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This dissertation begins with establishment of "What critical success factors in Business process Reengineering help in the success of Higher Education in Pakistan?"
This dissertation discusses the CSFs of BPR in Higher Education in order to ensure the successful implementation of BPR. The determination of the CSFs of BPR could aid HEIs to plan their approach and to make their action plan.
Public sector universities are the main vehicle for higher education in Pakistan. Historically, private sector had an insignificant role in the higher education system and was almost non -non existent till the 1980s. The public sector HEIs continuous to be plagued by the inattention of successive governments and remained burdened the chronic problems of the poor quality of teachers and curriculum , gender biases, on campus politics, low level of student motivation, poor discipline and lack of relevance of course contents to social and economic needs, rote learning, overcrowding, and non-transparent examination systems. Research work was marked by the low quality and negligible quantity. But Pakistan's inability to increase investment in education beyond 2.5 percent of GDP (one of the lowest in the world).
In this paper writer will analyze critical success factors in BPR which Higher Education Commission of Pakistan use to implement reforms in higher education.
Historical Background of the Organization
"Of all the economic growth initiatives available to the Government of Pakistan, perhaps none holds more promise and the possibility large scale and sustainable returns then the effectiveness and the expansion of the Higher Education infrastructure in Pakistan. This does not mean that the value of education is limited only to the economic development. Its value extends and is universally viewed as extending well beyond its impact on the economic performance, to encompass greater social impact contributing to a just, democratic, and enlightened society."
(Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah in his message to the All Pakistan Education conference in Karachi on 27th Nov 1947)
When Pakistan was founded in 1947, the country inherited two higher education institutes; one of which is university of the Punjab. The Pakistan higher education conference was held to set vision for the higher education system. Later, in 1952 a higher education body, inter university board, was established to develop liaison among the universities of the country. In 1959, the national commission on national education was establish. Once again, like earlier bodies of its nature take same very general view of the education system.
During the next decade, as a result of the nationalization in the Pakistan, the whole system education went to the direct control of the state. However, in 1979, a government commission reviewed the consequences of the nationalization that public sector could no longer be the country's sole provider of education.
University grants commission (UGC)
The university grant commission, the predecessor of the Higher Education of Pakistan, was established, in 1974, by an act of the parliament. It was mandated that UGC maintain the standards of education and establish a uniform policy aimed at bringing national unity and cohesion. Assessments of universities financial needs and disbursements of the grants was the main purpose of UGC but unfortunely it did not play an active role in development of higher education.
The Reform Process
In 1959 the national commission on higher education made in depth study of problems and challenges the education sector at that time. The education policies of 1970, 1972, 1979, 1992, and 1998 and the eight Five Year plans, all set unrealistic without providing funds and the required political will to ensure their successful implementation.
The Pakistan Economic survey 2001-2002 come up with conclusion that
One of the factors in the slow improvement of education indicators has been low level of public expenditure in education
(Pakistan Economic survey, 2001-2002)
The latest reform process was catalyzed by the publication of the report on higher education of the developing countries compiled by the Task force on higher education of UNESCO and World Bank.
(S.B Ali, S.k Lakha, (2000) "report on HE of developing countries by UNESCO & World Bank")
Establishment of the Higher Commission (HEC)
On September 11, 2002, the recommendations of SCHE were translated in to action, through the presidential Ordinance No LIII of 2002. The HEC was established as central body that facilitate quality assurance of the higher education in the public and private sectors, links funding by the Federal Government.
(The Nation news paper, September 12, 2002,)
The Prime Minster as controlling authority and Prof. Dr. Atta-ur -Rehman was appointed as founder chairman of the HEC. Now the current chairperson is Dr. Javaid R. Laghari.
Historical Background of the Organization
The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of core processes and critical success factors Business Process Reengineering helps to solve problems and prospects of higher education in Pakistan. Higher education plays the role of leadership in the society. The functions of the university are to develop the people physically, mentally and spiritually. It improves and promotes the economic, social, political and cultural life of the nation. All over the world universities are guiding and co-operating with the industrial and agricultural development organizations and they are developing their economics rapidly and meaningfully.
Author puts efforts for collection of data from the research of the experts, leaders, teachers and interacting with Pakistani students studying in UK's universities and colleges. Data were tabulated and analyzed using the Likert's five-point scale and chi-square.
The main objectives of the study were:
(1) To find what critical success factors in BPR help in the success of Higher Education of Pakistan?
