The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of employer brand in an organization and the extent to which it could be used to enhance recruitment and selection process. Further, this report begins with the introduction which talks about the key fields of the study and followed by aims and objectives of the study. Moreover, critically evaluation of literature review pertaining to above topic has been listed in the study which talks about others contribution towards the research topic. Besides, in the middle of the study illustrates research methodology that incorporated to the study very descriptively and also method of data analysis elaborated in most appropriate manner with align to the research topic given. Additionally, ending part of the report includes with ethical issue and limitation to the study. Finally reports ends-up with a conclusion with respect to the investigation carried-out belongs to the research topic given.
Table of Contents
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ii
Table of Contents iv
Aims and objectives of the research 2
Objectives of the Study 2
Critical review on key academic sources and issues raised 3
Key academic sources and its appropriateness 4
I.The importance of recruitment and selection process 5
II.Employer brand and its effectiveness towards recruitment and selection process 5
III.Employer brand and its significance in getting suitable candidate 6
5.Research Methodology 8
6.Method of data analysis 12
7.Ethical issues involved 14
8.Limitation of the research 15
This report basically illustrates the approach of conducting a research in order to investigate the perception of employer brand in an organization and the extent to which it could be used to enhance the recruitment and selection process. Further, this report includes research aims and objectives, critical review on key academic sources, methods of data analysis which would use in the research, ethical issues involved and limitations of the research.
Employees are key asset in an organization who drives the business in achieving its desired objectives. "People are the active resources of the organization because their potential, experience and passion, their initiatives and development actively contribute to the increase in efficiency and effectiveness of the organization" (Ramona and Emanoil, p. 157). Therefore, it is necessary to have right people for right job in order to execute organization related operations more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, recruitment and selection plays a major role in an organization to acquire right blood for the organization to fulfil human resource necessitate of the organization.
Besides, it is necessary to carry-out a research in order to find-out linkage between employer brand and its impact towards recruitments and selection process. Further, an in-depth study or investigation helps in getting better results pertaining to the subject that researcher going to investigate, the process of doing an in-depth investigation can be called as a research. Nicholas (2005, p. 08), described research as "research is a term loosely used in everyday speech to describe a multitude of activities, such as collecting masses of information, delivering into esoteric theories, and producing wonderful new products". Research is about discovery, the testing of hypotheses and of ideas. It is about the establishment of facts through enquiry and exploration.
Hence, in this report researcher aiming to find-out perception of employer brand in an organisation and the extent to which it could be used to enhance recruitment and selection processes. Additionally, this report begins with research aims and objectives that researcher going to incorporate in the research pertaining to the above mentioned research question and followed by a critical review on literature that aligns with research aims and objectives listed in the report.
Aims and objectives of the research
Research aims and objectives play a vital role in the entire research in order to get desired result of the study. Further, research aims and objectives highlight researcher's understanding about the topic that researcher going to accomplish. Moreover, the aim of this research is to investigate the perception of employer brand in an organization and to evaluate the extent to which employer brand could be used to enhance recruitment and selection processes.
Besides, Panneerselvam (2005, p. 11), Stated "The objectives of the research must be identified by taking the system requirements into account. In the process of identifying objectives of the research, the researcher must finalize the following. Research question, boundary of the study". As he mentioned clearly researcher must have clear understanding about the topic that he is going to investigate. Additionally, based on the understanding he must state aims and objectives of the study. Moreover, Nicholos (2005, p. 223) defined research aims and objectives as "expand your problem to formulate a serious of research aims or objectives. These should take in to account the complexity of the main problem, and the steps needed to investigate the various aspects contained within it". In doing so, below objectives will be helped to carry-out proper investigation with align to research problem given.
Objectives of the Study
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Strategically evaluate the influence of employer brand in executing recruitment and selection process to fulfil human resource requirement.
Critically assess the effectiveness of employer brand in recruitment and selection process in different organizations.
Critically evaluate the relationship between employer brand and its impact towards recruitment and selection process.
