Organisation behaviour is concerned broadly with the study of the behaviour of people within an organisation setting. It is important to emphasise that the behaviour of people cannot be studied in isolation and that it is necessary to understand interrelationships with other variables which together comprise the total organisation.
I will divide three sections to my assignment, in section one I am going to discus about Organisation Behaviour and why organisation managers need to have understood it. And section two I will describe the Belbin Team-Roles as well as how it does work and the last section which will be section three about Motivation theories and its significant sectors.
Lot of authors they have described managements definition by different point of view. Such as
"Organizational behaviourÂ is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organization for the purpose ofÂ applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness."
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"Organizational behaviourÂ is the study and application at knowledge about the how people - as individuals and a groups - act within organization. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively."
"Organizational behaviourÂ can be defined as theÂ understanding; prediction and management of the human behaviour affect the performanceÂ of the organizations"
-Luthans (jontymagicman, 2011)
Organisation behaviour it really looks at the way the individuals, interact, cop with and deal with, what's going on in the organisation. And it looks at the way organisation actually response to external events that the co rounded. Basically we look at the organisation behaviour from three perspectives. The first is perspective of individual. As we know all individual are unique and have very different perception of the world and what's going on around them. Individual is motives different ways, they satisfy in different ways, they have different expectation different wants and it's up to a managers to understand what those individual needs are so that they can address each one in turn. The second level that organisation behaviour is examined is by groups. All organisations are dividend into the departments, section and they are key formal groups and informal groups. Now formal groups are obviously important in organisations they are put together for specific purposes, maybe to complete a project and informal groups are equal as important. They are the group in organisations they are formed because people have something in common, so maybe they sharing in interest reading books, maybe they become friends because of other reasons but those informal groups are infect very powerful. Now manager need to understand who is involved in those formal groups and how those groups interact, because that's going to effect what's going on in that organisation. The third and final level is organisation itself, now all organisations are unique and different and each organisation has its own dusting culture. Some organisations are people focused, others are more tasks focused, and some completely focused on money, some have very formal structures and some informal. People enjoy ban in organisation it depends on whether or not they valuate a system matches that system in organisation. So again managers must look at what organisation is and how is proceed by it staff, sometime it's proceed is positive way and other time is negative way. Organisation behaviour is always examined in three levels, the individuals, the group and the organisation itself. Now ever manager can understand all of the factors then they actually can implement changes to insure that organisation continues to nun smoothly. That is really big port of the manager's job to do that. Organisation behaviour is very complex because examine key things like motivation and all motivated by many different variables. Its looks at the way the people do with conflict, it looks stress which is a very magic concern in this stage, and it looks negation, looks organisational cultural, it deals with issue of diversity. All this things combined and make a very unique work place and only through understanding and being able to implement of this key things can organisation runs smoothly. The most important things in organisation is communication skills and only through open and transfer communication can organisation really nuns smoothly. Staffs often feel very demotivated and other thing communication to them not clearly and fairly. Successful organisation tenth to be the organisations that have Tran's par end and excellent communication strategies where staff can feel they are involved and port of that process. A manager can do very well insure that things run smoothly his who department and the organisation as a whole. If he understands the key principles of organisation behaviour that portent to the individual, the group and the organisation as a whole. (Mullins, 2002)
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Dr. R. M. Belbin defined a team role as a tendency to behave contribute and interrelate with others in particular way. During a pried over nine years Belbin and his team resources at Henley Management College started the behaviour of managers from all over the world.
"A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them."
Dr. R. M. Belbin (belbin)
Belbin's work with a large number of managers suggested that there were nine possible team roles that a person can adopt (originally eight). Some are natural roles and some are roles that a person can adopt if necessary and some are roles that a person finds very hard to adopt. The team types Belbin postulated are:
(PL) Plant - very creative, the ideas person
(RI) Resource Investigator - extrovert, good at making outside contacts and developing Ideas.
(ME) Monitor Evaluator - shrewd and prudent, analytical.
(SH) Shaper - dynamic and challenging.
(CO) Co-ordinator - respected, mature and good at ensuring that talents are used effectively.
(IMP) Implementer - practical, loyal and task orientated.
(CF) Completer Finisher - meticulous and with attention to detail also full of nervous energy.
(TW) Team Worker - caring and very person orientated.
(SP) Specialist - high technical skill and professional as opposed to organisational prime loyalties.
Here are the nine team types which Dr. Belbin and his colleagues finally identified:-
Plant (PL): The Plant originally received the name when it was found that one of the best ways to improve the performance of an ineffective and uninspired team was to 'plant' one of this team types in it. But you can also think of the Plant as the one who scatters the seeds which the others nourish until they bear fruit.
Resource Investigator (RI): Resource Investigator is determined, dominant and extroverted. He is the second number of innovated. They mostly resemble plant expect for their personal affairs and original ideas. Despite the resemblance with the plant on developing unique ideas, the main deference is RI's being extroverted (preference to interact with the environment). He is rarely in his room and if he is it is mostly because of a call should be made.
Monitor Evaluator (ME): He is an expert on analysing problems, assessing ideas and offering suggestions for taking decent decisions. He has high mental talents as plant and shaper do. He seems as unprejudiced and unbiased with his serious personality and judgements. His possibility of producing creative ideas is relatively low but he protects the team from fatal mistakes. A typical monitor evaluator is stable, introverted has high level mental abilities.
