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Without Human Resource an Organization is nothing. Human Resource Management plays a vital role in management function which performs versatile activities such as recruiting, selecting, training and development and maintaining the performance of the employees in the organization so as to ensure that they continuously give their commitment to the organization to achieve the predetermined objectives. Human Resource Management is not only related to business functions but they also take into consideration of non business functions like Hospitality, Education and etc.. Moreover HRM functions need to be correlated in order to correspond with the overall business strategy. Thus an HRM strategy is an overall plan, concerning the implementation of HRM functions.
To be successful in the organization Human Resource Planning should know the needs of the human resource after they know these needs they will do something to meet them. HRP gives an opportunity to identify the quality persons a firm requires. Job analysis and job design specify the task and duties of jobs and qualification expected from respective job holders.
Nature of Recruitment
In straightforward recruitment is known as the method of attain and searching the applications of jobs for selecting the right person. Theoretically it is said that recruitment process is an end once they receive applications for job but if you look into this aspect practically this activity put forwards to selection of applications where they will eliminate the unqualified applications for the given job.
Recruitment process is known as collecting the applications from the job seekers. In reality it is said to be the process for hiring employees. Different organizations like banks, railways and few other organizations have their own recruitment boards. Recruitment is always done through advertisements. Very often we see advertisements in newspapers regarding job opportunities.
Aim of recruiter is to identify the qualified person for a particular job. The entire process includes five interconnected stages they are
Development of strategies
Assessment and control
Recruitment is of two type's internal and external recruitment
Internal recruitment means selecting the applicants form the currently employed. There are different types of internal recruiting
Referrals from employees
Important advantages from internal recruiting are it is very less expensive compare to external recruitment, they have superior knowledge about the internal candidates their skills and capabilities. With the internal recruitment the organization can build the moral of the employees and also the job satisfaction.
External recruitment is done by using various methods such as
Factors of Recruitment
Organizations look for alternatives for recruiting employees to control the cost of recruiting. Few alternatives are
Selection means hiring the right person for the right job with the ability to fill the requirement of the position. There are different methods of selecting the candidate. Recruitment is to identify the employees while selection is to pick the right candidate from the applicants. In the selection process it eliminates the applicants who are not qualified and unfit for the particular position for selecting the right person. The HR needs to be very careful while selecting the person as he needs to perform to meet the goals of the organization. The easy way to meet the goals of the organization is identifying and selecting the right person.
Employees play a key role in the success of the organization. If the organization wants to be successful and to compete with the competitors they need talented employees who can work for the success of the organization. If the HR had selected the wrong person then it affects the organization productivity and profitability. Cautious selection helps the organization to avoid the cost related productivity.
Selection is very long process it starts with the preliminary interview and ends with the contract of employee. Selection process vary from organization to organization most of the organizations follow their own selection process in selecting the employees. Selection process is influenced by various factors such as
Demand and supply
Conditions of labour market
Political and legal concern
Organizations policy and reputation
Process of selection
Background checks and references
Organizations having most efficient selection system proved to have higher outcomes in terms of performance, quality, services and productivity. Most of the organizations depend on outside vendors to select the talented person. Even they outsource at the time of final selection process. This might be expensive but organizations spend more money as they require quality people for performing better. They need to select the right person for the right position. They make use of different tools while selecting the individuals. Selecting the right candidate by using selection strategies provides better outcomes to the organizations.
Organizations have only few qualified candidates to choose, as the competition is very high selecting the qualified person had become difficult. The available candidates might not have the skills that the organization is looking for. Thus it becomes difficult for the organizations to select and hire the qualified individual. To overcome these obstacles organizations had started use wide variety of strategies in selecting the employees.
Recruitment and Selection process interact with other systems
Both selection and recruitment process will be linked with the organization success, based upon the strategies followed by the HR management for selecting and recruiting the participants will estimate that whether organizations is performing better, worse or performing in the same way as it used to perform earlier. Organizations believe that if they recruitment and selection process performs good in selecting the quality employees then the organization performance will be good in terms of financial, in producing quality products, increases the productivity, employee and customer satisfaction and it is management responsible to retain the quality employees such as to achieve the goals of the organization and to be the leader in the industry at the same to sustain the competitors.
Effectiveness of the selection process plays the significant role in the outcomes of the organization. It is noticed that the effective selection systems is related to better performance of the organization in past. Based upon the analysis it is noticed that many organizations who are adopting the best and effective selection process were importantly and further likely
Finding 13: Selection system effectiveness was
significantly correlated to organizational outcomes.
Analyses revealed that more organizations with highly
effective selection systems were significantly more
likely to have experienced improvements in business
and employee outcomes than organizations with
ineffective selection systems (see Figure 4).
Organizations with effective selection systems can
better identify and hire employees with the right skills
and motivations to succeed in the positions, as well as
in the organization. When employees are successful
in their jobs, the organization benefits through
increased productivity and higher quality products
and services. In addition, when the "right" employees
are hired initially, they are more likely to be satisfied
and remain with the company. Thus, by using a good
selection system to hire qualified employees,
organizations can reduce turnover, increase employee
retention, and ultimately improve critical business
The importance of good recruitment and selection
Recruiting people who are wrong for the organisation can lead to increased labour turnover, increased costs for the organisation, and lowering of morale in the existing workforce. Such people are likely to be discontented, unlikely to give of their best, and end up leaving voluntarily or involuntarily when their unsuitability becomes evident. They will not offer the flexibility and commitment that many organisations seek. Managers and supervisors will have to spend extra time on further recruitment exercises, when what is needed in the first place is a systematic process to assess the role to be filled, and the type of skills and abilities needed to fill it.