Critical review on key academic sources and issues raised
In order to get better understanding about the research topic it is necessary to do a comprehensive literature review. In a nutshell, this section illustrates what others have done pertaining to research topic that researcher going to examine. Besides, Nicholas (2005, p. 75), stated "your thesis should take its place in the collection of other writings, all of which contribute to the sum of knowledge about the subject. So, in order to understand the present 'state of the art' you too need to read what other people have written and make some kind of assessment of where your research will fit into that body of work". Further, as he mentioned this is a vital area of the research that describes literature relating to the subject area which researcher has used in order to get better understanding about the investigation. In doing so, researcher will be able to identify issues relating to the subject area, appropriate methodologies that can be used in the research, to stay away from unnecessary replication etc.
Moreover, Panneerselvam (2005, p. 06), described literature survey as "is a study involving a collection of literatures in the selected area of research in which the researcher has limited experience and critical examination and comparison of them to have better understanding. It is also helps the researchers to update with the past data, data sources and results, which will be useful for related researchers in future". With respect to his quote, researcher can get further understanding about the research topic by referring others works pertaining to relevant examine. As a result researcher will be able to develop his research in more positive manner with the experience gained by referring literature.
Further, Randolph (2009, p. 01), stated "If the literature review is flawed, the remainder of the dissertation may also be viewed as flawed, because a researcher cannot perform significant research without first understanding the literature in the field". He has discussed the significance of conducting a literature review in order to get better understanding about the research topic.
Key academic sources and its appropriateness
There are plenty of sources available to get informations pertaining to literature and such information could be found in books, journals, magazines, newspapers, world wide web etc. Further, above mentioned sources can be categorized as primary, secondary, territory sources. However, researcher has to decide what are the suitable sources that he need to incorporate in the literature review based on availability of informations pertaining to research topic which researcher going to examine. Moreover, researcher needs to concentrate on below highlighted points when selecting relevant sources in extracting relevant information.
Relevancy - This is very critical when selecting a source in extracting information.
Quality - The work has to be in proper manner that can be used for the research.
Consistency - The sources which use to extract information has to provide consistent data.
Accessibility - Accessibility is also important which highlights availability of information and retrieve of information based on sources that use to extract information.
Nevertheless, there are pluses and minuses of above mentioned sources. For example, journals give plenty of updated information. However, sometimes need to pay to view the journal and also informations which are available in the journals might be pre-disposition towards one angle. Further, books can be used to get more information for particular subject area but information which is available in books might be outdated. Researcher need to keep these things in mind when selecting sources.
Below highlights the critical review on literature pertaining to research problem and research objectives listed in the report.
The importance of recruitment and selection process
Recruitment and selection is a key aspect of an organization which helps in fulfilling human resource requirement. Further, Armstrong (2006, p.409) describe recruitment and selection process as "the overall aim of the recruitment and selection process should be obtain at minimum cost the number and quality of employees required to satisfy the human resource needs of the company", as he mentioned, it is necessary to fulfil human resource requirement of an organization in order to execute its desired operations. Further, people are the key asset of an organization who has major responsibilities in achieving its objectives. Therefore, fulfilment of human resource requirement is paramount important to drive the entire business towards its success. Further, I agree cost has to be minimized. However, company need to spend in proper manner for recruitment and selection process in order to get right person for right job. Additionally, keeping cost at a minimum for recruitment and selection might lead to negative side such as, limit no. of recruitments and selections due to cost factor that has an impact in getting new blood to the organization.
Employer brand and its effectiveness towards recruitment and selection process
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When talks about employer brand Armstrong (2006, p. 395) stated that "employer branding is the creation of a brand image of the organization for prospective employees. It will be influenced by the reputation of the organization as a business provider of service as well as its reputation as an employer". Further, there is a quote in that "employer branding is the concept of applying to the recruitment process the same marketing coherence used in the management of customers". With align to his quote employer brand plays a major role among its stakeholders and it determines sustainability and growth of the organization. Additionally, he has mentioned positive side of the employer branding and its significance towards recruitment process. In actual terms employer brand determines the effectiveness of the organization towards its employees satisfaction that can be named as great place to work. Moreover, great place to work concept illustrated by Armstrong (2006, p. 394), "ensuring that the organization is perceived a great place to work means that it becomes an employer of choice, ie one for whom people want to work. There is a desire to join the organization and once there, to want to stay". This elaborates how important employer brand in doing recruitment and selection in order to get potential employees to the organization.
