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Human Resources Management means employing people, developing their resources, utilising, maintaining and compensating the services in tune with the job and organisational requirements.
SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT:
Human Resources plays a wide and crucial role in the development of organisation's strength in terms of economy and effective and efficient manpower. Lewis observed ' there are great differences between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviour.'
Though there are exploitation of natural resources , availability of financial and physical resources, the international aid play a vital role to get a rapid, huge and continuous growth in modern economies. None of the above factors is more important than efficient and committed manpower. In fact, it is said that hard to find committed and efficient human minds through which the development comes from.
NATURE AND SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT:
In any organisation employees manifest themselves not only through individual sections but also as a group. When an applicant becomes employees of an organisation he not only comes with technical skills and knowledge but also with his desires, personal feelings, motives etc., Therefore, Management in the organisation means that management is not only include with knowledge and skills but also other factors of Human Resources.
NEED FOR HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICY:
It is very essential that every organisation should have it's own Human Resources Management Policy in order to accomplish the objectives of personnel and organisation as well, depending on the structure and size of the organisation. And also management's interest plays a vital role in developing the policy of HRM.
ADVANTAGES OF HRM POLICY:
As policies are instructional devices, facilitates several advantages to the personnel working at various levels in the following ways.
Policies help the managers to avoid the help of supervisors every time with great confidence, and also helpful for the managers at various levels.
Policies increase the chances to the different people who are working independently and facing similar problem or situations at various levels. They make the employees actions more consistent.
They specifies the relationship among the organisation, personnel and management. Policies allows the employees of the organisation to work toward attaining the objectives of the organisation without any conflict, showing the way for better control.
Policies help the employees to aware of where they stand in the organisation and what they are doing for the organisation, and also it creates a very good confidence in them while controlling the regular problems. They give employees a chance to avoid the misinterpretation, misrepresentation and conflicts. The middle level employees like Managers and his subordinates can perform confidently.
By summarising the past experience of the organisation, the policies will be renewed or updated. With the help of updated policies Employees or Managers can take rapid decisions.
OBSTACLES OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
There are few factors which obstruct the HRM policies from implementation. They are
Sometimes the policies restrict the scope of Managers from their innovative, creativity at the execution. So, They can't implement the innovations in their actions due to restriction of HRM policy
The policies even effect on the recruitment process also, for example if the policy wants to give employment to the candidates on 'merit' may be sabotaged by the unprincipled manager by saying 'yes' to the unfit candidates.
HR policies are very difficult to communicate. There is always a danger falling into 'generalities and pleasantries.'
FUNCTIONS OF HRM:
HRM Functions have been classified into two
Managerial functions of HRM involves in Planning, organising, directing, staffing and controlling.
HRM has to plan the Employee Programmes and changes in advance which will contribute the organisational goals.
It is Essential to carry out the course of action of an organisation. J.C.Massie says ' An organisation is a task among it's members identifies relationship and it's activities for a common goal of an organisation.
After planning and organising it's very important to execute the plan. It can be done it
Can be done in many ways like motivating, commanding, leading and encouraging the employees as individuals or group. The employees performance with effectiveness and willing is only possible with proper directions to reach the organisational goals.
It is the main function of HRM to staff the employees through recruitment and selection process to get the work done in order to reach the organisation goal.
Controlling functions involves in verifying, checking and comparing of actuals with the plans. The conformity of the plans will possible by the above mentioned process.
Operational functions are related to some particular activities of Personnel management These operative functions are to be done in association with management functions.
It is said to be the first Operative function of the Human Resources Management. It is concerned with securing and provide employment for the applicants who are really fit for the job in order to reach the organisation goals.
This process will deals with job analysis, Human Resources Planning, Recruitment, selection, placement and induction orientation.
Human Resources Development:
It is known as the process of improving, moulding and changing the skills, knowledge, creativity, ability, values and attitude of the employees based on past and future job and also the organisational requirements.
These functions are included in Performance appraisal, Training, Career planning and development, management and organisation development.
It includes with job evaluation, wage and salary administration and other incentives for which the employee is eligible. And also this process takes keen interest and care about the employees adequate and fair remuneration.
