then handover them to the Habib Bank Limited employees based in London for my primary data. For this purpose, I have already contacted some employees of the bank and asked for cooperation and they agreed to cooperate in my research work.
As I am a member of The British Library and I am able to use it for my research .I am also using the local public library located in Tooting South-west London. The British Library has a enormous variety of books related to my topic on motivation and I found it very helpful especially for information on further reading as well. At The British Library, I can gain access to hundreds of books on different topics as well as develop the quality of my research skills. Kaplan has also given me access to the online website which is very helpful for all of us.
Doing research ethically is concerned with respecting privacy and confidentially and being transparent about the use of data. Data that has been collected in the researcher would be treated as a highly confidential and not to be disclose by any other than bank. The selection of the population would be equal as no preference would be given to the people belong to any ethnic group. The copy of the questionnaires will also be provided on demand of the bank.
In order to formulate the appropriate results Multiple Regression Analysis was used by the help of SPSS 17. All the tables were generated from SPSS 17.
7. ACTION PLAN
I will use Gantt Chart in planning and scheduling for my dissertation.Â