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Many Organizations have adopted pyramidal business structure (La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, and Shleifer, 1999; Claessens, Djankov, and Lang, 2000; Khanna and Yafeh, 2005). The top of the pyramid gets up for the owner of the firm who looks after the concerns for the high management level. Thus the influence of the pyramidal structure can be seen by their organizational culture along with the regulation (Morck, 2005). The authority delegation in that structure helps the organizations for decision making at the ground level. An Organizational culture is a set of beliefs, values, attitudes, behaviours, artifacts etc (Kotter and Heskett 1992). Organizational Structure is considered as one of the main determinants of the culture and the culture has an impact on the organizational structure (Martins & Terblanche, 2003). Both the mechanisms are adopted for the coordination of the firm. OS is an integrating mechanism within the organizations and culture acts as an external mechanism that is concerned with the values as well as behavior within the organizations. For an instance, the organization structures are based on the controls and command (Seel, 2000) but cultures shapes the organizations but not reflects their power reaction (Naidoo, 2002).

Microbial solution

It is a full technology based company and it emphasizes on all aspects of the organization's functions at their level. The organization structure of the company is narrow in which CEO has the power and authority to cover all HR responsibilities of other staff members such as chief scientific officer (CSO), office administrator (OA), chief financial officer (CFO) and documentation manger (DM). CSO covers some part of HR roles and responsibilities of laboratory manager as well as technical staff and he acts as a line manger to them.

Figure 1: Organization structure of microbial solution ltd.

The microbial solution company has adopted a high performance culture on which their people work together for attaining the goals and objectives of the firm. The sense of collaboration has given them extraordinary results that must be extended to the teams, alliance partners and stakeholders of their firm. They have created some extraordinary values to transform the increasing practice at international level. The firm works on technological part for providing better solutions. Thus it creates sound and good environment for its workers to perform well within the organization. The people define the value and culture of their organization and also characterize their unique success.


PeopleSoft is considered as one of the loopiest places on this globe. According to the figure, the firm is having a good organizational structure. At the top of the structure, president overlooks all the departments in the firm. Then three major departments are categorized such as finance, sales and operations. Each department head, heads their sub divisions.

Figure: Organization structure of PeopleSoft

PeopleSoft has adopted a distinctive type of organizational culture. This culture seems to work better for the competiveness of computer software firms. By adopting this type of culture, they are acting upon the problems and opportunities faced by the organizations. It defines about the important as well as unimportant acts in the company. It acts as DND for the firm which is invisible from the naked eye but shapes the working of the workplace.

It is a fact that the good firms always try to provide a supportive culture that makes an ideal choice for their customers as well as their partners. The organizational structure and culture exists within the organizations in a close alignment. Both the firms are having good organization structure and culture that leads to the high business performance within the firms. Both the firms have created its own valued by establishing a well structure and functioned structure.

Approaches to management and leadership

Management theories acts as simple and conceptual framework within the organizations and it provides a designed plan for actions to assist the organizations towards the attainment of the goals and objectives. Contributions have made from the past examples that mold the current management practices for improving the practical aspects in day to day activities of the organizations (Cole, 2004; DuBrin, 2006). Scientific management theory and any modern theories are subjected to the criticism and have taken place with the time as per the needs of the organizations and the environment in which they are operating their businesses. It has become the critical factor for them to adopt and adapt the changes without any earlier and fundamental beliefs of the management concepts. Organizational leadership is needed to develop along with the lines of teamwork, self motivation, emotional strength, general management skills, personal integrity and maturity to handle all types of situations.

PeopleSoft Company works more on the basis of the information technology management approach in which the technological advancements impact the conducts of the firms, managers and its people. Thus management theory has made the firm to accept other theories such as knowledge management theories, supply chain management theories, strategic management theories of collaborative and competitive advantage. These theories are known as the standpoints for the company so that people in the organization can make logics of their experiences (Stoner et. al., 1995). They have adopted the adaptive type of culture in which the firm focuses on the team management type of leadership style. This leadership style shows the main focus of the company on the employees and their comfort at the workplace.

Microbial solution is a technology based company and it is developing numerous innovative ways at their workplace by working with BAE systems. They have adopted performance centered type of leadership style. It provides the firm a set of behaviors to improve the business performance. For that they have developed 360 degree feedback information to compete with the high performance organizations. These competencies are used for evaluating their performance in the acknowledgment of peer. They have several core competencies such as high performance level, good working environment, focus on the customers and continuous improvements. This framework prepares a background for their leadership development within their firms in which all the functions are integrated together through the leadership centered framework.