What is Recruitment?
'Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.' By Edwin b. Flippo.
Objectives of Recruitment:-
To attract people with multi dimensional skills and experiences that suits the organisational requirements.
To infuse the new blood at all levels of organisation.
To develop the culture of organisation which attracts competent people towards the organisation.
To find people for the new positions which do not exist so far.
To share knowledge and experiences of the employees together.
To search for new talents globally not only within the organisation.
To introduce new candidates with new perspective to lead.
Affecting Factors of Recruitment:
Internal and External both the factors affect Recruitment. The external factors include supply of and human resources supply etc.,
Internal factors involve in pay & package, trade unions, organisational culture etc.,
Factors Affecting Recruitment
Internal Factors External Factors
Company package Employment Rate
Name and fame of the company Socio-economic Factors
Quality of work life Labour market conditions
Cost of recruitment Supply and demand factors
Sources of Recruitment
Internal Sources External Sources
Present employees Campus Recruitment
Casual Employees Campus Recruitment
Retired Employees Private Agencies
Dependent of all the employees Public Exchanges
References of the employees E- Recruitment
It means by which the management contracts prospective employees or produce the necessary information and stimulates the candidates both the internal and external.
The techniques which are useful to encourage the candidates are:
References of present employees
Modern Techniques of Recruitment:-
Walk - in
Consult - in
Head - hunting
Tele - Recruitment
Purpose of Recruitment:-
Generating applicants' interest in applying for a job which gives them a chance to the right organisation in which they've to join.
Assessment of Recruitment Programme
Recruitment policies, objectives and strategies should be assessed against the corporate strategies and policies continuously. Recruitment techniques and sources are also should be assessed against to the company Recruitment policy. The assessment helps in monitoring and controlling the recruitment practices.
After recruitment process it's the next step to conduct interviews to test the candidates' knowledge, skills, strength, weakness and ability to do the work. These interviews are very helpful to both the management and working staff to select the right candidates for the right job in right time. This interview process will help the organisation to attract the staff and encourage the high work performance.
The interview process will be conducted in various ways depending on the organisation structure and it's size and the management.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
There are some specific types of interviews in order to encourage the staff high work performance and to make it convenient at the applicants' end. They are named as..
This is also called Direct Interview in which there are two member one is interviewer and the another is applicant, and some times there may be three members in the process one is applicant, second is functional specialist and the another one is from resourcing team i.e HR.
We can find several people sitting in a panel, usually the chairperson will coordinate with the questions. Particularly we find this kind of interviews in Public Sectors
Telephonic interviews are rapidly increasing in the corporate companies as an integral part recruitment process. This process will be used at the stage of selecting the candidates. If the applicant is offered a telephonic interview by an organisation, one has to remember that the employer wants to yield the right information as they'd be in face-to-face interview. In order to provide the information the candidate has to be ready with the information for a telephonic interview.
Several candidates will be present at interview and will be asked questions as a group in turn. In this a group discussion may be incurred and candidates are supposed to put questions one after one, to the other candidates.
There are many steps in this interview process with different interviewer each time. Usually, the interviewer may ask the same questions repeatedly to test different set of competencies, but here, the candidate has to be careful to answers the same questions with the same answer as time before.
Let's go through in brief how the sequential interviews will be held in practice.
Interviews will be conducted in many rounds to filter the right candidates. Let's critically discuss How the Interview process will be done and also the topic how interview and selection process encourage the employee high work performance in the following.
Filtration for the right candidates
Interview Format in practice
Just a Minute Round
This is the starting point of interviews. In this phase of introduction, candidates have to introduce themselves in order to let everybody know about them. In the organisation's point of view, staff will find a chance to meet may kind of personalities with various perceptions and ideology. Staff will come to know more about people, particularly under training candidates find a great scope to learn more.
Just a Minute Round:
In this round applicant's spontaneity will be tested and also the language skills. As there are going to be more than one staff members, they sit together and discuss about the applicant's performance and they find time to analyse the performance. This encourages the employees to learn about the things how to judge.
