This study examines how the extent of entrepreneurship education within university departments influences students' entrepreneurial intentions in three careers: computer science, electrical engineering, and business. Specifically, it proposes that the effect of such education is (1) contingent on its mode (active, e.g. business plan seminars, vs. reflective, e.g. theory lectures), (2) contingent on the regional context and (3) complemented by individual-level influences such as role models or work experience. Results show that active modes of entrepreneurship education directly increase intentions and attitudes, whereas the impact of reflective modes depends on the regional context. Parental role models and work experience are found to complement entrepreneurship education in different ways. The findings have important implications for theory building as well as for the practice of teaching entrepreneurship.
COMPETING MODELS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS:
THE INFLUENCE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY
The extant literature has shown that predicting entrepreneurial behavior by modeling personality or demographic characteristics has resulted in small explanatory power.
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The rationale behind the use of these characteristics relied on the assumption that individuals who have similar characteristics to a typical entrepreneur would behave entrepreneurially.
The study confirms that attitudes toward entrepreneurial acts positively affect intentions to new venture creation, thus contributing to the theory of planned behavior. We also found that attitudes mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions. According to these results, attitudes toward entrepreneurial acts positively affect intentions regardless of how this influence is exerted. These findings seem to suggest that the more confident students become in their capabilities for entrepreneurship, the better their attitudes toward entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, a practical implication is that an attitude change should be considered as a crucial part of entrepreneurship education. In this regard, the extant literature emphasizes that attitudes toward entrepreneurship are central to explaining new business startups (Phan et al., 2002) as they are an important impetus to influence innovative and entrepreneurial behavior patterns (Garavan and O'Cinneide, 1994).
The impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in China
Higher educational institutions should develop more flexible approaches with focus on different groups of students in accordance with their various educational backgrounds. In response to the change of graduate labor market and the quest for sustainable competitive advantage in China, higher educational institutions have to integrate the change of mindset, skills and abilities about entrepreneurship in their general academic education in order to nurture university students' entrepreneurial intentions in China. The paper provides comprehensive empirical evidence about the impact of higher education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in mainland China and thus fills an important gap in the entrepreneurship literature.
Determinants of Students' Entrepreneurial Career Intentions:
Evidence from Business Graduate
For decades unemployment rate has been mounting. Recent world financial crisis has also resulted unemployment at vase level. In Pakistan, terrorism law and order situation has shattered all economic activities. It has created unemployment at very large scale in Pakistan. To employee these unemployed persons, is a big challenge for authorities. Unemployment rate has increased drastically in Pakistan from 13.60% in 2008 to 15.20% in 2009 (CIA-the world fact book). Now this increasing unemployment is creating lots of problems both for public and government, like law and order situation, increased crimes and many social problems. One of the most effective alternates suggested by the economists is self employment. Self employment or entrepreneurship can contribute a great amount of output thru out the world and Pakistan is no exception. This paper focuses to study the impact of personal traits, demographic characteristics and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students of Pakistan.
Assessing Entrepreneurial Intentions Amongst Students:
A Comparative Study
This article contributes to our understanding of whether, and if so how, education can affect students' attitudes toward entrepreneurship and their entrepreneurial self-efficacy. It also examines the role of family exposure to business, personal entrepreneurial experience, and ethnic background in affecting attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions by comparing students from diverse ethnic and family backgrounds. Findings highlight the impact of education and practical exposure to entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intentions.
The purpose of the study is to investigate whether prior exposure to entrepreneurship education affects students' attitudes, subjective norms about entrepreneurship, and perceived behavioral control and whether these, in turn, affect their entrepreneurial intentions. In doing so, it enhances our understanding of whether, and if so, how, education can affect students' attitudes toward entrepreneurship and their entrepreneurial self-efficacy. It also examines the role of family background and ethnicity in affecting attitudes, norms, and intentions, by comparing students from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds.
Fostering entrepreneurship through university education and training:
Lessons from Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Alumni of universities are seen as an important source for future entrepreneurs in dynamic and innovative areas such as information technology and biotechnology. In fact, successful universities in the US underline the important role of academic institutions as catalysts for high-technology start-ups: If the 4.000 companies founded by MIT graduates and faculty formed an independent nation, the companies would make that nation the 24th largest economy in the world (Ayers 1997). Similarly, Stanford University is related with many of the cutting-edge companies in Sillicon Valley (Pfeiffer 1997). Economic studies in different European regions indicate that the impact of universities on company creation can be observed outside the USA as well (Harhoff 1999). Self-employed, when compared to people in wage and salary employment, have more often a formal education at a university (Robinson and Sexton 1994; Brüderl 1998). In addition, the economic impact of companies founded by university alumni is more significant. Academic entrepreneurs are likely to employ more people than their non-academic counterparts (Dietrich 1999). Richter and Schiller compared academic and non-academic business founders. They show that more than half of the academic entrepreneurs created new ventures in high-tech industries whereas non-academics founded their company mainly in non innovative production and service sectors (Richert and Schiller 1994). Finally, business founders with university education apparently make higher investments in their business than non-academic entrepreneurs (Richert and Schiller 1994).
The purpose of this article is to investigate how far the educational situation has developed in German universities. We focus on students'plans for founding new businesses and explore students' assessment of entrepreneurship education and support within their university. The responses of the German students are compared with those of undergraduate and graduate students of the Sloan School of Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Based on this comparison, the authors develop suggestions for developing and improving entrepreneurship education programs in German universities.
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