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"Employees Motivation" is a rewarding aspect that makes employees work harder, more efficiently, and a positive work environment is created. The rewarding aspect which is as a motivation is a one of the important key to make the employees inspired. Highly self motivated, committed, ambitious employees give the most to the company and get most form their work. Furthermore, if the employee's motivation is lacking in the workplace that will be effects dramatic to their performance. High employees turnover are some of the clue that motivation is as an issue. By motivating the employees can make the company to retain their employees, it is can minimize the turnover of employees in the company. Retention employees refer to policies and practices used by the companies to prevent valuable employees from leaving their jobs.
Motivation from management can result in better performance of employees. Employee's motivation has co relation with job satisfaction. There are many causes of job satisfaction such as job enrichment, good supervision, clear roles, and met expectation, dissatisfaction faction is associated with job stress, repetitive work, role ambiguity, and role overload (Mitchell, T.R. & Holtom, B.C. & Lee, T.W., 2001). Moreover, (Maslow, 1940) stated that Intrinsic need satisfying the individual is known as the internal motivators such as social approval, security, growth, etc. external motivators are concerned with environmental factors and also the primary contribution deals with the psychological aspects of motivation. The spirit of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. The more you are able to provide what they want, the more you should expect what you really want (Dell, T., 1988).
In recent years, good human resource management is demanded by many organisations in order to stay competitive in the market, especially for those in the service industry. However, managing human resources has been an increasingly difficult task. This is because people come from all different shape and sizes which means fulfilling each of their needs is a gruelling work. In other words, employee is backbreaking as their needs, wants and level of satisfaction differs from one another. Moreover, Singapore is a multicultural nation. In addition to that, many people come from neighbouring countries such as Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and India. Hofstede (2001) contents that; cultural differences are always a pain in the neck and often cause problems. "Culture positively and negatively affects your business" (Gutner, 2010). Organizational culture is describes as beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviours of an organization (Bartolomei, 2010). Therefore, cultural differences can make a big difference between employees act, or think towards themselves, families, other people in the society and the successful of business.
During prosperity period, there are many new employment opportunities created and this lead to many employed workers leave their jobs and take employment elsewhere to better their industrial situation. This often happen when the current proposition does not meet the needs of employees and when the employment proposition elsewhere is preferable. The resignation of valuable employees does not only cost companies in the sense of knowledge loss, but if the former employees move on to work for the competitor, this could be very damaging, particularly, when former employees share trade secrets with the competitors or formation of competing business (Hom & Griffeth, 1995). This is the reason why the company need to create something those benefits for the employees and motivated them.
Every company have their way how to motivate their employees, but not all of way they did is absolutely. The great majority of employees are quite enthusiastic when they start a new job. But in about 85 percent of companies, research finds that employees' morale sharply declines after their first six months-and continues to deteriorate for years afterward. That finding is based on surveys of about 1.2 million employees at 52 primarily Fortune 1000 companies from 2001 through 2004, conducted by Sirota Survey Intelligence (Purchase, New York).
Every people have different individual reasons for what their need and want for working. However, people work because something obtained from work which is impacts morale, employee motivation, and the quality of life. Some people work for personal fulfilment and love of what they do. Others work to accomplish goals and to feel as if they are contributing to something larger than themselves. The main reason why people are working is because of money (Heath field, 2010). Therefore, people always go for money when their working, but it is just because people have different level of satisfaction at different stage of the life. For example young people they prefer to look for money because they are not married yet and do not have a lot of things such as house, car, etc. Therefore, people tend to maximize their earning at this period to earn that all kind of things. Moreover, when people getting older will made them look for something else such as job satisfaction. They want and need money but they also want to be satisfied in the working place. Other people not only satisfied, they want money but they want career advancement such as promotion or higher level position. Therefore, people always go for money which is depending on different stage of life. It will be change by looking at lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator; however it tends to have a motivating effect on employees that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money.
