End Use Acceptance In ERP Business Essay

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End User acceptance in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a vital factor of its success in implementation {{21 Nah, F.F.H. 2005; }}.Various models have been proposed to identify the factors that influence the user acceptance of an ERP system. The technology acceptance model (TAM) by {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }} has been the basis in order to identify factors influencing user acceptance of technology. However, due to the assumption that the TAM does not take into account the mandatory use that can occur in the use of an ERP system, many authors perceive the TAM to not apply to the factors influencing the user acceptance of an ERP system. However {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}extended the technology acceptance model, adding in the factors of beliefs in the benefits of ERP system, training on an ERP system, project communication and also behavioural intention to use an ERP system to enhance the model and align it more accurately with investigating the factors that affect the user acceptance of an ERP system. The model that {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}then proposed was then examined in which the critical success factors of ERP was shown how that top management support, communication, training, cooperation and technological complexity plays a valid role in influencing user acceptance. The resistances that users have towards ERP systems were then analyzed and conclusions drawn.

Aim

The aim of this paper is to analyze the various factors that affect user acceptance of ERP by analyzing various proposed models. Introduction

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a worldwide phenomenon {{47 Carter, F.J. 2001; }}. ERP can be seen as an enterprise wide web based integration software tool that act as a support to the business' core functions and has the capabilities to increase workflow, creates a sense of standardization in the organisations business practices and give users real time access to current data {{54 Mabert, V.A. 2003;24 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2007; }}. The implementation of an ERP system can be regarded as risky given the amount of effort needed for implementation and also the considerable cost of technology {{65 Davenport, T.H. 1998; }}. "Many ERP systems face implementation difficulties because of workers' resistance"{{15 Aladwani, A.M. 2001; }}. Thus understanding the factors which influence a users' acceptance towards an ERP system becomes an essential part of implementation. End users also often only make use of a subset of ERP features {{57 Boudreau, MC 2003; }} It is possible for managers to learn methods to combat user resistance by the analysis of factors affecting user acceptance towards ERP and also it gives valuable insight to managers in order for ERP systems to be implemented more smoothly{{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}. Research towards user acceptance of ERP systems is fairly new {{54 Mabert, V.A. 2003; }} .Reasonably few theories of user acceptance towards ERP systems have been created. The technology acceptance model (TAM) by {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }} has been the basis in order to identify factors influencing user acceptance of technology. However, due to the assumption that the TAM does not take into account the mandatory use that can occur in the use of an ERP system, many authors perceive the TAM to not apply to the factors influencing the user acceptance of an ERP system. However {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}extended the technology acceptance model, adding in the factors of beliefs in the benefits of ERP system, training on an ERP system, project communication and also behavioural intention to use an ERP system to enhance the model and align it more accurately with investigating the factors that affect the user acceptance of an ERP system. The model that {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}then proposed including the critical success factors of ERP implementation, relating top management support, communication, training, cooperation and technological complexity to the TAM. In this essay the analysis of various different user acceptance of systems models will be discussed and related to the user acceptance of an ERP system. The format of this essay follows an academic approach, discussing the relation of the various models towards the user acceptance of ERP.

Technology Acceptance Model

The Technology Acceptance Model was specifically aimed at modelling user acceptance of Information Systems with the intent of explaining the behavioural intention of usage of the system {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. The TAM has formed the base for various other theories modelling the user acceptance of an ERP system.

{{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }}suggests that the Technology Acceptance Model illustrates the characteristics or qualities that influences humans acceptance of new technology and how these attributes relate to each other. Users' intention to use a system is based upon the 2 core attributes namely; perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }}. Perceived usefulness can be seen as the "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance" {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }}.When relating this to ERP, it can be seen as how an ERP system can increase productivity for an individual. Perceived usefulness is directly affected by perceived ease of use. {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }} describes it as how the particular system would ease effort of workers. {{28 Calisir, F. 2004; }} claims that users of a newly implemented ERP system find the system more useful if they find it easier to use. This directly affects user acceptance of ERP systems as satisfaction and acceptance are closely linked. Usage behaviour is then dependant on the users intention to use the system.

