Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, which can be defined as one who undertakes innovations, finance and business knowledge in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods. This may result in new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a discovered opportunity. The most obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting new businesses. However, in recent years, the term has been extended to include social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity. When entrepreneurship is describing activities within a firm or large organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-off organizations.
Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization and creativity involved. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. In more recent times, the term entrepreneurship has been extended to include elements not related necessarily to business formation activity such as conceptualizations of entrepreneurship as a specific mindset resulting in entrepreneurial initiatives e.g. in the form of social entrepreneurship, political entrepreneurship, or knowledge entrepreneurship have emerged.
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All the changes and developments in IT and telecommunication areas have not only provided various opportunities for entrepreneurs in the field of telecom, but these have also changed the characteristics of entrepreneurship as a whole. With the technology of voice over internet protocol (VOIP) and next generation networks (NGN), 'Zero Distance' at least in the field of communication will be a reality. Communication whether to the next door or to the other end of the world will cost the same in terms of money as well as time.
Internet provides opportunities for the entrepreneur to offer Internet related products, with new form of advertising, communications and information medium. It also provides a new opportunity for the sale and delivery of non-internet related products. Globalization in true sense is possible only with telecommunication advances.
Due to internet and communications technologies, information delivery is much convenient and the world is moving towards becoming a near perfect market. There are many portals which provide you with comparative rates of products available in market through various sources. At the same time, an entrepreneur can market its product without investing heavily in infrastructure through the use of internet. Auto generated contextual advertisements provide kind of advertisements which everyone would like to see.
To know how to start a business in the field of CCSE
To know what are the risks and challenges in starting a business
To know when is the right time to start a company in CCSE field
To know where we should seek help and advice to become an entrepreneur
To know who are the key persons in assuring the sustainability of our business
To explain why we should start a business in the field of CCSE
To determine how a company is established.
To learn the steps of maintaining a company.
To know how CCSE companies contribute to the society.
Scope of Study:
Our studies will include the companies that are successfully established on CCSE field based (such as Telecommunication, Information Technology, Electronics, Computer software, and Embedded Systems)
The companies'profiles that will be included in our survey are mainly based but not limited to Malaysia only.
The target respondents that will be surveyed in our survey must be adults (18 and above). The respondents will be equally distributed among races, and genders.
1. The Personal Computer and Entrepreneurship
Robert W. Fairlie
University of California, Santa Cruz
"A potentially beneficial use of home computers among would-be-entrepreneurs maybe to obtain information about tax codes and legal regulations, learn about specific industries, and research competition using the Internet. The Internet may also be usefu lfor lowering marketing, investment and operating costs. On the other hand, job search using the Internet is prevalent and Internet skills were likely to have been valuable in the labor market during the sample time period (Freeman 2003, Kuhn and Skuterud 2000,2004 and Stevenson 2003). Therefore, access to the Internet may have an independent effect on entrepreneurship."
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
"73.3 percent of the my sample of men who have access to a home computer also have Internet access and 71.7 percent of my sample of female computer owners have access to the Internet at home."
The above quotation from the paper is to prove that the demand of internet service and computer performance increases as the number of entrepreneurs increases over time as shown in Figure 1. Hence, we can conclude that the demand and market for higher performance internet connections and computer performances will grow bigger in future and therefore CCSE engineers should not worry about their product's marketability issues in the future. However, the hypothesis is only limited to America's market as the respondents are from the USA.
Prepared by Choo Hong Ning
Source: R. W. Fairlie, The Personal Computer and Entrepreneurship, University of California,
Santa Cruz,Management Science, January 2005
2. The Business Biography of Irwin Jacobs
Irwin Jacobs is the business leader best known for his contributions to the world of wireless technology communications. As chairman of Qualcomm, he developed CDMA technology and forever changed the history of data and other forms of communication. In short, Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies and its existence has brought a lot of changes in telecommunication field world widely.
Most of the public may have the assumption and perception that engineers are supposed to be professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics, economics and ingenuity to develop solutions to meet economic and societal needs. In fact, engineers are not only dealing structures design, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, safety and cost, but some of them involve themselves in business management in big firms.
Jacobs left the academe to enter the corporate world. In the process, he pioneered wireless technology in the United States and became chairman of Qualcomm. Jacobs graduated with an engineering course from Cornell University and then earned subsequent degrees at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He worked as an assistant and associate professor at MIT and then became a professor at the University of California, San Diego. He was even the co-author of a textbook that is still used today, Principles of Communication Engineering.