In this segment applicant's written and analytical skills will be assessed which are very important for the organisation. At this level Staff members are in a place to share the information and learn about the new or updated things. And also they will come to know how to analyse the applicant's talent being in a group.
This Group Discussion round will help the organisation and staff to make their selection process easier. In this round a topic will be given to the participants on which they have to discuss as a group. Once the time is finished to think about the topic, participant will be asked to have a discussion by posing questions at the other candidates.
At this stage participants technical skills will be assessed. An interviewer from the technical department along with the Resourcing Team members will sit together in the interview process to assess the participant's performance.
We can probably say that this would be the last step of the interview process where the candidates or participants are going to be one step behind their employment. In this, The Human Resources Manager will take the interview to assess the participants' personal attitudes, behaviour and some other issues like agreements and salaries part of the applicant. This will help the management in attaining the correct personnel into their organisation through which they reach their goals without any hesitations.
As we have discussed previously that the selection process will be done with the help of interview process which helps the staff and management to in take the right candidates into the organisation to reach it's goal.
Based on the above said methods the selection process will be performed by the staff and management as a team. In the above mentioned methods, in each of the methods there'll be filtration which helps the staff and management to get the list of short listed candidates data after completion of each round of interview. The candidates who will be successful By completion of the last round of interview, will be given employment based on their content of application, qualification, merit and performance of interview.
Essentials of Selection Procedure
In order to get the selection procedure successful, it has to meet the following requirements.
The Authority of selecting candidates should be given to one employee working in managerial cadre. This authority will be given by employment requisition.
To select the required number of employees, there must be sufficient number of applicants.
Comprehensive job specification and job description must be available with the organisation.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SELECTION PROCESS:
It's very crucial and complex function to select the personnel to organisation. The ability of developing a dynamic environment and reaching it's goals effectively depends on the effective selection programme of that organisation. If the right personnel is selected, it's easy for an organisation to finish it's rest of the tasks. The commitment and contribution of the employee will be at higher level and also the employee and employer relationship will be complaisant. If a right personnel is not selected, the remaining tasks of the organisation become harder. The commitment of the employee will be at lower level and also the relationship between the employee and the employer will be disagreeable.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION DECISIONS:
The are some factors which affect the selection decisions. The main intention of selection process is to eliminate the unqualified candidates to reach the organisational goals. Where as the main intention of the recruitment process is to collect the data of a large number of people who are willing to work.
The important factor which affect the selection decisions are.
Social and organisational environment
Human Relations are the important tools for the management or organisation to encourage the individuals to a high work performance. In order to do it effectively the organisation has to maintain good human relations among the employees. To maintain good human relations the personnel head has to have adequate knowledge about the human relations, psychology and sociology. And also the managers has to maintain and run the relations among the employees in a healthy environment because 'the good for each individual is good for the organisation.'
In order to maintain the Sound Human Relations through which the employees are attracted and encouraged are:
The Manager has to promote the major tool 'Honesty' among the personnel.
Being a good leader the manager has to bring unity in the group leading by him, so that he can contribute to the growth of maintaining good relations among the personnel.
Requesting is a good method for the managers to attract the staff instead of orders. But some times he has to order.
Managers have to take responsibility of inculcating the organisation culture to the employees.
Inviting and Respecting the employees ideas is also a method of having good relations.
Subordinates feel happier when they are praised in public by their managers, but managers have to be careful not to do this thing in great excitement or with over ambition.
By helping the employees, we can earn their faith n positive attitude by which the employees feel happy.
The manager level has to understand the needs of the employees and giving a kind of help toward that will satisfy them. And also giving importance to their personal life will help the organisation in a long way to maintain the relations.
Individuals are different from one another. They are different not only in posture, voice and language but also they are different in attitude, behaviour, motives and thoughts. Individuals act differently to the same stimulus, but the manager has to grab their attitudes and has to treat them accordingly to suit to the individual needs.
Every personnel has a reason. The reason of their action will be resulted in the influence between his encouragement given by the managers and the encouragement expected by the individual. So, the manager has to understand all the factors showing impact on the individual and is to act as a good individual is essential asset of a good organisation.