{{21 Nah, F.F.H. 2005; }} suggests possible factors that influence the technology acceptance model can be seen as :

  • End user acceptance with regards to user satisfaction and user attitude.
  • Personal characteristics Users innovativeness in technology, users open mindedness and computer self efficacy
  • Perceived technology characteristics User friendliness , Compatibility, Flexibility, Relative advantage
  • Training and Support - Training, group/ peer support, technical support
  • Social influence - management attitude, peer attitude,
  • Changes in job shift in responsibility, shift in data ownership The Technology Acceptance Model has been criticized as not being suitable in its application towards ERP {{29 Seymour, L.; }}. Several researchers suggest that the Technology Acceptance Model needs to be extended or revised with regards to ERP. There are two main criticisms of the TAM in ERP :

The first being that many researches claim that the standard TAM does not cover complex and advanced information technology in organisational settings {{21 Nah, F.F.H. 2005; }}. Because of the functionality and capability of ERP systems, it can be viewed as a complex IT system.

An assumption in the TAM is also that the system users is voluntary. However this is not always the case in ERP. If the ERP system is adopted by the business, the users have no choice but to operate with it. {{21 Nah, F.F.H. 2005; }}

{{36 King, W.R. 2006; }} found that the TAM to be a valid model when It comes to IT systems, however in order to apply the TAM to ERP systems, the TAM needs to be extended.

Extended Technology Acceptance Model

{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }} proposed adding four new aspects to the TAM in order to implement it to ERP systems. These factors include beliefs in the benefits of ERP system, training on an ERP system, project communication and also behavioural intention to use the ERP systems.

Beliefs in the benefits of ERP system

Beliefs about an ERP system can provide a considerable influence on attitude towards the system. Positive beliefs are formed by professional informative training on an ERP system and also good quality communication related to the ERP system.{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. This creates a positive feeling of acceptance towards the system by the user {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}.

Mutual trust and commitment are essential in developing a positive belief in ERP systems as ERP systems are vast and extend across the organization and its processes. In achieving a high level of trust and commitment in an organization, an implicit shared sense of purpose in the organization is being promoted, which will alter the attitude of the user and in turn affect the acceptance of an ERP system. {{39 Zmud, R.W. 1979; }}

Managers play a vital role in beliefs of users as shared beliefs with peers and managers occur. This indicates that through managers applying motivational techniques such as effective training, selecting beneficial project leaders and allowing for appropriate information diffusion, managers can increase the belief of users using a system. {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. In an ERP system, these techniques can be applied to positively affect users' acceptance of an ERP system and if planned and implemented correctly, increase the chances of a successful ERP adoption. A manager has a fairly important role to play with regards to motivation.

A large amount of beliefs in the benefits on an ERP system is based on motivation as motivation has a direct impact on belief. {{40 Scholl, R.W. 1981; }} defines three main influencing factors towards motivation which are:

Training on ERP Systems

In order for users to run ERP systems efficiently, thorough training of users must be done. Users must acquire specific background knowledge to utilize the ERP system adequately. In order to achieve comprehensive training of users, training plans and adequate training support is needed {{68 Al Mudimigh, A. 2001; }}. Installing an ERP software package without adequate end user preparation could lead to drastic consequences. One of the most significant reasons of ERP failure is the lack of training{{42 Kelly, S.; }}. Poor training of users on ERP systems not only affects productivity of users and error rates in the organisation, but also affects the perceived ease of use of a user as well.

Computer self efficacy training is highly effective in increasing perceived ease of use of ERP systems. It can be seen as an immensely efficient tool in gaining user acceptance in an ERP system {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. {{44 Lin, H.X. 1997; }} suggests that usability of software and user guidance is strongly related. Training plays a pivotal role in the acceptance of an ERP system. A study done by {{45 Igbaria, M. 1997; }} illustrates that internal training has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and external training has an effect on perceived ease of use. In this way, managers may have a great impact on the acceptance of ERP if efficient, vibrant training is put in place. This will not only affect the perceived ease of use of a system, but also the beliefs in the benefits of an ERP system.

Training also provides valuable experience to users by the users interacting with the ERP system. It provides users to explore the ERP system and the impact of their decision on business processes. {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}proposes that training should commence in the implementation phase of an ERP system as it will affect the shared belief of benefits of an ERP system. New learning occurs at the implementation. Employees that have different roles in an organization are expected to accept different responsibilities. This ensures that new skills are shared and learnt by employees. The relationship between training and perceived ease of use is affected by training in the early stages of learning. {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}

  • Expectancy, which is the belief that effort will gain an achievement or goal of a wanted performance.
  • Instrumentality, which describes the incentive awarded for achieving a goal. The incentive can be intrinsic or extrinsic in value.
  • Valence, can be described as the value and individual attaches to an actual reward{{41 Leonard, N.H. 1999; }}

Shared beliefs in the benefits of an ERP system will also have a considerable effect on the perceived ease of use of the system to a user. This is due to the complexity that is attached to an ERP system as ERP systems differ from traditional IT systems where users need to understand the implications of changes made {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. If the belief in the benefits of a system is high, the perceived ease of use will most probably be high as well {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }} .