(2) To find out the present profile of higher education in Pakistan;
(3) To examine the past efforts done for the improvement of higher education;
(4) To highlighting the budget provisions for higher education;
(5) To explore problems of higher education in Pakistan;
Literature review of Business Process Reengineering
Business process reengineering is the redesigning of business processes as well as related systems and organizational structures in order to achieve a significant improvement in business performance. The business reasons for the making such changes could include poor financial performance, external competition, erosion of market share, or emerging market opportunities. BPR is not downsizing, restructuring, reorganizing, automation, new technology but it is the assessment
and change of the following components of the business:"
1. Strategy (leadership and top management support 'Ahmad, 2004')
2. Processes (Hall et al., 1993; Peppered and Fitzgerald, 1997);
3. Technology (IT/IS)
4. Cost / Controlling / Monitoring and Evaluation
(Michael Hammer and James Champy, 1993) define BPR in their book reengineering the corporation as:
Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance.
Hammer focus on one key concept of BPR - that it is fundamental and radical.
But another business improvement methodology is continuous improvement (CPI), which emphasizes small and measurable refinements of an organization's current processes and systems. Continuous process improvement has its origin in Total quality management (TQM) and Six Sigma, a programme that began at Motorola.
Ascari, a. (1995) his study explore that the organizations that implemented BPR agreed that the impact on the change of their culture was related to the organization's rethinking of its fundamental processes. The was also on identifying and improving core processes and especially with emphasis on cross functional work teams
Maull et al. (1995, p.42) which show significant importance of scope of business architectures."
The practice of redesigning business process , and the associated technology and organizational structure , more popular then ever before .companies continuous to revaluate and fundamentally alter business processes and the way of doing business . Competitive pressures and more sensitive economy provide the thrust for continued efforts to "deliver more with less." Reengineering remains major tool for businesses trying to function effectively and efficiently as possible.'
Ascari et al. (1995), Stoddard et al. (1996), Peppard and Fitzgerald (1997), Smith (2003) highlighted that BPR aims to achieve performance break through by applying innovative ways of doing business.
Key targets of BPR:
BPR has three key targeted categories:
o Customer friendliness: one of the important goals of the BPR is to get a competitive edge, and that can only be gained by providing the customers more than what others in the market are asking for .if the customer is looking for product tailed to their needs, for example, a car customized to the customer's taste, then car maker most probably gain more customers over the competition due to the customization option.
o Effectiveness: How effective is the product or service that the business or manufacturing company provides the customer? if the product or service the business might be providing the customers is successful, then the customers would automatically want like to buy that product or services again .for example Japanese cars like Honda and Toyota , even they are more expensive than domestic cars , are very reliable.
o Efficiency: how efficient is the company , that manufacturing the product , in minimizing costs before introducing it to the market .efficiency is not just about being efficient at the production floor level; the management level has to be efficient. Examples of only the production floor being efficient and not the management level would be found in the Japanese manufacturing companies.
By considering few definitions given by previous authors for examples, pearce and Robinson, (1997); in this research context, CSFs defined as the few things which must go right for the PBR to happen successfully.
The present dissertation incorporates the research strategy of grounded theory and in-depth interviews. In this respect, it can be concluded that the present study is built on a combination of secondary and primary data.
The present dissertation incorporates a multi-method research process, where the researcher combines secondary and primary data in the same study. This strategy is chosen as the researcher believes that both methods are significantly dependable on each other in the present research context, and that secondary data provides solid theoretical foundation, whereas primary data contributes to the researcher's ability to address the most important issues in the present context (Robson, 2002). The primary data is extracted through the conduction of in-depth interviews.
Open ended interviews
Specifically, this study had developed a set of interview questions on the CSFs factors, were put to the management of the Pakistan Higher Commission.
Examples of the questions are as follows:
Please explain the factors that make the BPR or radical process change project succeed from your experience?
Please give your comments on how critical they were to your BPR or radical process change project success?
The instruments for the open ended interviews were developed based on the literature review, most of them adopted from Al-Masheri and Zairi (1999) and guimaraes, (1999).
The secondary data employed can be described as multiple sources like books, journals, articles, web sites, newspapers and magazines. Multiple source secondary data can be divided into two categories - area based, which comprises of academic sources and time series based, which focuses of commercial issues (Saunders et al., 2003). The use of multiple source data provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop a balanced and analytical dissertation.
I will use Microsoft excel for questionnaires, as it is easy to export the data into excel and use its statistics facilities descriptive, presentational and inferential analysis.
Weft QDA is easy to use software, I already installed this software in my laptop which will help me to analyse the interviews results.