Maslow Need Theory
Wiley, john 2008
Every person is motivated by something. Motivation begin with two which are motivation with mindset and motivation phase ( Diamond & Diamond, 2010). Motivation with mindset is motivate by respect and be consisting with the employees. Furthermore, a Motivation phase is motivates by praise them by using the positive word that can build them in the job. Employees Motivation depends on work environment, personal needs from work, and whether the interaction of these needs with work environment supports the accomplishment of goals. Factors that contribute for employee satisfaction include treating employees with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management within a success framework of goals, measurements, and expectations ( Heath field, 2010). Therefore, by providing any benefits and compensation for employees is beneficial for the company to keep the employees working hard with their job. Unfortunately, all of the company know how to made employees satisfied but do not know how to make it to be happen and success because of difficult of controlling.
Motivation is important to retention as motivated employees are less likely to leave the company. Besides being loyal, they tend to work harder as well. Motivation will push talented employees to move up. De motivated employees do not show interest in the job they are doing and they often contribute very little to the organisation.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this research is to examine the reasons behind outlet employees' decision to leave Mr Bean. In order to examine what are the key issues that made outlet employees unmotivated. this study examined the issues that were important to employees in making the Company a great place to work (job satisfaction) and investigated specific motivation factors used by the Company that induce organisational commitment at Mr Bean.
Unfortunately the research has several limitations due to the insufficient time frame allocated for this research and shortage of the financial budget. As the Location of Mr Bean Company is in Singapore, there were some limitations in the study regarding visiting to the site. There were also some limitations regarding the short amount of time spent on it. It was difficult to get hold of the managers and employees for the interview. This is primarily because of the hectic schedules that the managers and employees have.
The research outcomes will benefit for Mr Bean in seeking about what is the tool that motivates the employees the most. By knowing which is the most that motivate the employees, it is also can help indirectly to retain the employees, control the high turnover in the company and opportunity for a better position in the market.
1.3 General Proposition
Mr Bean is a leading soya bean food and beverage retailer in Singapore which started in 1995. Mr Bean has recently expanded its presence in Japan. 80 percent of the product are developed by their employees because of that there are very important of conducting meeting for sharing idea and discuss new ideas and concepts to keep developing the company (Mr Bean, 2008). Hence, if Mr Bean employees do not buy into the reason for doing what they do or if they do not share the same vision for the organisation can make a difficult for development of an organisation. It is very difficult for employees to put effort in their job. There are a lot of employees leave Mr Bean Company in Singapore which is made unusually high turnover issues especially in outlet (Mr Bean, 2008).
This could be an interesting topic of area, as the rewards and benefits offered at outlet level are similar from those offered at Headquarter. In this case, quantitative methods of research was used in order to do a thorough research why Mr Bean is facing the problem of retaining employees at outlet level although it provides a wide range of rewards and benefits which are similar from those offered at the Headquarter. This study will help to explain the employment pattern at Mr Bean and how effective the methods used by Mr Bean to motivate their employees.
The high turnover issued made to find out which is important key make Mr Bean's outlet employees feel motivated by doing their job. Therefore, by focusing in Depth on what are the key issues that motivate the outlet employees in Mr Bean Company.
There are many kinds of methods that company use to produce high performance and motivation to employees. Moreover, every employee has different expectation that they want from their job. The expectancy that performance leads to obtaining of outcomes in term of total compensation positively influences work motivation (Igaens, J., & Roussel, P., 1999). Even thought compensation can motivate employees but it is not necessarily inducing to more satisfaction. Locke and Latham stated that Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors which can be made high performance or motivated the worker consist of Challenge, Performance, Rewards, and Commitment (Locke & Latham, 1990). The combination between monetary and non-monetary factor can be a good motivated the employees during their working. Therefore, in this research we would like to find out what are employees monetary and non-monetary motivations at Mr Bean Company which is to meet our research objective.