Project Communication Related to ERP System

Communication plays a pivotal role in any system and organization {{46 De Brabander, B. 1984; }}. Lack of communication can cripple an organization{{66 Kydd, C.T. 1989; }}. {{66 Kydd, C.T. 1989; }} also states that communication is essential to minimize uncertainty and conflicts present in IT development and implementation environments. In ERP systems, the communication flow is complex and vital in implementation as well as the user acceptance of the system {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}.Communication affects the benefits of the beliefs of an ERP system by acting as a passageway through which benefits of the technology flows in an organization. This causes an increase in shared beliefs about the benefits of a system {{47 Carter, F.J. 2001; }}. Perceived Usefulness is also dependant on the quality of communication provided {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}.A study done by {{32 Motwani, J. 2002; }}suggests that open communication promotes a common culture as well as innovative behavior in a company. As common culture is encouraged through open communication, a higher level of trust and acceptance of technology can be achieved {{32 Motwani, J. 2002; }}. This affects the attitudes and acceptance of systems because if a positive common culture exists, a strong belief in the benefits of an ERP system will be established.

Behavioral Intention to use an ERP system

Behavorial intention to use an Information technology comprises of user involvement, argument for change and also prior usage.{{49 Jackson, C.M. 1997; }}. User involvement during system development leads to greater behavorial intention {{24 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2007; }}

ERP systems usage comprises of discretionary and mandatory usage{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. Mandatory usage can be seen as "a base level needed to perform minimal job functions and usage beyond that might become voluntary"{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }} . While discretionary usage refers to voluntary usage. Both categories of usage leads to organizational benefits{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. Previous usage affects the behavioral intention to use a system in two manners, directly and indirectly. This is achieved through its effect on perceived usefulness{{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}. Even if usage might be mandatory, behavioral intention to use ERP systems is still a valid aspect to consider when modeling factors that affect user acceptance of ERP.

The Extended Technology Acceptance model presented by {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }} certainly presents a more convincing argument than the standard technology acceptance model that was proposed by {{25 Davis, F.D. 1989; }}.In showing how beliefs in the benefits towards ERP systems, training on ERP systems, project communication related to ERP systems and also behavourial intention to use an ERP system all relate to an ERP system, more factors of user acceptance have been defined and analyzed. Best management practices towards effectively managing user resistance stated by {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}are:

  • Clear and Concise Planning
  • Management expertise
  • Effective communication
  • Posititve and rich feedback
  • Effective user training
  • Provide effective user support
  • Initiate an incentive scheme for users of the ERP system

Critical Success Factors influencing User Acceptance of ERP

{{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}argued that the critical success factors for ERP implementation can be determinants of user acceptance towards ERP systems. {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}also stated that top management support, communication, training, cooperation and technological complexity plays a valid role in influencing user acceptance. The training and communication aspects have been discussed earlier in this paper as it was proposed in the extended technology acceptance model as well. It need not to be discussed again.

Top Management Support

Top management support can be seen as the active participation of organizational managers in a company which through the managers activities, guide users and the organization to Information Systems implementation success{{60 Sharma, R. 2003; }}. ERP package tools selection, management and leadership, vision and planning, cultural and structural changes management and performance evaluation can all be seen as management support to end users{{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}. Examples of top management support to end users include a clear understanding of strategic goals, an implementation team, multi site issue management, management of expectations, business processes re engineering, legacy systems management and integration and project schedules and plans {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }} .

Top management support is not only needed to gain user acceptance of the ERP system, but also to ensure that the ERP system is not hidden away {{67 Thong, J.Y.L. 1996; }}. Because of this, top management support should in fact co ordinate all technical services, meetings, consultation as well as training {{61 Igbaria, M. 1995; }}.Top management also is a good controller the communication process {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}, which discussed above is an aspect that influences user acceptance considerably. In this way, top management support is an indirect and direct contributor to user acceptance towards ERP systems. {{61 Igbaria, M. 1995; }}stated that top management support positively affects attitudes towards information systems. In this way, top management support directly affects ERP user acceptance{{63 Lucas, H.C. 1990; }} claimed that a barrier in all information systems would exist if top management support was not on place. Top management support can positively impact on user acceptance by through quality definition of rules, the participation in the planning and the distribution of resources and incentives {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}.