Leadership styles are used for providing direction, for motivating people and for implementing future plans. Kurt Lewin (1939) had identified the leadership styles. There are three major type of leadership styles (U.S. army handbook, 1973) such as authoritarian (autocratic), Delegative (free rein) and participative (democratic). Autocratic type of leadership style is used when all leaders within the organization want the work done without getting any advice from their subordinates. Participative type of leadership style includes one or more employees in the decision making process. But the leader keeps the final power of decision making. Delegative style involves the leaders to permit the employees to take part in the decision making process. It is also known as Laissez faire style. Leadership theories have their own importance due to their applicability within the organizations. In case of authoritarian type of style, people are not as much as motivated than the people who work under that participative leadership style. Management as well leadership theories tell about the basic framework of the organizations that how they work effectively by adopting some basic principles, values and ethics.

The relationship between motivational theories

When people are gathered for pursuing the common goals then the talk turns into motivation. Most of the people agree that motivation is an important factor and it is flourished by some motivational theories. There are some motivation theories such as reward theory, empowerment theory, fairness theory, carrot and stick theory and forget about it theory. Reward theory includes providing incentives that employees draw by attaining the desired objectives. Fairness theory includes that treat people practically in the fair manner by giving them proper benefits, compensation and other factors. It leads to the increase in the motivation level among employees. The empowerment theory says that providing freedom to the employees within the organization is the broader aspect to motivate them. Carrot and sticks theory tells about establishing and striking balance between perquisites and its outcomes. Forget about it theory has stated that the organization is ready to pay and reward them but the employee have to motivate themselves. It talks bout the self motivation theory. The motivation theories are needed within the firms and they act as best fit of HR functions. It has become more important part for implanting best practices in the organizations (Michael Armstrong, Angela Baron, 2002).

Microbial solutions combines sectors such as management team, commercial partners, service offerings and technology. They all provide provide cost effective and reliable options to their clients to meet their organizational objectives. The personnel functions have set out some basic criteria on which the firm has defined its policies and attitude towards fair and working policies. It defines the ethics of the firm that what the firm gives to their employees and what the employee do for them. Microbial solution limited provides a good, sound, fair, enjoyable and safe environment in which all members work towards a common goal. The firm have focused more on the safety environment to be provided to its employees. Also they have minimized the working hours to bring flexibility in the organization. The good part is that the company has not any type of discrimination. Equal opportunities have been given to the employees to motivate them to make them feel as an asset of the company.

The motivational theories play very important role in the practical aspect within the firms. It is very important for HR department to understand it proper and main part is the implementation of the theories. There are some motivational factors available such as safe environment, proper compensation plans, reward system, equal opportunities, no discrimination etc. Equal opportunities are given to employees for ensuring that jobs will be given to people who are qualified whether they are different gender, age, race and marital status, religions, beliefs, values (Margaret Dale, 2004).

Individual Differences at work

The firms are having their own business and work upon it. The ethics and ethical behavior of the person within the organization has been established a criteria for working. Thus it affects the performances of individuals at their work place. There are numerous factors available that affect their behavior such as cultural (different ethnic standards), demographical (age, gender, marital status, religion, work experience, nationality), economical (economic conditions such as financial problem of the organizations leads to people's inappropriate behavior within the organization ), technology ( it increases immoral behavior and affects the people's working), religions (religious trends), law (vague laws leads unethical behavior of people in the firm), attitude ( odd behavior of seniors leads to decrease in the morale level of the employees), intension (plan to behave ethically), self power (when the low self people do not have the power, they become de-motivated at their workplace), competition, environment, level of moral development, political environment (unstable political conditions) , reward system (monetary and non monetary rewards), organizational culture (collective norms, goals, polices, decisions of management, moral acts, corporate culture, values, ethics, organization structure), positioning, reference person, goals, values and beliefs (Ingrid Naude, 2004; Zohreh Tahmasebi, Ahmad Dibavar, Nasrin Pirsemsari, 2010; Gregory C. Petty, Roger B. Hill, 1995).