2.1 Monetary Motivation
"Monetary Motivation" is an effective way from company by giving a certain amount of money to the employees to give a worker an incentive to work harder or as a motivation for employees. Contrary to the widespread belief that employees are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. Knowing employee motivation is an important concept for managers and supervisors to understand. One of the most prevalent management debates is whether monetary compensation acts as a motivator for employees to achieve higher performance standards. Because increases in monetary compensation can significantly tension an organization's financial resources, determining whether or not this is an effective practice is also a priority for organizations worldwide. There are immeasurable advantages of utilizing cash as a motivational tool at work place to begin with the general implication that everyone likes money and money is an easily accepted token. Cash generates immediate gratifying impact on employees and this helps the organization to improve individual performance of employees (en.articlesgratuits.com). Fortunately, a large volume of research has been conducted to investigate the effect of this practice on employee motivation. By carefully examining this research, management practitioners and human resources professionals can design a compensation strategy that is cost-effective and motivates employees to achieve higher performance standards. However, employees may response differently towards these rewards and benefits. Studies have shown that employees at different levels in their career favour different benefits, for example younger employees may prefer cash rewards than pensions (Novick, 2010). Companies can overcome these differences by developing a flexible 'pick and mix' benefit options. For example, companies can develop a point's based system where all employees are qualified for varying levels of points and these points will enable employees to redeem benefits of their choice such as pension, healthcare, share, childcare, bonuses and etc.
Money is usually seen as a motivation factor. Money is essential for a living in today's modern society. Employees need money to get food and shelter, higher education for their children and the list goes on. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1865-1917) believes that the use of money as a motivator offers the best motivation for performance as the natural state of people is laziness and hedonism combined with greed (Beardwell et al, 2004). Other financial rewards apart from salary are bonuses, profit sharing, paid vacation and etc. All these may or may not add to the employees' financial well being. However, by only offering competitive salary and other financial rewards is not enough. Monetary is one of the methods that can motivate the employees during working and inside the monetary there are many things that company can do to motivate their employees.
Offering employees with competitive salary is the most obvious rewards. As money is an essential monetary motivator, Compensation and Benefits specialists often spin their brain when it comes to designing Compensation and Benefits. It is extremely crucial to group similar positions with similar responsibility and authority into pay ranges. Nothing impacts morale as much as individuals who feel underpaid in comparison with others based on their contribution and that of other similar jobs. Research has pithily established that employees become productive when they are motivated. Dealing with human resource is a difficult issue, this is because different people have different needs hence satisfying the needs of each personnel becomes a challenging experience. Employees work to earn wages at the end of the month, in essence they assert their efforts in order to reap the reward benefits attached to their work. As to whether cash is a motivator enough, that remains an issue of argument. The study also established that among public administration managers, financial results have a de-motivating effect among employees (Srivastava, 2001). So this is also will be effect to the outlet employees also in the company. Financial is the fundamental need from the people.
Young or old workers frequently feel compelled to make a name for them in working environments. The show of dedication is usually manifested in coming to work on the time that had required, and leaving work on time. This type of behaviour will get to be noticed. Rates are an important part of the safety net that relies on to pay their bills and employers are still likely to need to pay penalty rates if employees work outside normal hours (Thomson, 2010). Paying extra to the employees who are working overtimes is very important and motivates them to work longer than the actual time. Pay motivated employees, as instrumental for satisfying their needs for autonomy and security and less likely for satisfying their needs for affiliation and self actualization ( Latham, 2007).
There are several method uses by Mr Bean Company to motivated their employees and keep them competitive. First and foremost is an extra compensation. Extra compensation will be give to the employees who are working overtimes which are "Basic hourly rate x 1.5 times after 8 hrs of working hours (exclude 0.5 break)". This is how the amount will be calculated. This is one of the monetary motivations that Mr Bean does to keep their employees motivated.
Working overtimes and get extra money is not attractive to some of the employees who prefer go home earlier and do activities with their children ( Shelter, 2010). Household behaviour incorporate the overtime to represent the increment to basic pay necessary to extend labour utilization beyond maximum standard hours ( Bell & Hart, 2003). Paid overtime will respond change in waged rate and makes up a significant proportion of hours worked, and consequently of the labour costs of firms and the labour income of households (Kalwij & Gregory, 2005). Overtime can reduce the labour shortage and sufficient willingness among employees to exchange leisure for greater income (Blyton, 1985). Therefore to earning extra money from job, employees need to working overtime and this is can motivate them to trade-off leisure for working rather than go back home without earning money or carry-out nothing.