As per Ariffin (p. 01), "Brands are among a firm's most valuable assets and as a result, brand management is a key activity in many firms. Although firms commonly focus their branding efforts toward developing product and corporate brands, branding can also be used in the area of human resource management. The application of branding principles to human resource management has been termed employer branding. Increasingly, firms are using employer branding to attract recruits and assure that current employees are engaged in the culture and the strategy of the firm". This gives clear indication about employer branding gives an extra support due to its image in doing recruitment and selection.
Employer brand and its significance in getting suitable candidate
Further, Ariffin (p. 05) stated "External marketing of the employer brand establishes the firm as an employer of choice and thereby enables it to attract the best possible workers" which illustrate the linkage between employer brand and recruitment process in getting potential employees to execute business operations effectively and efficiently.
Ramona and Emanoil (p. 157), described relationship between employer brand and recruitment process as follows "Nowadays, employer brand has earned a significant importance generated by the need of the organizations to have a strong, positive image, in order to attract talented people more easily" as per the above quote it says employer brand has some gravity to get talent blood in to the organization which would result in enhancing performance of the company in near future. As he clearly mentioned talented employees can make a significant change in the organization towards its success in order to achieve desired objectives of the company.
Besides, Ramona & Emanoil (p. 158), explained "Firstly, the employer brand makes the difference - it is the way in which one company can compare to another company. Secondly, a brand is free to compete on grounds other than price. While very many companies offer higher salaries than the competition in order to attract the best candidates, a real brand offers the possibility to work for the company as an attraction" this quote distinguishes how employer brand is important than higher salaries in getting people to the organization. Merely, it is not totally depends on salary, great place to work adds more value in recruitment and selection process than perks.
Rosethorn (p. 12), discussed very deeply about talent people and impact of them towards success of the organization "As the attraction and retention of talent has turned into make-or-break factor for organisational success, HR professionals have had to develop a more detailed appreciation of the global talent landscape. Talent has always deserved to be a strategic issue, but now it is certainly hitting many more top table agendas. Organisations are being forced to consider their options like never before - from where the right talent pools exist and moving business operations to take advantage of them, to looking at what it takes to move the talent to meet the business need"
Martin stated "Certain kinds of recruitment practices can be used to market employer brands better than others, employment intentions and actual decisions were influenced by two dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes". Further, in here he has illustrated the importance of employer brand in getting right fit person to the company in driving the entire operation more effectively and efficiently which results in achieving short-term and long-term objectives of the company.
"An employer brand can be leveraged as a tool in marketing the employment experience to current and potential employees. Through strategic and ongoing employer brand management, an organization can accelerate the attraction of best-fit candidates, increase the retention of high-performing employees and drive employee engagement toward business objectives". This quote describes how employer brand can be used as a marketing tool in getting potential employees to the organization in recruitment and selection process.
Research methodology is a vital area in a research and research methodology discuss about strategies and tools which could be used for data collection and analysis of data. Selection of appropriate methodology helps in doing proper date gathering and data analysis which would direct in getting accurate results since out-come is very vital of a research. Further, Panneerselvam (2005, p. 02), stated "a system of models, procedures and techniques used to find the results of a research problem is called a research methodology". As he mentioned researcher need to select appropriate procedures and techniques in executing data gathering and data analysis. Moreover, when selecting an appropriate research methodology researcher needs to concentrate on three aspects such as, research philosophy, research approach and research techniques.
In business and management, selecting a research philosophy is the option between two primary alternatives, Positivistic and Phenomenological. As stated by Saunders et al (2007, pp.103-107) following key differences of each philosophical approach can be identified.
Besides, below researcher has distinguishes two methods of researchers such as, quantitative and qualitative methods. Further, researcher has to decide the research method that he needs to incorporate for the investigation. Below table highlights Comparison on qualitative and quantitative research.