Cooperation

According to {{37 Somers, T.M. 2003; }}, cooperation provides synergy and aid users to reach their expectations. Internal co operation is the interaction between different departments or functional units in an organization while external cooperation can be seen as the relationships in the ERP systems vendor{{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}. Bueno states {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }} that co operation has a positive effect on ERP acceptance as it is positively related to the perceived usefulness as cooperation in ERP facilitates users perceived usefulness of ERP.

Technological complexity

{{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}argues that because of the complexity present in an ERP system, technological complexity is a factor that influences user acceptance of ERP. Technology complexity significantly inhibits ERP implementation success (Tornatzky and Klein, 1982).

When attempting to link legacy systems with ERP, users perceived risk can be high. This in turn affects the acceptance of the ERP system{{52 Sumner, M. 2000; }}. Appropriate managerial action and planning should take place in order to ensure that users of the ERP system accept its technological complexity{{52 Sumner, M. 2000; }}.

{{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}has proposed the model of extending the technology acceptance model with the critical success factors of ERP. In the proposed model, it can be noted that top management support, communication, training, cooperation and technological complexity indeed plays a valid role in influencing user acceptance and if these factors are cultivated accordingly, users of the ERP system will have a greater sense of acceptance towards the implementation of an ERP system in an organization.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model (UTAUT)

The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model proposed by {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}integrates eight user acceptance models, including the technology acceptance model. UTAUT also takes into account that the use of technology does not have to be voluntary, but it can also be mandatory. In the model (figure XYZ), Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, gender, age, experience, behavioral intentions, voluntariness of use and use behavior are proposed to have an effect on user acceptance of a technology, in this case an ERP system.

Performance Expectancy

Performance expectancy is derived from the perceived usefulness factor in the technology acceptance model but includes various other attributes such as extrinsic motivation, job fit, relative advantage and outcome expectations {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.performance expectancy can be seen as the degree that a user of a system believes that the system will aid the user in achieving goals and objectives {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.Performance expectancy has a strong influence on users of an ERP system {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}. Performance expectancy can be noted as a strong influence on user acceptance of ERP systems and also it applies to both mandatory and voluntary use of the ERP system {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.

Effort Expectancy

The perceived ease of use factor in the technology acceptance model acts as a derivative towards effort expectancy. {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }} defines effort expectancy as the level of simplicity the system brings in the users work environment {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}. {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }} reached a conclusion that effort expectancy does indeed affect end user acceptance of a system.

Social Influence

Social influence is defined by {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}as the degree to which a user thinks that others want the individual to use the system. Significant evidence exists to prove that social influence plays a role in the acceptance of users towards systems. {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }} believes that social influence plays a larger role in mandatory systems usage. Social influence affects behavior of individuals through three ways, which are, compliance, internalization as well as identification {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.

Facilitating Conditions

Facilitating Conditions is defined by {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}pp454) as "the degree to which an individual believes that an organi zational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system." {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }} states that facilitating conditions have three influences namely , training and support belief in the system and also project communication .These aspects have all been discussed earlier in this essay.

Gender

{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}states that gender influences the acceptance of an ERP system as it is perceived that female users of a new system tend to be less comfortable with it than male end users as female end users are seen to have a higher computer anxiety than males. The perceived ease of use that females see in a system is also less than that of males. {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}explains gender to be a moderating variable in the model . According to{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}, gender affects the system use with regards to the relationships of performance expectancy and effort expectancy.

Age

Age has a very similar effect towards system use as {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}describes age as also affecting the system use with regards to the relationships of performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. {{56 Venkatesh, V. 2000; }}found that older end users find it more difficult engaging complex systems such as an ERP system. The reason for this is that older users find it hard to change technological environments{{29 Seymour, L.; }}. {{29 Seymour, L.; }}states that because of the adjustment needed, it leads to a lower expectancy of performance as older system users have a lower perceived usefulness of the system.

Experience

Increased experience correlates directly with high beliefs in the benefits of an information system especially complex systems such as ERP systems {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}. It is noted also that the more experience gained, end users will attain more confidence in their ability to understand and use the system{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}. Experience also has a moderating effect on system use by affecting effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions.

Behavioural Intention

Behavioural intention has been discussed earlier in this essay. However, due to its importance in the UTAUT model, behavioural intention shall be discussed again, however through a different lens, relating it to the UTAUT model.

The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model use behavioural intention as a very influential variable towards user acceptance{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}. In a mandatory environment, behavioural intention does not play a vital role in user acceptance in contrast to a voluntary environment {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.

In the UTAUT model (figure XYZ) it shows that effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and voluntariness of use plays a role in behavioural intention. These factors determine the level and the intensity of the intention to use the information system, in this case the ERP system. Behavioural intention then affects the use or behaviour of the user to use the ERP system.