Refer to appendix Mr Bean outlet employees pay package
2.1.2 Medical Claim
Medical Claim is the benefits that the company give to the employees; people who are injured while they are at their place of work may also need to take some time away from work while they recover. Health is most important thing in life and medical employees is use in order to get help that need to keep most precious of possessions and trust in these employees (Arnold, 2010). Medical claim allows employees who have sustained injuries in a working place accident or contracted an occupational disease to claim work injury compensation. Employees who died in a working place accident are also can receive for compensation. Claimable compensation includes medical leave wages, medical expenses and permanent incapacity. Paris stated that accidents do and will happen from time to time and it is right and proper to know the procedure should you happen to be the recipient of an industrial or workplace accident and Injury compensation can apply not only in the workplace ( Paris, 2010). A workers' compensation programme requires employers to provide cash benefits, medical care, and rehabilitation services to their employees for injuries or illnesses arising out of and in the course of employment (Hwang & Kleiner, 2002). The people who are going to receive the medical claim are those people that injury in the working place. Moreover, some company also have the benefits which is those for the employees that is injury outside the company can receive the compensation that will be giving by the company to the employees. If the employees suffer an injury, it is important to report to the injury to employer which can seriously affect claim for compensation and seek medical regardless of the injury and then seek legal advice which is personal injury lawyer (Ballard, 2010). Every company normally have the same condition of handling the employees which cause injury.
Every country have different amount that the employers are required to purchase and maintain medical insurance. In Singapore, employers are required to purchase and maintain a minimum medical insurance coverage of $ 15,000 per year for each work permit holder (www.mom.gov.sg). So this is not only the local employees can use the benefit of medical claim but foreign employees also can use benefit that the company gave for medical claim.
There are several methods used by Mr Bean company to provide the safety and secure for employees during in the working place and can be as motivation for them also. Mr Bean Company have the medical claim which is for normal medical matters, employees are able to claim up to maximum of $ 9 from the medical bills unlimitedly in a year. The employees will be going to clinic and take the receipt for the medical purpose. The receipt once will be show to the company and the company have commitment to pay to employees which she/he did for medical claim. Other then that Mr Bean also had the group insurance for both foreign and local worker that cover work related injuries. So the foreign worker has medical insurance while their in Singapore. This is such a good benefits that can be use by the employees which can made them keep staying with the company because of the insurance that provide by the company as motivated the staff keep working and stay with the company.
2.1.4 Sales Incentive
Sales Incentive is financial services firms that force employees to promote and sell products to consumers in order to meet sales targets are expected to be overhauled as part of plans revealed in the budget this week. "Sales force issues as size, structure, resource allocation, incentive compensation, and geographic deployment" (Sinha & Zoltners, 2001). Sales people's career needs in organization's employment to achieve sales target which significant to the firm and may effectively reduce turnover and increase retention of employees ( Jr, Hollmann, & Gallan, 2006). Achieving sales target will be receive incentive compensation for the employees which is for high performance in the field and motivated employees. Motivation techniques and how to motivate employees is an area many managers find difficult and time consuming. Sales manager provide training on selling product skill and made a motivation techniques. Sales person can be motivated by offer a regular boost of self motivation. It can take time to constantly find new and refreshing ideas, and give different angles and perspectives on how to get into the most effective selling state with the minimum amount of time. Every company have different sales target that they use to sales force. Once the employees achieve their target sales they will be rewards. Reward is intended to motivate and give focus employees, in a service strategy on behaviours which will create customer satisfaction and loyalty (Macaulay & Cook, 2001). Other then that after the amount of sales target is over than amount of expectation the employees will be get extra compensation which this case can be call as First tier sales target. The higher amount that employees can be targeted, the higher the compensation will receive from the employees. This is how the company motivate their employees nowadays to achieve the company goal and earn much profit. Target employees enjoy the fast-paced environment of retail sales and the flexible scheduling such a large company can provide (Mattews, 2010). The fast-paced environment of retail made them easy to achieve the target sales that set by the company. Sales motivation is driving force that giving energy to take actions that will lead to sales and positive motivation is come from picture and dialogue that made internally which feelings achieving target or vice versa de-motivation from having internal self-talk and images that lead feel targets are not achievable (Craine, 2010). De-motivated employees can made the low of sales which she or he is not willing or try to follow the company goal. Furthermore, by applying the reward for target sales or first tier target sales all employees will be compete to get sales target.