Understanding the people is a difficult task and to execute. In order to understand the managers have to aware of the fundamentals of the human behaviour. This awareness helps the managers to know why individuals or people behave so? What do they want? How can we solve them? And what makes the employees to run behind the actions to be performed with a great zeal.
The Effective communication process also contributes in maintaining good human relations among the people. Many conflicts will be ridden off quickly by maintaining the good communication system.
Before pointing out the others mistakes, the managers have to obey their mistakes and should be responsible for them. This system makes the employees to realise themselves and helps the organisation to put the personnel in the path of honesty.
HOW ORGANISATION ATTRACTS STAFF AND ENCOURAGES HIGH WORK PERFORMANCE IN SELECTION PROCESS VIA INTERVIEWS.
Here we can critically analyse how an organisation attracts and stimulates it's employees by giving the each personnel some responsibilities as individual and a group as well. By doing this the organisation attain much better performances from the personnel. The following issue will be the major factors of giving the employees the encouragement.
Individual as a team member
Scope to learn
Individual as a team member:
When an individual has been appointed as a member in a team, he'll except some kind of positive approach and motivation from the rest of the team members. In order to fulfil the expectations of the new team member or existing member, the manager has to much careful to reach the expectations of the individual or member. If the individual is feeling much stress,
The manager has to set up a meeting with the member first
And then he has to ask for the reason gently.
The manager has to made an offer for help to bring him out of the problem.
Manager has to assure the confidentiality in case of his personal problems out of the organisational premises.
If any help is required talk to the concerned employee or manager and sort out the problem.
Scope to learn:
When an individual works in a group, he'll find a great scope to learn about new things, latest things and also about the different kinds of people. It's very important to know about human beings mentality. While he is working for selection process via interviews, he'll work more interestingly as the process is going to be a new process daily and also he'll approach many applicants whom he has to deal with. Not only regular job but also he'll find the work environment with a great fun and joy. Staff members will learn the new approaches and techniques in conducting interviews and selection procedures which are very helpful for the staff in the career.
As we all know that organisation is not individual but a group. Everybody has to contribute their performances in order to reach organisational goals. While every employee is working in a group in the organisation, the staff member find a wide range of chances to learn from the group members like colleagues, seniors, team leader and the manager. Always manager will be behind the team to suggest them in a right way. Even if any of the team member goes wrong in his actions during the performance, he'll be motivated by the team members along with the manager to learn the things how to do. The risk factor is also very low, so the staff members as individual are not get into panic to perform the actions. The motivation given by the members or the manager will be different from person to person depending on their attitude and perceptions.
Appraisals also plays a vital role in encouraging the employees to perform better. For example, if management announces that if a team of 4 member will recruit 100 employees for operator level in a weeks of time will be awarded the best team. Then every team will work hard to perform better in order to attain the award which gives the staff a great pleasure by proving themselves.
It's a very good technique of the management to utilize the services of the personnel in every aspect in the absence of other employees or short fall of employees. This method is not only helpful for the management but also for the staff members. Because the job rotation technique will be useful for the in attaining knowledge of the new topics and will be trained properly to perform better. So that, they'll show more interest to learn new things and acquire adequate knowledge useful for their career growth.
As the staff are working together for the purpose of attaining the common goal, simultaneously, they find to learn many things and develop their knowledge. By these techniques they find themselves a drastic change and development in their career. This gives them a chance to develop themselves in hierarchy from level to level. For example, operator level to supervisor and executive level to manager level.
All the above mentioned factors will attract the staff members in selection process via interviews. Because conducting interviews are routine new for the staff members. As they find themselves in a pleasant, joyful and healthy environment to work and also they find the risk factors are going to be less working in a group. So that organisations will be benefited along with the staff members.
To attract the staff, the organisation have to provide the discussed factors in order to get the high work performance from the employees. Once again we've to remember that a good employee is very much essential for a good organisation.
The selection process in the above mentioned ways are going to be maintained only in some companies which are in corporate zone. But still the companies which are under this zone are to be developed and to adopt the systems and techniques to attract the personnel and getting the work done from them at optimum level by providing them the necessary facilities as we discussed.
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