Further, Nicholas (2005, p. 246), discussed research approach as "quantitative and qualitative research are said to be two diametrically opposed research approaches". With respect to the given research problem researcher can use quantitative philosophy in executing the research since researcher could get large sample when collecting data. Further, in quantitative philosophy researcher can incorporate research questioner to gather data. In contrary if researcher interested on qualitative method he can go-ahead with qualitative philosophy in order to gather data by using direct observation of candidates, interview records etc.
Research approach can be categorized as deductive approach and inductive approach. Further, in deductive approach can be described as highly structured approach, collection of quantitative date, scientific principles are engaged, and operationalisation of concepts to ensure clarity of definition etc. In contrary, inductive approach consists of less concern with the need to generalize, flexible structure to permit changes of research, the collection of qualitative data etc. Nevertheless, researcher can use deductive method which would result in getting quantitative data. Moreover, in deductive method it deals with variables which can be quantified in getting out come which would give more accurate result in executing the given task. In doing so, researcher needs to build up a hypothesis relating to employer brand and its impact towards recruitment and selection process which needs to be used in this research in order to identify the relationship between employer brand and recruitment process. Moreover, formulation of hypothesis has to be developed though the knowledge gained by executing the literature review.
Hypothesis that can be used in executing the research study
Employer brand has positive impact that contributes in enhancing recruitment and selection process.
Research techniques comes in to action and this is very much sensitive area that researcher needs to concentrate on more in order to do an appropriate data gathering which would result in getting efficient and effective out-come. As Nicholas (2005, p. 246), stated that "the preceding discussion about data emphasized the need for a clear definition of the research objectives and a clear definition of the conditions and admissibly of data. The type of data collected partly determines the method used to analyse them in order to develop an answer to the research problem" Furthermore, researcher needs to incorporate appropriate sampling techniques in getting data from the population since this research would be based on deductive method.
Sampling plan needs to be decided by researcher as per the objectives listed above and the sample plan can be categorized in to two. Such as, probability sampling plan which includes sample random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling and multi stage sampling. Further, in non probability sampling plan that includes convenience sampling, judgement sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling. However, as per the research problem given probability sampling mechanism would be ideal for the research since there is an equal chance of probability being selected from the population. In doing so, researcher needs to select 20 companies (located in Sri Lanka) that operates in larger scale in-terms of number of employees and annual turnover. Based on the criteria explained researcher needs to get necessary details pertaining to recruitment and selection process belongs to above mentioned companies.
In doing so, researcher has to collect data from human representatives (managers and staff) who are engaging in recruitment and selection process of those companies and sample size has to be minimum 50 in order to get an accurate data.
Further, cluster sample technique would be ideal in collecting data among different companies. Nicholas (2005, p. 277), described cluster sampling as "in cluster sampling, cases in the population from clusters by sharing one or some characteristics but are otherwise as heterogeneous as possible, also known as area sampling, cluster sampling is used when the population is large area. Rather than enumerating the whole population, it is divided into segments, and then several segments are chosen at random".
Apart from that, researcher needs to incorporate a questionnaire and this has to be circulated through personal interviews. Panneerselvam (2005, p. 18), described personal interviews as "Personal interview is a survey method of data collection which employs a questionnaire". Further, researcher needs to collect secondary data which are available in companies. The research questionnaire helps in improving the consistency of the data.
Method of data analysis
Data analysis is a key task of a research which would help in getting more efficient and effective out-come. Therefore, selecting an appropriate tools and techniques is paramount important in this section. Further, Panneerselvam (2005, p. 14) described about data analysis deeply and he stated "after data are collected, proper tools and techniques should be used for classification and analysis of data". Moreover, in this research study researcher needs to incorporate quantitative data analysis techniques and tools since data are quantifiable. Researcher would select descriptive statistics method in order to illustrate data. Further, graphs and statistical methods would be used to present the results. Other than that quantifiable data would facilitate to use statistical software's in order to get precise outcome. For an example Minitab can be used for data analysing purposes in this research.