There are several methods used in Mr Bean company to motivated their employees which is outlet department has a sales target in every month with the different target set which depending of the location and size. Those outlets situated located at central businesses district and housing area have higher sales target set for them. While other outlet sales target set in according to their sales performance every month. All employees in the outlet will receive the sales incentive amount is depending on their job level. The employees will get $ 25 if achieve the target sales but if achieve more then the target sales which call first tier target sales, they will be additional $ 25 for employees.
Product promotion is a sales force target by promoting a single new product from the company to promote it to the public, this is only for specific new product that made by the company to know whether this new product selling good or bad. Employees must understand own products and value that bringing to the market place to developing effective marketing practices. Customer satisfaction increases when employees communicate with customers and transfer their knowledge of a product or service in a manner that personally identifies with the customers (Williams, 2009).Â Product promotion is one of the best marketing techniques which involve canvassing the product to a wide range of users. When a new product is introduced, it may be beneficial to create specialty sales force for that product to receive adequate coverage (Rangaswamy, Sinha, & Zoltners). The idea behind this product promotion is to ensure that the product name reaches as many people as possible thereby converting many of them into potential customers. This happens to be one of the sure shot means to increasing the sales of the product. Promotional product represents your company (Macgrath, 2010). Most companies have employee's recognition program and consider them important to boost morale and retaining employees. Losing employees is costly for company and keeping the current employees happy is becoming increasingly important. Incentive Program is a tool employed by the Company to motivate employees in accordance to sales performance and employee's performance. Once the employees achieve the target sales for the new product which they need to promoted and force consumer to buy it, the employees will be receiving reward for achieve the target sales from the product promotion.
There are some methods that Mr Bean Company use to motivated employees which is every month the Mr Bean have kind of new product and promoted it. So if the sales higher than the sales target set for the new product. All the employees will get incentive $ 15.
2.2 Non - Monetary Motivation
As non financial rewards emphasise in making life on the job more attractive instead of enhancing employees' financial position (Decenzo and Robbins, 2002). Non financial rewards are trophies, trips, employee recognition and etc. Heathfield (2006) contents that employee recognition motivates employee to repeat the behaviour which the employer wanted to see the most. It not only keeps recognised employee happy but also act as a communication tool that reinforces and rewards the most important outcomes people create for the business. Employees will feel important as they are cared. Their hard work is being acknowledged by the company.
In other words, different people have different stimulus so a combination of financial and non financial will increased the performance of the employees. High level of performance is due to the high level of motivation and satisfaction of employees. Satisfied and motivated employees tend to be loyal to the employer. Non-monetary is one of the methods that can motivate the employees during working and inside the non-monetary there are many things that company can do to motivate their employees such as training and development, career development, job satisfaction, working environment, and incentive trip.
2.2.1 Training and Development
The investment of employee training is a way of creating a primary internal market and policies aimed at progressively upgrading skill and knowledge. (Bratton and Gold, 1999) This will decrease the dependency of the organisation on external skill. Training and development help to unleash the potential lies within all employees. This will allow employees to contribute to and actually transform strategy. As a result, employees will be more committed to the organisation, loyal and motivated (Bratton and Gold, 1999). Employees want to feel good about their jobs, have a sense of achievement, and be proud of their accomplishments. This requires all obstacles and impediments be removed. Employees should be properly trained and provided with adequate materials and equipment to complete their jobs successfully (Anonymous, 2005). Training facilitates flexible working practices and rapid adaptation. Training investment does not only automatically translate into improved performance rather it is depending on the how and in whose interests and skills are utilised. (Mabey et al, 1998)
Training can also be implemented for managers. This is because sometimes 'employees do not leave good companies, but they leave bad bosses' (DeMarco, 2007). Negative relationship with the manager is one of the major reasons employees become dissatisfied. Aware of this, today companies are training their managers how to coach employees. Coaching employees is a process of open communication and feedback between managers and employees. It has been argued that in recent years employees look for; beneficial direction, support and guidance, coaching and feedback in the management. This is because an employee wants from his/her company is challenges, responsibility and opportunity to learn and develop. Therefore, managers should be available always when employees need them in their troubleshooting tasks. Praising and appreciating the work or employees' contribution on the job floor motivates employees to put an extra effort. Failing to communicate or communication breakdown can result in the loss of employees. To counter this problem, strong communication activities should be developed within the organisation which includes feedback, group communication and corporate communication. Feedback can be given to team or employee after the given task is done. It can be both positive and negative or constructive. Positive feedback aids an employee or team to know where they have done right, while negative feedback has great importance as it allows employees or team to know which area they need to improve in and do better. Feedbacks should be given just after the occurrence of the job otherwise it is of no use. Also it is essential to note that an effective feedback should include information or action on which an employee has control. Employees should be regularly notified about the accomplishment of goals of the organisation and how they matter to them. In service industry like Mr Bean Company, communication is extremely crucial. In the most unpleasant cases, employees, mainly remote sales people, believe the company does communicate the organisations objectives and performance effectively and more significantly where their individual contribution blends in to that. We frequently hear that people thought all was going fine until they read that the company reported a huge decline in sales or financial losses in the news.