Microbial solutions have empowered itself in the field of bacterial technology. It is developing innovative technologies in their work. For that, they have got excellence award. It tells about the good working environment over there and it motivates the employees to perform well for the attainment of the goals and objectives of the firm. They motivate their employees by giving recognition and giving some other benefits such as salary, bonus etc. The good thing about the firm is that they focus on their people. They believe that the firm is solving thousands of problems that save costs as well as environment. They work on continuing their excellent relationship with their team members.

In PeopleSoft, higher levels of services along with the full support have become the critical factor for the employees. So the firm has achieved the support from oracle to get the self service and it provides the employees a full tool to access the required information on time and to get answers to the questions of the customers. Self service of Oracle's PeopleSoft enterprise has decreased the cost of acquiring people and also has increased the motivation level of people to work there. The employees are assisting people, thus it has made them more productive and focuses on their work. They have adopted human capital management and knowledge management aspect within their firm so that people are finding the chances of growth in the same organization. Self service environment makes employees to work. These enhance the knowledge of their people so that they can work on some strategic projects. Thus it enhances the benefits to the organization. The employees who are working there have a high level of morale and they are self sufficient. They have increased their effectiveness as well as job satisfaction too.

Employee's behavior is also known as organizational behavior and it influences the ways that how employees give responses to their work. There are some internal as well external factors present that influence the people's working within their organization. Internal factors are such as organization structure, culture, leadership behavior. External factors are such as business relationship and family relationship. Both the firms have maintained a good relationship with their employees and it makes them to perform better in the organization. It affects the employees' performances most because of the higher expectations.

Demonstrate an understanding of working with others , teamwork , groups and groups dynamics

Groups and teams are known as major characteristics of the organizations. The units and sub units are made up of the groups of people in the firm. The activities that are taken place in the organization require the degree of coordination by the operations of team and team work. The proper understanding of the nature of these formed groups is very important when the manager is influencing the behaviors of people within the firm. They influence each other by developing their own chain of command along with their leaders. Also they have a major influence over the individual's behaviors and the work performances (Drucker. P, 1974). Any type of group always needs a mix of knowledge, skills and talents. Groups need some common values among the members so that they can compete otherwise they may fail to compete their goals and objectives. Groups work on the team spirit, group cohesiveness, group norms, roles within the groups, external as well as physical environment, social issues and decision making within the groups.

Teams are the groups of the people who are having numerous skills and fully committed to the common purpose and keep themselves accountable for the achievements. There are some factors available that undermines the effectiveness of team such as poor communication, lacking of organization, and inadequacy in participation, disorganization, and misunderstandings etc. The team work may be affected by the obstructions faced by employee within the firm. It can misguide the people within their work and it leads to the failure of the firm.

Microbial solution is an oxfordshire company that develops award appreciated innovative technologies for the disposing of toxic metal fluids that are used in the engineering industry. Thus they have become more successful in this field. It provides the effectiveness to the teamwork by rewarding their employees and by providing a better platform to work effectively. They have made collaborations with the BAE systems and thus the team members have been recognized by the awards in the field of innovative category. The environment is sound and for that they have given the rewards such as bonus and recognition for the successful achievements in the technological field.

PeopleSoft has implemented Oracle in their working environment. The implementation of Oracle has aligned themselves with the other practices. They have adopted some concepts such as PeopleSoft human capital management solutions such as PeopleSoft performance and case management. It has been implemented to develop teamwork efficiencies just by monitoring, communicating to the people on the teamwork basis. It acts a tool for facilitating the continuous development of a culture so that id lads to effective teamwork within the organization. The collaboration with the Oracle technology has allowed them to combine the task with other tasks to increase the effectiveness. The implementation of the technology has permitted the managers to provide the feedback for the functioning team.

Groups establish the better means of success through their work pattern in an organized manner (Cole G.A., 1988). Group members generally co-operate each other for carrying out the works within the groups. The unique identity of the team depends on the coordination and support from the team members. An effectiveness of the teamwork depends on the attainment of task related objectives that how they achieve it. It does not come only by collecting the experiences and knowledge but also by bringing all the people together for working effectively. The teamwork and technology has created a sound culture of teamwork which requires a degree of change management for the orientation of the team members towards new and share vision and goals. Effective teamwork largely depends on the effective communication within the team along with the organizational support. The firms such as Microbial Solutions and PeopleSoft are working forward for the betterment of their teamwork, thus they have advanced themselves in the field of technology.