After analysing the data, researcher will be able to present out-come of the analysed data in-terms of graphical manner that enables to convey the out-come of the research study more effectively and efficiently. "Information about the scores in a sample can be presented in several ways. If it is presented in a graph or chart, this may make it easier for people to understand what has been found, compared to simply presenting information about the central tendency and dispersion". Researcher would use likert chart in order to display outcome of the questioner in-terms of its respond gained from having interviews with mangers and staff members who are engaging in recruitment and selection process of selected companies.
Agree 1 2 3 4 5
Besides, as per the likert scale researcher allocate marks scale from 1 - 5 based on feedback taken through questioner. Further, based on responses given by respective parties the mean value will calculate by using the total score for each component divided by the total frequency (n). In doing so, mean value consider as 3 on the likert scale, based on that other rating has been calculated.
Mean Rating (x) = âˆ‘ fx / n
(f = frequency of each category of rating (x), n = total frequency, x = 1,2,3,4,5)
Therefore, the researcher calculate the mean values of actual responses and overall degree of objectives will be calculated based on the mean value which is equal to 3 as per the likert scale. As a result, the out-come of the analysis will be based on responses given by respective managers and staff member who are engaging in recruitment and selection process for the questioner that research presented during the personal interviewing process.
Finally, researcher need to develop graphs as per the out-come which would help in getting better understanding about the research since graphical representation helps to covey the massage more effectively. In order to do that researcher need to use excel sheets and other software which is available in computer to deliver results more effectively and efficiently.
Ethical issues involved
Researcher needs to be aware on ethical issues prior to conduct a research which would help in doing a better work within the ethical boundaries that is inherited to a research. Further, Nicholas (2005, p. 335), describes ethical issues in a research "there are two perspectives from which you can view the ethical issues in a research. One is concerned with the values of honesty and frankness and personal integrity, the other with those of ethical responsibilities to the subject of research, such as consent, confidentially and courtesy". Therefore, researcher needs to keep this in mind when conducting a research as well as researcher has to make-sure that the research may not arise problems in-terms of ethics during the entire research.
Integrity - researcher needs to maintain integrity across the work and also need to present all data, results, methods and procedures as per the things that he used and collected while conducting the research. Further, researcher should not misrepresent data.
Objectivity - researcher needs to avoid bias in analysing data, interpretation of data and researcher needs to only focus on objective of the research in order to do a better work.
Carefulness - Researcher needs to avoid negligence and careless errors. Further, researcher carefully and critically examines the research work such as data collection, research design.
Plagiarism - researcher needs to acknowledge other peoples work when doing the research in order to avoid plagiarism issues.
Confidentiality - researcher needs to protect confidential communications, such as company data, interview data, personal records etc.
Limitation of the research
The research has limitations of the data collection from different professions belongs to different companies and this might have an impact on conducting proper data analysis, and also interpreting of the analysis. Further, in this research study access to secondary data would be limited and some companies may not provide secondary data more specifically relating to recruitment and selection process which creates a constraint in doing a proper investigation. Moreover, researcher needs to distribute questioner among senior managers and staff who are engaging in recruitment and selection process of companies and there may be a time constraint in getting appointments with them.
In addition, collecting data from different companies consumes time and a cost for the researcher which would have impact in getting more data in order to accomplish proper data analysis and interpretation of data to get proper our-come of the study.
In order to do a proper study based on the research question given it is necessary to schedule the work and complete all activities as per the schedule. Further, in accomplishing the given task it is paramount important to conduct scheduled tasks in more appropriate manner. Formulation of proper aim and objectives are very vital in accomplishing a proper research study which would lead to get more reliable out-come. Moreover, researcher needs to find-out more appropriate literature pertaining to given research question in order to get better understanding about the research. In doing so, researcher needs to get literature from different academic sources such as, books, journals, articles, magazines, world wide web etc. Nevertheless, researcher needs to get details from academic source which are consistent, reliable and also from trustworthy sources.
Besides, researcher needs to follow quantitative research methodology that deals with variables which would enable in getting quantifiable out-come of the study. Furthermore, data analysis and interpretation has to be aligned to the objectives that listed in the study. Finally researcher needs to conduct the research study with ethical norms defined in the research field and also researcher need to overcome / minimize limiting factors in executing the research study.