Training and seminars are not only provided to enhance the employee's skill and knowledge, but also to keep them motivated. There is product knowledge training which help to equip the employee with the knowledge of the product as well as how to service customers. There is also skill training and role play. Managers will observe and guide the employee during the training course. Training is conducted weekly to keep the employee updated and flexible with the rapid changing environment. All these trainings and developments will motivate employees. Motivation encourages employees to perform better. Training and development will spice up the environment as new skills and knowledge will be taught. Employees have the opportunity to improve and develop their skills and abilities. On the other hand, employees get to know the product better which will increase their confidence level when selling the product.
Trainings and developments will motivate employees to encourage them to perform better. Training and development will spice up the environment as new skills and knowledge will be taught. Employees have the opportunity to improve and develop their skills and abilities. On the other hand, employees get to know the product better which will increase their confidence level when selling the product.
2.2.2 Career Development
Career development is very important as last long learning guidance for individual in changing working environment and decision making in understanding their abilities, skill, interests, value which is the options open to them(Patton & Mahon, 2001). Career development is a competition within the employees when the winner will get the promotion and further up in the managerial hierarchy (Jackson, 2000). Therefore, once the employees desire to gain the higher and better position, in gaining progression of position is motivated employees to make it happening by work harder and learn new skill. Competitive advantage of the organization to develop is the way to sustain human capital, whilst it intent them to having skill and experience (Merman, Chakiris, 2002).
Bohlander and Snell mention that employers should encourage their employees to take responsibilities of their own career and provide some feedback, self-assessment tools, training, information about the organisation, and possible career paths of it (2010). Career development is linked to training and development. Career progression often affects the level of motivation, thus the employees' perspective on career development is significant to organisations.Â Whilst it is the fact that lots of candidates find new roles with higher salaries. There are also many others who rather take a job with a rewarding role than higher salaries. According to Novick, self motivated and talented employees are often seen moving from jobs to jobs in order to gain a particular experience or get into organisations with good career development opportunities regardless of the salaries.Â These motivated employees are more focused on the long term benefits as they are willing to take a short term step back in salary. In other words, they are willing to take a short-term step back in salary for longer-term benefits.Â Whilst more difficult in smaller companies most organisations are able to provide unique projects or secondments which offer growth opportunities for their employees, providing the organisation with strength in depth and potential succession planning.
Career Development must be matches to organisation with need of employees (Bohlander & Snell, 2010). In other words, career development is successful in an organisation if created involve with employees, but not establishing by organisation itself. For example like the managers made the career development in different field such as engineering, finance, human resources and etc. by categorising of each field make employees easy to understand about it.
Mr Bean Company categories their career development especially in operational department. The lower career in operational is crew continues to highest is Operation Directors. This career development can make the employees understand and realized that which career development that they are going to gain and achieve. In the other side, it is can be part of employee's motivation. The hierarchy of career development in Mr Bean can be seeing in below.