Voluntariness of use is also proposed in the model to affect the user acceptance as if a user has been ordered to use a complex system, the user will be more reluctant to use the system{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.

The UTAUT provides a more comprehensive view of user acceptance towards information systems, in this case, an ERP system. {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }} comprehensively describes the validity of the factors affecting user acceptance in the model. The model also takes into account eight other models. There is very little doubt that factors proposed affect user acceptance of a complex system, such as an ERP system.

{{29 Seymour, L.; }}proposes that in order to complete the UTAUT model for an ERP system, behavioural intention should be omitted and in its place , symbolic adoption should be instantiated. Symbolic adoption has been defined by {{21 Nah, F.F.H. 2005; }} as being the symbolic acceptance of a new system by the user adopting it. {{29 Seymour, L.; }}proposes that performance expectancy , effort expectancy, training , project communication, shared belief and facilitating conditions all act as derivatives to symbolic adoption.

User resistance towards ERP

User resistance factors also affect the acceptance of ERP system as if a user feels threatened. Two main causes of user resistance towards ERP stated by {{15 Aladwani, A.M. 2001; }}which can be seen as perceived risk as well as habit. Perceived risk is the perception a user has of risk that could occur when adopting an innovation such as and ERP system. {{15 Aladwani, A.M. 2001; }}. Habits are routine practices that a user does {{15 Aladwani, A.M. 2001; }}. User resistance is highly affected by factors such as workload, lack of Fit, technical problems, changed job, complexity, environment, lack of input, communication, training, uncertainty, self efficacy and lose control {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}.

Process re engineering can greatly affect user perception of risk {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}. The re adjustment can temporarily reduce performance of users {{51 Hitt, L.M. 2002; }}. Standard modules are usually minimally customized in order to incur less implementation cost. Managers are reluctant to make any changes to the standard modules unless the modifications are really necessary as further cost will be incurred when the system is updated as more customization will have to occur. As a result of this, managers choose rather to re engineer processes which often affects job structures. {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}. Work tools, skills, rewards, tasks of the job, organizational structures, and beliefs and values of an employee are all affected by organizational change which in turn affects user acceptance {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}.

User resistance is a serious issue that affects the efficiency of the ERP system and needs to be dealt with and managed accordingly. Marketing enterprise systems to users has been proven to be an effective way of increasing morale of users. {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}. Management can create mitigation strategies to negate the negative effects of user resistance {{33 Klaus, T. 2007; }}.

Conclusion

In this essay various user acceptance of technology models were analyzed, showing its relation towards user acceptance of an ERP system. In analyzing the technology acceptance model, the relevance of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were noted, however due to the assumption that all users use the system voluntary, the technology acceptance model proved to be inefficient when using it alone to describe the user acceptance factors of an ERP system. However, with the proposed extension by {{34 Amoako Gyampah, K. 2004; }}, the ETAM proved to be a viable model with regards to the user acceptance of a complex information system like an ERP system. The extension factors of beliefs in the benefits of ERP system, training on an ERP system, project communication and also behavioural intention to use the ERP systems illustrated that the model indeed proved a good fit with regards to user acceptance of ERP systems. Also noted that the factors proposed to extend the TAM i.e., training, communication and behavioural intention to use an information system, overlapped with other models, increasing the reputation and validity of the model . The Critical Success Factors influencing User Acceptance of ERP model proposed by {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }} was then analyzed. The factors of top management support, communication, training, cooperation and technological complexity plays were shown to play a valid role in defining factors that affect user acceptance of an ERP system. This model is rich in value as it illustrates that by positively implementing the critical success factors of ERP implementation, one can actually receive a higher positive impact on the user acceptance of an ERP system {{27 Bueno, S. 2008; }}.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model (UTAUT) proposed by {{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}showed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, gender, age, experience, behavioral intentions and voluntariness of use have a notable effect on user acceptance of a technology system, in this case an ERP system. gender , age and experience proved to be factors that indirectly affect user acceptance of an ERP system. While performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions proved to be direct contributors towards that acceptance of an ERP system by end users{{55 Venkatesh, V. 2003; }}.

Sources of user resistance play a role in hindering the acceptance of an ERP system {{15 Aladwani, A.M. 2001; }}. Perceived risk and habit were the main contributors of risk stated by ALAWAMI. In conclusion, on the topic of the factors influencing the user acceptance of an ERP system, managers should seriously take into account the user acceptance of ERP systems when implementing an ERP system to increase the success of implementation.

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