Evaluating Historical Principles of Management


Management is Simple Rules & Regulations and a Set of Principles Which explains the Management process and Situations in an Organization. There are 2 Major Schools of Management thought which explains different techniques and methods to perform tasks and achieve goals.

Scientific School of Thought

Behaviourist School of Thought.

These Principles were a part of History, which are still used in Every Business situation in the World in modern times.

Scientific School of Thought includes methods for performing any Task is explained by the Scientific School of thought, Founded by Fredrick Winslow Taylor. He stated that there must be 'One Best Way' to perform every single task by Analyzing the work scientifically. Taylor was a man of Science, also known as 'Father of Scientific Management'. Taylor said, Scientific Management is a Way of getting work done through men and seeing whether they do it in the most Efficient way.

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Scientific management includes 4 Major Principles

Science, Not Rule of Thumb: This Principle stated the use of scientific ways to perform tasks rather than using the 'Rule of Thumb'.

Harmony, Not Discord: This principle showed that the relation between managers and its workers should be in a complete harmony to each other, where the manager should share its gains with his workers, while workers work hard to achieve management goals.

Cooperation, Not Individualism: A complete Equality of work and responsibility among the management and the workers should exist in a management. This helps to encourage and smoothen the way for the workers as well as managers.

Development of Each & Every Person to their Greatest Efficiency & Prosperity: This principle states that the workers in an organization should be given the required training as such to produce more and earn more. This ensures the efficiency of workers as well as its company.

Techniques of Management

Functional Foremanship: Eight persons who are in face-to-face contact with the workforce on a daily basis are known as Foremen. This function controlling, planning and implementation on the lower levels is known as Functional Foremanship.

Standardisation & Simplification of Work: The setting up of Standards for business activities to be achieved and adhered on while production. Simplification removes the unnecessary diversity of products, which in return helps in cutting back costs of Machinery, Tools and Labour.

Method Study: The objective is to minimize the cost of producing and maximize the Quality & satisfaction of the customers by finding out one best way to do a particular job.

Motion Study: This technique was used to eliminate the unnecessary movements of the workers like lifting, pulling, sitting, etc. so as to finish the task in a more efficient way.

Time Study: This studied the time to be taken by a single person to perform a single task and the time actually taken while doing it. It was used to know the required work force in a Job.

Fatigue Study: The study to know how much time is to be used in resting and working hours so as to avoid fatigue among workforce due to prolonged continuous working.

Differential Piece Wage System: This was a major technique used in almost all the organizational departments where managers and workers exist. This helped to motivate workers who performed above average by being given rewards or incentives, etc.

Eg. : A company's manager training its employees to work efficiently and achieve effectiveness in performing any task. This is achieved through proper use of principles and techniques of scientific management. An organization will achieve its goals in a efficient way only if its workers are managed and motivated in a effective and satisfied manner. This means that the manager will have to satisfy social and financial needs of its workforce.

Behaviourist school of thought is more effective way to manage people in organizations that are managed by a group of management scholars trained in psychology, sociology and related fields. These scholars used their knowledge to make more effective ways of managing people in organizations. This also meant to help individuals to use their capacities and creative skills at work and at home. This is also known as ''Human Relations Movement'', which was a result of studies performed by Elton Mayo and his colleagues at the Western Electric Company from 1924-1933. This was known as The Hawthorne Studies. Mayo ended up with the conclusion that the workers needs are to be satisfied by fulfilling their social needs.

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Another person who contributed to the Behavioural Management of Human Relations was 'Abraham Maslow', who believed in motivating people which helped in satisfying human needs, hence helping them to improve their performance. This also increased Performance of the whole organization. His Theory is based on human needs and explains that every person has a Hierarchy of five needs.

Basic Physiological Needs: Basic and Primary Needs like Food, Shelter, and money, Sleep etc.

Safety/Security Needs: Protection from physical and emotional Harm.

Affiliation/Belonging Needs: Acceptance, Friendship, Affection, etc.

Esteem Needs: Self-respect, Motivation, Recognition and Attention

Self-Actualization Needs: The Need for one to reach to its maximum potential. This is considered the highest level of need in the hierarchy.

Behavioural Science is a school of thought, which was a Result of Contribution of Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor.

They Distinguished 2 alternate basic assumptions about people and their approach into Theory X and Theory Y.




BEHAVIOURAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHT (human Relations Management)


Main focus was to Increase Output.

Focus to improve people's relationships.


A leader was to be seen as a figure of Authority, Whose function was to Impose work to Workers.

A leader, which facilitates Coordination & Cooperation among Various employees and Providing assistance & Opportunity for their personal Growth & development.


Monetary Rewards were the only motivating factor for the workers in the organization (Differential Piece wage System)

Achievement of 'Self-Actualization' played a Major role in Motivating Employees.


Not Allowed in the organizations as it portrayed the worker as a person who worked for Monetary Rewards, hence Informal groups were considered to be a Nuisance.

Exists in the organization because it leads to Communication & Cooperation among the members.


A Fixed method of performing a task leading to stereo typed workers.

Many Innovative ways to perform one single task, hence workers could prove themselves in Other Areas.


Takes Place at the highest level of authority and the subordinates have no say in the final decision

Decision Making is Delegated to the lower levels of the organization also.


Stimulates ideas & techniques for improving the system of work in an organization.

Stimulates innovative ideas to perform a particular task.

Scientific School of thought focused mainly on production of output and its end results where as Behavioural school of Thought is mainly focused to improve public relations and increase their motivation by satisfying their needs.

Therefore, Human relations management allows Informal groups in their organization, which helps in fulfilling workers social needs.

A single best method is adopted to perform the tasks in a Scientific organization where as many new ideas and ways are used to perform a single task in Human Management. Decision making power is given to the higher levels of the organization where as the Decisions of lower level workers are ignored. But in the case of Behavioural management Decision of workers are also kept in mind while taking important decisions. Both the Schools of thought differ from each other in many ways especially the final outcome which states that Scientific management stimulates Ideas and ways to improve the system of working in the organization where as Behavioural School gives New ideas and techniques of working in an organization so as to perform a particular task.

Both the Approaches, Scientific and Behaviourist, In spite its differences conclude that they both aim at increasing productivity. Both Taylor & Mayo used an applied scientific approach to explain their techniques & principles.

As a Conclusion between the 2 theories of Fredrick Winslow Taylor & Elton Mayo, The principles of Taylor are more effective for a management organization to manage its workforce. Since Taylor's principles are meant for satisfying monetary & financial needs of the workers that will help them to work efficiently and effectively for a company and help achieve its goals better. Whereas, Mayo suggests that efficiency can only be achieved through satisfying the social needs of the workforce. But this notion is not completely right as all the social and personal needs of workers are fulfilled by Monetary & Financial incentives.

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So it can be said that Scientific School of thought is a better management method for the working of a company.