From his experience in the academe, he formed the Linkabit Corporation with Andrew Viterbi. Later on, he co-founded Qualcomm. From a few part-time employees in Linkabit, soon Qualcomm grew to more than a thousand employees under his stewardship. It became known in the communications industry because it was able to replace existing TDMA technology with CDMA technology which has better performance. As chairman of Qualcomm, Jacobs was instrumental in the development of advance technology for wireless communication. Since CDMA is satellite-based, the technology soon became pervasive across the United States and was adopted by many telecommunications operators, including Sprint. Over the years, he has received awards both for his entrepreneurial spirit and the advancements in technology he helped push.
From the successful story from Jacobs in telecommunication engineering, it is strongly shown that with engineering background, we are able to start our own business. With the knowledge that we learnt in degree programme, they are applicable in our entrepreneurship in the future. The demand or requirement of the computer and communication systems in the world is still high as we are now in the process of enhancing our current technology to lead a better life. As summary, engineers may involve themselves in entrepreneurship with their professionalism to contribute to the world and succeed in their own business but not just constrained in the normal engineering practice.
Prepared by Goh Chong Loong
Source:Jack M. Wilson, President, University of Massachusetts
A Fireside Chat with Irwin Jacobs - Telecommunications Engineer, Entrepreneur, and
3. Entrepreneurship in Telecommunication Sector
According to the research journal by Anjuman-I-Islam about "Entrepreneurship - Dedicated to entrepreneurial Spirit of India" on March of 2007, an entrepreneur is an individual who owns and operates his own business, assuming the responsibility, risk and rewards therein. Entrepreneurs should not be deterred by failures. In fact it is very important to experience some failure, as it gives you a sense of danger. After you realize that failure is actually not that bad, you become a lot bolder to take risks. An entrepreneur will continuously improve his skills in all areas, will keep looking for new opportunities and will do more than what is expected. His relationships with the manufacturers, suppliers and customers will be excellent in order to provide convenience and a higher value for their money to him. Entrepreneurship in telecommunication sector is different from other sectors. To be an outstanding entrepreneur in this technical field, one need to posses and apply knowledge.
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An example of entrepreneur who played an important role right since the beginning of telecom revolution is the chairman of the Bharti group of Industries, Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal. He had a vision when the future of wireless telecommunication in India was still undefined. Bharti's enter telecom business in mid 1980s, much before the competition phase, when the government allowed manufacture of push button telephones to be used with new digital exchanges, through setting up a manufacturing facility for push button telephones. Bharti group was the first private telecommunication service provider in basic telephone services in Madhya Pradesh and today Bharti is a powerful player in telecom industry with a nationwide presence in GSM cellular, basic telephone, and long distance carrier services.
There are examples of government's initiative in entrepreneurship. The introduction of concept of PCO - public call office, is to increase the accessibility of telecommunication services. In Mumbai, Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) has provided one PCO for every 100 people of Mumbai. This has provided entrepreneurial opportunities in Mumbai through agent, distributors, and franchises, which sell various basic, mobile, and value added services at a commission. MTNL, which was earlier selling all its products through in-house facilities, now has appointed a chain of marketing associates, distributors, and franchises to sell its products. Entrepreneurs taking part in this scheme can use innovative ideas to sell the products and services and expand their business.
There are some motivating examples of entrepreneurial achievers. Professor Irwin Jacobs, who left academia to apply Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), a wireless coding scheme developed in the military to commercial cellular systems, is one of the examples. Initially, his ideas were shut down by the cellular community who at that time pursuing other technology, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Technology. However, CDMA technology is now approved as a standard by the telecommunications industry association and today many carriers appear committed to CDMA than TDMA. Anousheh Ansari, who had been in worldwide news as the first female space tourist, and who paid $20 million, for a ride to the international space station, is a cofounder, CEO and Chairman of the board for Telecom Technologies, Inc. founded in 1993. The company experienced rapid growth before being acquired by Sonus Networks in November 2000 for a minimum 10.8 million shares of stock worth $441 million at that time. The company with 200 employees, and based in Texas, concentrated on developing soft switching technology and focused on multi vendor soft switch services and media gateway interoperability.
There are many venture capitalists that provide funding to entrepreneurs. To get funding you do not need to be an experienced technology entrepreneur, but you should at least have a management team with necessary skills and knowledge in your chosen field. The team should also have a track record of successful business management, although it need not be an entrepreneurial venture.
In conclusion, there are many growth envisaged, pace expected, and opportunities available in the field of telecommunications. The risks are there and the rewards are huge. If one envisions becoming an entrepreneur, just go ahead and do it.
Prepared by Tan Kai Kiat
Source:R.M.Chaturvedi, Entrepreneurship in Telecommunication Sector, Entrepreneurship
Research Journal, Vol. 5, Anjuman-I-Islam'sAllana Institute of Management Studies,
A Model of Wireless Communication Technology's Selection to Develop Entrepreneurship
and Telecommunication Facility in Rural Area in Indonesia
Indonesian Telecommunications Development is a part of the "National Development," which carried out, through a series of "Five Year Development Plans" (FYDP), its efforts towards raising the standard of living and well-being of the people. In its development perspective, Indonesia has been pursuing the "Trilogy of Development" which reflects the notion of even development, a sufficiently high rate of economic growth and the dynamic as well as healthy national stability.