Most recruitment systems will be simple, with stages that can be followed as a routine whenever there is a vacancy to be filled, and which can be monitored and adapted in the light of experience.
This booklet describes the main features of such systems, and other related issues. Systems should be:
efficient - cost effective in methods and sources
effective - producing enough suitable candidates without excess and ensuring the identification of the best fitted for the job and the organisation
fair - ensuring that right through the process decisions are made on merit alone.
The importance of fairness
The employer has the legal responsibility to ensure that no unlawful discrimination occurs in the recruitment and selection process on the grounds of sex, race, disability, age, sexual orientation, and religion or belief. Equality of opportunity is an integral part of the recruitment and selection process, and to this end employers may offer training and encouragement to any under-represented groups. Examples include pre-application assistance for those who do not have English as their first language, or management development training for women where they are under-represented in management grades (1).
Job advertisements may also state that the employer encourages applications from those groups that are under- represented in the organisation.
Employees and their representatives will also have an interest in fair, non-discriminatory recruitment and selection policies, and they should be fully consulted when new procedures are introduced or existing procedures reviewed. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976, the Employment Equality Regulations (covering sexual orientation, religion or belief, and age)Â and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 set out the legal requirements for employers.
Organisations should be aware that the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 not only make it unlawful to discriminate against disabled individuals without justifiable reason but also require employers to make reasonable adjustments to the workplace or working arrangements. Detailed guidance is available in the Code of Practice on the elimination of discrimination in employment. This can be obtained from The Stationery Office (2).
The Acas Equality Direct helpline (tel: 08456 00 34 44) can give advice on the best ways of implementing an equal opportunities policy.
Advice is also offered to employers in small and medium sized organisations through the Business Link service (4) and through Acas training (5).
Human resource planning
Recruiters need to keep abreast of changes in the labour market to ensure that their recruitment efforts are not wasted or directed at too small a pool of labour. Skill shortages may occur unexpectedly and recruitment and training processes need to be kept flexible. It is a good idea for any organisation to plan its labour force requirements, matching available supply against forecast demand. A skills audit of existing staff will increase knowledge of the skills the organisation has available and those which are lacking, and thus help pinpoint areas for future development.
A human resource plan need not be highly complicated. A straightforward plan will help organisations to:
assess future recruitment needs
formulate training programmes
develop promotion and career development policies
anticipate and, where possible, avoid redundancies
develop a flexible workforce to meet changing requirements
control staff costs whilst ensuring salaries remain competitive
assess future requirements for capital equipment, technology and premises.
Management is responsible for producing the human resource plan, senior management for supporting it. Implementation is likely to be most effective if it carries the support of the workforce, normally achieved through consultation with trade union or other employee representatives.
Producing a human resource plan involves:
forecasting staffing requirements against business objectives
assessing the available supply of people to meet those requirements
matching available supply against forecast demand (6).
Information on current employees, labour turnover and the labour market will help in the formulation of the plan. The Learning and Skills Council (visit www.lsc.gov.uk)will be able to provide general information on the local labour market in England and on the skills balance available, as will the local Jobcentres. Local Education Authorities can assist with information on the numbers of school and college leavers.
Labour markets and the labour force
In times of changing labour markets, organisations need to adapt their recruitment and retention policies to allow them to compete more effectively for staff, particularly those with skills that are in short supply. The offer of training and development opportunities is often a strong attraction to potential recruits, and here again the Learning and Skills Council can offer advice and assistance. Jobcentres, which administer Government training schemes are another source of advice and potential recruits.
If recruitment is difficult in certain jobs or skills, consideration may need to be given to re-designing the job to make it a more attractive prospect - perhaps by offering a greater variety of tasks, or increased self-management. Employers also need to encourage a good 'work-life balance' within the organisation by giving consideration to more flexible ways of working. Employees with young and disabled children and theÂ carers if adults, have the right to request flexible working arrangements - including job-sharing, part-time working, flexi-time, working from home/teleworking and school time contracts - and employers must have a good business reason for rejecting any application. Another possibility is to introduce some more flexible working arrangements, perhaps job-sharing, part-time working, flexi-time, working from home/teleworking, and school term-time contracts. These variations on the 'standard' forms of working will open the vacancy to people who might otherwise be unable to consider it. Equally, the offer of assistance with domestic care arrangements and costs can prove highly attractive to people with these responsibilities. Many companies are now offering 'family-friendly' policies. These are often developed in conjunction with local Business Links and Chambers of Commerce, which can provide examples of good practice.
The balance of the labour force is changing, with some increase in the numbers of women, young people, and most particularly older workers available for work. Employers are beginning to give serious consideration to the employment of older workers, and a voluntary Code of Practice to counteract ageism in employment has been introduced by the Government (7). Jobcentres will not accept vacancies with age limits.
The value of labour market information is that it gives employers some forecasts from which they can decide how best to plan for future recruitment. Should the organisation make a positive move to attract older workers? What might best be done to counter any shortage of potential recruits with particular skills? Should training new and existing workers move higher up the priority list in the firm?
Should the organisation make the introduction of family-friendly policies a priority so as to attract the widest range of suitable staff? Looking at all the options means that recruitment will be better targeted and therefore more efficient and effective.