Evaluating Organizational Behaviour at InfoTech and proposed solutions

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Introduction

The purpose of this assessment is that to scrutinize and improve the Organizational Behaviour related problems at symphony InfoTech by implementing the suitable organizational behaviour theories to the depiction of the issues in the organisation. The investors will be concerned to know how the company is carrying out its operations. These Organisational Behaviour policies mentioned below felicitates some of the good solutions to the existing Problem at Wipro InfoTech. These factors will have to be implemented and inculcated by the organisation in order to avoid future problems in the organisation.

Learning

Leadership

Motivation

Conflict Management

Team Management

Insight about the company

Wipro Info Tech is a software development and product engineering service company. Their country of location is India and their head office is in Bangalore. They are committed to develop and build high quality products and service for their customers from small scale and medium scale enterprise. This company was started by a person named Azim Premji, he is the chairman of the board. They are diversified in the fields like Information Technology, Health care, Lighting and engineering business.

Their major divisions:

1) Information Technology: They facilitate widespread range of IT service to the organisation.

2) Technology Infrastructure: They have technology infrastructure which called TIS.

3) Product Engineering Solutions: They have the largest providers of R&D across the world.

Delineation of the problem

The problem is due to the QC (Quality Control) management which was delegated to a client there is being a constant problem between the developers and the Quality Controllers as trying to maintain better relationship with the clients. The developers were losing their patience as days passed because they were unable to complete the clients projects on time due to inexperienced young staff. Further the management conferred the problem with the clients and granted to pay the compensation monthly for the loss incurred by them due to the delays. Above and beyond these difficulties the management happened to discover that there was lack of co-operation between the employees which was damaging the communication flow of the company which resulted in conflicts between the employees at work.

However the above discussed problems can be resolved by adapting few of the factors which will bring a positive change in the organisation which help them achieve the desired goals of the organisation.

LEARNING:

Make certain that information and the knowledge is flowing perfectly to the right places in the organisation and even at the right time is the task which has to be assisted with the help of right use of technology by the management. An apt strategy in dealing along with the management of knowledge is well-known feature of operative and proficient organisations.(WHITELEY P.2002)[1].

4.1) Policy:

The organisation should be prepared to pick up new techniques in order to train and manage their employee at get them to adapt the new management plans. They should as well rectify there mistakes and work on them to avoid those mistakes in future.

4.2) Applying Theories to make Strategies

"Some cognitive theorist have emphasised the cyclical nature of learning and its active nature." This approach is stressing on the prominence of the amalgamation between an individual's behaviour and the assessment of their actions. Mirror image of what one has learnt and experiment it in the new situations and to make one self-aware of the new potentials is a dynamic part of learning progression. This organisation should provide a room for encouragement and appreciation. They should inspire the individuals in practices harmonious with idea of extensive learning. They should encourage the employees to think creatively and to empower them to manage with the revolution and intricacy. Company can achieve certain components by implying these theories.

Self-Development:

They adopt new skills and knowledge

They will learn how to be in a role assigned to them.

They learn the cords and the social rules.

Development of others:

Personal development: By training the other employees and evaluating there potentials as well as help them develop them their potentials.

Development of learning culture:

Policy Learning: Developing the policies for the "learning organisation" deal with changes and developments as well as creative and lateral thinking.(ASWATHAPPA .K) [5].

4.3) critical analysis of learning:

Learning skills subsidizes to the improvement of knowledge in the organisation as well as gain insight about the implementing the knowledge in the organisation. Enhanced learning will make way to create more choices and prospects, the organisation will require boundary bridging. Implementing stretch goals, Safe-failing etc. given that the opportunities which encourage risk-taking but then again only when the risk of destruction is minimal. Systems for encouraging knowledge and learning Inspiring core knowledge processes Systems that cross functional boundaries e.g. teams and networks.

4.4) Recommendations towards Learning:

Learning is considered efficiently only when it is passing through all the stages of learning cycle. Individual can learn only then when he/she implies there learning skills in to practical working process. The above learning theory will be useful to the organisation provided they implement it effectively.

LEADERSHIP:

Leadership can be viewed and interpreted in many ways. Leadership can be taken to mean as "getting others to follow" or "getting people to do things willingly" to be more specific it can also mean "use of authority in decision making". The management should select a good leader and as well look for right kind of people who are willing to work with that leader. The management might sometimes adapt its own way of leadership style by introducing a team which will provide each and every person an opportunity to become a team leader turn by turn. This type of team management will not create bias between any of the employees. (GOETHALS, G. R. 2004)[4].

Leadership focuses attention not on the personality of the leader, nor on the man or women in the job, per se, but on the function of leadership. (LAURIE J.MULLINS 2005)[7].