Shaper (SH): Some observers of teams in action have suggested that a team needs a 'social leader', who is the permanent head of the group, and a separate 'task leader', who is in charge of a specific and defined project - much in the way that a nation needs both a Head of State, who is permanent, and a Head of Government, with a specific job to do. If so, the Shaper is the task leader and the Co-ordinator is the social leader. The Shaper is the most likely to be the actual leader of the team in those cases where there is no Co-ordinator or where the Co-ordinator is not, in fact, the leader.
Co-ordinator (Co): their confident, mature, a good chair person clarifies promotes decision making, delegates well. He/she is the one who presides over the team and co-ordinates its efforts to meet external goals and targets. They are distinguished by their preoccupation with objectives. You would expect them to be at least normally intelligent, but not in any sense brilliant and not an outstanding creative thinker; it is rare for any of the good ideas to originate with them. They are much more remarkable for what used to be called "character". They have a high degree of self-discipline. They often have what is called "charisma" but it is perhaps easier to think of it as authority. They are dominant, but in a relaxed and unassertive way - they are not domineering. They have an instinct to trust people unless there is very strong evidence that they are untrustworthy, and they are singularly free from jealousy
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Implementer (IMP): The Implementer is the practical organiser. He/she is the one who turns decisions and strategies into defined and manageable tasks that people can actually get on with. They are concerned with what is feasible, and their chief contribution is to convert the team's plans into a feasible form. They sort out objectives and pursue them logically.
Completer - Finisher (CF): The completer-finisher is the assurance of the team for not making mistakes and he is like a security guard against small but important mistakes. Unfortunately there are very few members who prefer this role. He has auto-control, strong character and very intolerant with irresponsible and indifferent members of the team. He is willing to try complicated things and finishes what he begins. He manages time well and always does his best to catch up all activities scheduled. He is a typical finisher, introverted and anxious.
Team Worker (TW): The team worker supports other members with his strength, help them to overcome the is insufficiencies, feeds the team soul and develop communication. He also perceives emotional problems of the group and their anxieties and needs. Almost all managers are included in this category although they become disappointed with its plain meaning attributed to when they are described in this way. A typical team worker is decisive, extroverted and less dominant.
Specialist (SP): Specialists are dedicated individuals who pride themselves on acquiring technical skills and specialised knowledge. Their priorities centre on maintaining professional standards and on furthering and defending their own field. While they show great pride in their own subject, they usually lack interest in the subjects of others. Eventually, the Specialist becomes the expert by sheer commitment along a narrow front. There are few people who have either the single-mindedness, or the aptitude, to become a first-class Specialist. (PERFECT, 2008)
I am working a food retail shop at Dominos Pizza since 2009. It is a very profitable organisation and my manager he try to run this business smoothly. But personally as a team leader I want to suggest to my manager to apply Belbin Team-Roles. The Belbin Team Roles Model can be used in several ways - he can use it to think about team balance before a project starts, he can use it to highlight and so manage interpersonal differences within an existing team, and you can use it to develop himself as a team player.
Use Belbin's model to analyze his team, and as a guide as he develop his team's strengths, and manage its weaknesses:
Over a period of time, observe the individual members of his team, and see how they behave, contribute and behave within the team.
Now list the members of the team, and for each person write down the key strengths and characteristics he has observed.
Compare each person's listed strengths and weakness with the Belbin's descriptions of team roles, and note the role that most accurately describes that person.
Once he has done this for each team member, consider the following questions:
Which team roles are missing from your team? And from this, ask yourself which strengths are likely to be missing from the team overall?
Is there are prevalent team role that many of the team members share?
5. Once he has identified potential weakness, areas of conflict and missing strengths think about the options he has to improve and change this. Consider:
Whether an existing team member could compensate by purposefully adopting different a team role. With awareness and intention, this is sometimes possible.
Whether one or more team members could improve how they work together and with others to avoid potential conflict of their natural styles.
Whether new skills need to brought onto the team to cover weaknesses.
An analysis of the Belbinâ€Ÿs team role self perception inventory shows that team roles play important roles in developing project teams. Also Myers- Briggs type indicator helps the project manager to find the behaviour of teams and accordingly place them in relevant projects. However, both theories have faced critical acclaims showing the difficulties faced by project teams to enact these tools in reality. Hence, more research in project team role characteristics and team preference along with their relationship with regards to team effectiveness is imperative. (Gündüz, 2008)
Motivation refers to the force within or beyond a person that arouses and sustains their commitment to a course of action. The four name of motivation theory are Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg.
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
Abraham Maslow (1954) presents a hierarchy of needsÂ model which can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization).
The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes:
1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.
4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
maslow hierarchy of needs pyramide (McLeod, 2012)
Frederick Herzberg two factor theory:
Motivation factors are those aspects of the work itself that Herzberg found influence people to superior performance and effort. Hygiene factor and maintenance factors are those aspects surrounding the task that can prevent discontent and dissatisfaction but will not themselves contribute to psychological growth and hence motivation.
The table below lists the common hygiene factors and motivators identified within organisations.
Herzberg's Two-factor Theory
Level and Quality of Supervision,
Company Policy and Administration,
Nature of Work,
Sense of Achievement,
Personal Growth and Advancement
Motivation is a very important for an organization, every organisations manager needs to motivate his employee. If I say about my organisation is Dominos Pizza where I am working since last three years and my manager try to motivate us every time. But as business student I want to suggest to my manager that he should follow motivation theory what I explain on above so that he can put human resources into action, Improves level of efficiency of employees, Leads to achievement of organizational goals, Builds friendly relationship, Leads to stability of work force, Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals etc.
To summarize the researches on Organisation behaviour, Organisations managers should understand the behaviour of organisation if he wants to run his business nicely and how he manage his team as well as needs to know motivate people so that he can reach peak of success.