In Indonesia the government has been trying to support the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as these enterprises are expected to play a crucial role, not only in employment creation, GDP formation, and export development, but also especially as a means to developed women entrepreneurs, particularly in rural areas.
The main constraints faced by small entrepreneurs are cumbersome and onerous business regulations and restrictions, lack of finance, and limits in human resource and technological capabilities.
Currently, there are about 216 million people in Indonesia and the fixed phone (incl.
FWA/ Fixed Wireless Access) density is 6.6% (14.2 million lines) whereas mobile telephone density is 21.9% (47.3millions).
With the new regulation of decentralization, the local governments have an authorization for managing their areas and improving their infrastructure including telecommunication facilities.
Started in 2004, the local governments of West Sumatera (KabupatenMentawai) and Aceh (Kabupaten East Aceh) took this opportunity to fund the development oftelecommunication infrastructure in their areas. In West Sumatera, the local government made a partnership with PT. Industri Telekomunikasi Indonesia (INTI) as a contractor while Aceh local government made a partnership directly with PT TELEKOMUNIKASI INDONESIA (TELKOM).
In North Sumatera, the deployment was funded by 2 (two) local private companies which made a partnership with TELKOM in a revenue sharing scheme. All of the network equipment is supplied by PT TRANS KOMUNIKASI DATANET (TKD), a national soft-switch developer which took a role as system integrator. The network is then interconnected to PT TELEKOMUNIKASI INDONESIA existing network.
The efficient and future proof technology i.e. soft-switch-based NGN with mediagateways is applied in this project. By developing the infrastructure, around 160,000people in these rural areas are served.
Prepared by Azleen Ramli
Source: C. Tesavrita, J. Siswanto,A Model of Wireless Communication Technology's Selectionto
Develop Entrepreneurship and Telecommunication Facilityin Rural Area in Indonesia,
P1 WiMAX Case Study, by WiMAX Forum
WiMAX Success Story: How Packet One (P1) Did It
A Malaysian Field of Dreams
P1 Built It-And They Did Come
This paper discussed on the stories and achievement of a WiMAX Telecommunications company "Packet One" (P1) which is established in Malaysia in the year 2008. The paper describes the challenges faced by the company in the telecommunication field thus explaining the strategies used to solve the problem existed.
"Key Competitive Strategies Against Incumbents (Market Dominator at that time)
â€¢ Leverage the ability to respond more quickly to changing market conditions
â€¢ Use innovative and targeted advertising, especially with online media
â€¢ Create awareness and interest with road shows to support coverage launches"
P1 WiMAX has also developed a set of replicable steps for marketing products and services, in which they call the 6 Ms.
"P1's Repeatable Processes for Marketing Success
â€¢ Market: Do market research. There are two billion people within a three-to-four hour flight from Kuala Lumpur and broadband penetration among these potential customers is less than 3 percent. This adds up to a lot of pent-up demand that can be exploited.
â€¢ Mission: Articulate what the technology offers to different consumers and segments with targeted messaging.
â€¢ Money: Invest in the business.
â€¢ Manpower: Develop the right team to capitalize on opportunities.
â€¢ Machine: Deploy a reliable network, offer a variety of competitive devices, and depend on the ecosystem.
â€¢ Methods: Improve processes constantly to remain current and competitive.
WiMAX can provide a huge growth opportunity for companies that follow the Six Ms to capitalize on
demand, as P1 has demonstrated."
P1 has also established a strategic alliance with the Malaysian Government to achieve high broadband penetration rate among Malaysians
Wireless@Sunway is a collaboration effort between Sunway Group and P1 to enable Bandar Sunway to become the first Integrated Wireless Township in Malaysia, benefiting its 30,000 residents and 2 million visitors per year.
Wireless@KL-a joint project among P1, the Kuala Lumpur City Hall(DBKL), and the Malaysian Communications and MultimediaCommission (MCMC)-aimed at making Kuala Lumpur aworld-class wireless city by 2010
Prepared by Choo Hong Ning
Source: Adapted from WiMAX Success Story: How Packet One (P1) Did It, WiMAX Forum, www.wimaxforum.org/sites/wimaxforum.org/.../P1_case_study_intel.PDF
Interview with engineers who succeeded in establishing their own companies in CCSE field
Studypapers and journals about CCSE companies to learn about their ways of operation
Analyze CCSE companies' financial statements to learn how they gain capital and reinvest their earnings
To conduct a survey to the public to check the level of satisfaction and acknowledgement of CCSE companies' contribution to the society