Sometimes management and leadership is seen as synonymous. However there is a difference between the two, management is more generally viewed as getting the job done through other people in order to reach the desired goals. However leadership does not necessarily take place within the categorised structure of the organisation.

In this organisation 63% of employees do not like the job they are currently doing yet they are utilizing all the power resources-time. They should be motivated well by the leader in order to enjoy their job henceforth. The functional approach can be the best suited solution to the problem as it deals nature of the group, the subordinates and the followers. This helps in achieving the group's goal and objectives and also supports in planning and allocation of proper allocation of their duties and responsibilities.

The democratic style of leadership looks appropriate to this problem as they emphasis on the group as a whole and there is higher interaction with in the group. Here the leadership functions are allocated among the members of the group and here the manager is involved more in the team. Here the group of members will have the more say in decision- making, determination of policy, implementation of systems and procedures.

"Mullins Path-Goal Theory speaks about the subordinates and how they will see leadership behaviour as a motivating factor which will influence to the extent that it means, the effective performance will result in satisfaction of their needs and also the necessary support, guidance, training and direction would otherwise be lacking, is provided." The organisation can achieve its goals by applying this theory, by doing away with its hindrances. (LAURIE J.MULLINS 2005)[7].

As per my knowledge the managers of this organisation should reveal their commitments to their subordinates which will create a learning environment and self-development. There are two critical aspects of this theory, they are reflection and evaluation. As classical theory states that complementing and encouraging is better and more right that blaming and punishing which will bare high positive out-come.

5.1) Recommendation for Leadership:

Leaders are the integral part of any organisation, as one does not need coaching or education about leadership to be a leader, but one should possess real desire and passion towards the achieving the desired goals. (LAURIE J.MULLINS 2005)[7]

MOTIVATION:

This company needs their employees to be motivated for them to achieve the desired goals of the organisation and as well as their own personal goals .This can be done only when the working environment is motivating and healthy. Every organisation has a quest for success, which can be achieved; by various innovative methods among which motivational theories is a part of them. By the implication of these theories into the problem of this organisation the employees can get a sense of job satisfaction and this organisation can get the best out of their employees. The motivation can be of various forms such as the need or content, search and choice of strategies, social comparison of rewards, reinforcement, performance and satisfaction. (WHITELEY,P . 2002). [1]

Several theories are available for motivation such as Maslow's theory. According to Mullins, Maslow's theory has a significant impact on motivation , this theory up holds the importance of human need such as self-actualization ,esteem ,love, safety, physiological satisfaction .The manager should understand the employee's social private life and not only their behaviour at work. This theory gives importance to the employee's esteem.(LAURIE J.MULLINS ,2005)[7]

6.1) Objective

The employer of this organisation should understand the basic need to the employees, not treating them as machines and stress them out in ways of getting work done. The management should see that they are happy and satisfied with whatever job they are performing. By having this theory critically analysed by the management they can achieve the following:

The employee is not discharged from the family or livelihood responsibilities.

Attracting and retaining the most excellent employees.

Provide a secure, reverential and flexible work situation.

Delivering our services in a protected, courteous and realistically flexible way.

Over centralized, command and control management structure could harm the organisation, if treated fairly the employees will purse the organisation goals.

6.2)Theory of Motivation

Generally speaking there are two types of employees in any given organisation, which relates to the theory X and theory Y. In the theory X employees view their responsibilities as a burden, employees dislike their work and they avoid responsibilities, this would cause a problem to the organisational goal .Coming to the theory Y, the employees are self-motivated and willing to do any kind of task give to them to get recognised in the organization. When this happens the application of Maslow'S theory would help the organisation. (AHMED S.U.1985)[8]

Most investigation of motivation is grounded on one of the two theories mentioned above that are related to both sharing a common heritage. First, McClelland (1961) hypothesized that a high need for achievement, characterized by a desire to do well in order to attain a feeling of accomplishment, predisposes someone to seek out an entrepreneurial position, which the entrepreneur believes produces more achievement satisfaction than could be derived from other kinds of positions, a conclusion agreed in a subsequent longitudinal study (McClelland 1965). Alternatively, managers tend to be higher in need for power and lower in need for achievement (McClelland and Winter 1969).

Based on McClelland's conceptualization of motivation  and the roles associated with the achievement situation, Miner (1980) later posited a task-inducement system that includes self-achievement, defined as the desire to achieve via one's own abilities and efforts in order to experience the enhanced self-esteem from the achievement (Miner 1993).[9]

Importantly, the motivation concept there is a difference between entrepreneurs and managers becomes much more pronounced when the entrepreneur has growth goals Growth oriented entrepreneurs displayed greater achievement  than did those owners who focused on producing current income, emphasizing the value of examining different entrepreneurial types in reconciling conflicting inferences in the primary studies. McClelland and Winter (1969) found that high need for achievement individuals show a stronger future time perspective, and are more willing to postpone current rewards in favour of future rewards. This tendency, in conjunction with evidence that motivation influences goal setting (Locke and Latham 1990), appears consistent with the conclusion that growth-oriented entrepreneurs are markedly high on motivation. Nonetheless, we believe the indicated importance of a link between motivation and goal for the venture has important theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurship, particularly in better understanding decisions and outcomes in growth-oriented ventures. [10]

6.3)Recommendation:

The organisation should concentrate more on providing the employees with an environment to get self-motivated rather than insisting them to get motivated and trying theories to solve the issue. It is personal decision of employees at the end, but the manager's work is to provide them with right environment.

In conclusion, the results of this study emphasize the potential value of examining entrepreneurial achievement and contribute to mounting evidence supporting the inclusion of dispositions in models of entrepreneurial behaviour. [10]

CONFLICT MANAGMENT :

Conflicts generally occur due to incompatibility of goals that arise from different people opposing different behaviours. This can take place between individuals or group of individuals or even between different organisational levels.

7.1) Policy:

In any given organisation or any Info Tech companies the successful team can only be that one, which has no conflicts with in the team or other teams (EUNSON, B 2007)[6] However organisations should discover the way to avoid conflicts among their employees. Conflicts can be controlled by making practical decisions by placing the conflicting individuals away from each other in two different teams which will in turn give rise to healthy competition between them as they would work hard to be better than their counterparts.

Although a certain amount of organisational conflicts may seem to be inevitable, but there are again number of techniques which the management can try to avoid the damaging effects of conflicts in the organisation.

7.2) Conflict Managing Strategies:

There are number of ways which will the organisation to avoid conflicts. There are certain strategies adopted which will vary according to the human nature and sources of conflicts. Here are few of the strategies which can be implemented in order to resolve the conflicting problems in this organisation.

Clarification of goals and objectives:

There should be clear goals and persistent fortification of goals and objectives, roles should be clearly defined and set performance standards will help to avoid confusion and conflict. By concentrating on goals that are collective by the parties in conflicts, may help to resolve hostility and can lead to better co-operative behaviour.

Personal policies and procedures:

There should be vigilant and comprehensive responsiveness to just and unbiased personal policies and procedures which in turn may help reduce areas of conflict.

Development of interpersonal/ Group process skills:

This will encourage a better understanding of one's own behaviour and also helps to understand the other persons point of view will improve the communication process and facilitate in problem solving. This may also provoke people to work through conflicts and face the situation in more constructive manner, (LAURIE J.MULLINS 2005)[7]

7.3) Critical Analysis of Conflicting Management:

Having considered conflicts as the above discussed strategies, now let us critically analyse the conflicts benefits to the organisation in certain ways and the dysfunctional in certain ways.

As we know conflicts is a means to change and solve the problem by bringing radical change. Conflict also facilitates group cohesiveness as well as improves the group and organisational effectiveness. On contrary to that we have the negative consequences from conflicts which can be devastating which will be an effective manager's work to build a good teamwork. However it may be true that conflicts are inevitable when an organisation is in downward spiral, but the objectives and goals of a good leader is to avoid the spiral to begun. (LAURIE J.MULLINS 2005)[7]

7.4) Recommendation:

In this organisation conflict is playing a major role of disturbance and should be avoided in order to have a better working place, but conflict is the reality of any management and organisation behaviour. There are both positive and negative out comes of conflicts, although certain amount of conflicts can be seen as inevitable but all depends on how conflicts are handled and managed in the organisation. Henceforth manager needs to adopt appropriate strategies for dealing with the harmful effects of conflicts.

TEAM MANAGMENT :

Team is a formed when some people with homogeneous goals and objectives working to achieve the targeted goals and objectives meanwhile recognizes that there success is equally depended of others success in there group. They are all team of people interdependent on each other. Teams are frequently built for some work or project. Thus, they have their own set goals that are precise to the project and the teams set goal is not a shared organisation goal. (Crainer. s. 1998)

7.1) Policy:

Training the teams:

Training is very essential to any employee in order to know how to work in that environment and to understand the working conditions of the company. We know that large number of companies have adopted training program which is necessary for technical know-how. However team training is requiring in most of the companies, I feel that these companies should facilitate the employees with team training in order to help the employees to gain the insight about the future working conditions will be and prepare themselves for the same. Some of the key areas have to be bought under the light and worth implementing are group dynamics as well as Managing changes. (Adrian P. 2007).

The intentions:

Company should typically offer work place to help the employees to improve their communication, negotiation, conflict management, problem solving and coaching skills.

In order to achieve this organisation should reduce the burden they put on client to achieve their targets, rather they should extend them to next year and meanwhile they should build enough number of employees to work on more up-coming projects.

Company should make the work environment more inspiring and not monotonous and should bring change in there working process which will not make them hostile.

In order to achieve this organisation should teams should possess good communication flow, which is the integral part of the team and without this element the team might fall apart which might have an adverse effect on organisation as well.

The teams should have all the information about what is happening in the organisation and should be updated; there should be frequent team meeting as well should ask for their feed backs and try to work on them. The team should give opportunity for employees to gain knowledge by giving them some of brainstorming tasks.

7.2)Analysing:

The organisation should mix the most consistently successful teams with a balance of team-roles. Any role that an individual takes in a group should not be fixed but change accordingly to circumstances. There should be good and effective communication between the team members and information has to be shared among the members in order to have good bonding between the team members.

Working in teams will saves time and brings innovative ideas.

There will be increase in the quantity and quality of work and thus it will lead to better communication and co-operation in the team.

Increases the opportunity to learn and will facilitate in exchange in ideas and thus result in novelty.

There will be increased responsibility and interest among the staff when they are treated like matured people.

Giving staff the capability to respond to clients call will benefit them to advance and uphold good customer relationship.

Staff should be encouraged to consistently acquire knowledge and implement it in the most productive way.( LAURIE J.MULLINS ,2005)[7]

Conversely the drawback is the Team Management with concern to this organisation, in order to overcome this; the company should facilitate the staff with team training. By providing this training the organisation is helping the employees to work in teams and work productively.

In order achieve this; the company must do certain things like:

Fundamentally the teams should have common goals and objectives as well as possess commitment to achieve the set goals and objectives.

A team should possess at the most four skills; technical, interpersonal, decision making and should be able to a problem solver.

Should have set regulations and should be able to stand by it.

Individuals should have "back-up team-roles" with which they can have some affinity other than their primary team-roles. In case some roles are missing members would call upon their back-up roles.

Team should have one multi-tasking member who can at least preform three of the roles in the team, during the actual roles absenteeism.

The above listed factors will support the organisation to survive the challenges which are being face in info tech organisation and will be able to keep the leap with the information technology and meanwhile help the employee to develop their commitment towards the organisation.

The most important thing to remember is that the intrinsic rewards that employees can receive from their teamwork. It's exhilarating and satisfying to be in vital share of a successful team. The opportunity to engage in personal development and to help teammates grow can be very satisfying and rewarding experience for employees. (LAURIE J.MULLINS ,2005)[7]

7.3)Recommendation:

I would recommend that there should be some drive for the teams to get motived and to perform better in their tasks. They should be provided with some incentives, which will motivate and encourage them to work with more commitment and meet the desired goals.

The company should have a organised way of training and scheduled process. As in they should have effective teams and to make a team effective the following factors should be added to it such as:

Context

Adequate resources

Leadership & structure

Climate of trust

Performance evaluation and reward systems.

Composition

Abilities of members

Personality

Allocating roles

Diversity

Size of teams

Member flexible

Member preference

Work design

Autonomy

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Process

Common purpose

Specific goals

Team efficiency

Conflicts levels

Social loafing

Typically it has included objective measures of the team's productivity, managers' rating of the team's performance, and aggregate measures of member satisfaction (LAURIE J.MULLINS,2005)[7].

According to me learning effectively is described as experiencing through each stage of the learning cycle, one can't learn unless he puts across his/her past experience and work to create ideas from it.one significant thing about the above mentioned theories are that they will come to no use until and unless they are effectively implemented and efficiently used.

8)CONCLUSION:

Certain above mentioned remedies might work in few cases and might not work in few cases of Human Resources. However these are few of the probable solutions impersonated to the ascend problems in people management organisations.

Certain organisations have implemented the above mentioned solutions in their organisations and working effectively and efficiently. For instance NASA they had their own method of people management which was well known as the matrix management system. This was a very daring step which the organisation took and was successful with it. There are some companies who counterfeited it but failed to succeed.

The organisation can set-up diverse management practises that will help mutually the company and the employees. There has to be novelty in team organising like; each team should have a 'multi-tasking person' who can be as a 'back-up' for minimum of three people's work, this way of team sort out will be help the organisation during contingencies.

They should as well form ad-hoc teams which will support during the contingencies. There should be contingent reward system in which contracts exchange of rewards for efforts, promise rewards for good performance, recognises accomplishment as this approach takes the view that there is no one, best structure. The most appropriate organisation structure and system of management include methods of control; depend upon contingencies of the situation. Therefore one should plan and implement the theories when and where required spontaneously and accurately, which will lead to healthy organisation and people development within the organisation. There should be personal development as well as organisational development going hand in hand. "While developing the organisation and contributing to organisations growth simultaneously people in the organisation hsould also develop and achieve personal growth." (LAURIE J.MULLINS ,2005)[7]

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