Mr Bean Career Development
2.2.3 Job satisfaction
Traditionally, job satisfaction has been defined as a positive emotional state reflecting affective attitude or response towards the job situation. It is seen as an essential drive towards employee performance; it is a causal antecedent to organisational commitment, and negatively related to turnover and absenteeism. There are a number of factors that can influence employees' job satisfaction which include the level of pay and benefits, the quality of the working conditions, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company, employee involvement, empowerment, autonomous work groups, leadership and social relationships, and the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description) (Wikipedia, Job Satisfaction). Blankertz and Robinson argue that employees with high job satisfaction are highly motivated and have little desire to leave. Accordingly, job satisfaction is a key factor for employee motivation. The employees can be motivated if they have job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is about what the employees feel about their job, are they happy with their job or not? If they are happy with their job, employees will contribute high performance with the job ( Heath field, 2010).
2.2.4 Working Environment
Confront at work is to create an environment in which people are motivated about work priorities. Moreover, organizations fail to disburse attention to the employee relations, communication, recognition, and involvement issues that are most important to people. The most effective way to increase productivity is to enhance the workplace as an environment (Austin, 2010). Often a favourable working environment proves good working environment promotes maximum efficiency and lead to the happier decision makers (Maude, 2007). Work environment is a main factor in the motivation present in a given situation. Social relationships, creative freedom, incentive programs and organizational pressures are playing a role in workplace motivation. Because motivation is a fundamental ingredient in the workplace, understanding the way these elements influence each individual is a great way to boost motivation and improve company morale. This is often related to "hygiene". Frederick Herzberg 1950, a psychologist who studied workplace motivation, coined the term. Removing negative elements in the work environment will not enlarge motivation, but dissatisfaction will prevent motivation until it is removed. Herzberg and his colleagues hypothesized that the factors that construct positive attitudes toward work are dissimilar from those that create negative attitudes. In the course of their research, they found that workers most often indicated that factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and varied and interesting work were motivators. Other aspects of work, or hygiene factors, were viewed as causative to negative attitudes toward work. These included company policies and actions, perceived relations with supervisors, low salary, and poor working conditions.
Even though this is only one of many theories that can help to describe work motivation, it is helpful to new managers in suggesting ways to interact with subordinates. The theory supports the view that, in general, a mid-level manager will be more efficient in motivating subordinates by addressing the content of the work or the quality of the work experience itself. There are some ways a manager can do this. Physical working environment have been active in the continuous process of humanisation of work (Sengupta, 1985).
2.2.5 Other Benefits
There are many benefits that company do to motivate their employees such as incentive trip program, birthday card or cake for the special days, Long service award, etc. Incentive Program is a tool employed by the Company to motivate employees in accordance to sales performance and employee's performance. The management reserves the right to make changes to the prevailing Incentive Program when deemed necessary. Incentive trip as a rewards for good work ( Basu & Mukherjee, 2010). Incentive reward can made an individual specified fertility reducing behaviour (David, 1982). Incentive Trip is most often use by large companies or corporations which particularly beneficial to companies wanting to improve relationships between employees and management, motivate employees, reward employees for excellent on the job performance, boost employees loyalty and build team dynamics among important employees groups. For this reason, the programming for an organized incentive trip will generally include team building activities, exciting events and parties, and unique dining experiences, in addition to regular historical and cultural tours around the travel destination. Incentive trip must be exciting, unforgettable and unique. Incentive travel is travel provided to employees by companies in an effort to motivate them to increase and improve their performance."Â Â Goldblatt and Nelson (2001).
Jeffrey and Shaffer stated that Incentive trip makes employees recipients see as luxuries things which could not normally justify buying from them even though they have sufficient funds, if an item is valuable highly from them but would not purchase on their own then the opportunity to earn it as a reward, they should hard working (2007). An incentive trip destination does not need to be far away or expensive to provide unique and memorable experience. For Example Company which location in the city can consider retreat or trips to more rural areas and vice versa.
There has been extensive research in both economics and management regarding different types of incentives. Much of this work concerns whether the use of an extrinsic reward will reduce intrinsic motivation to perform a task (Banker, Lee,Potter, & Srinivasan, 1996; Bloom & Milkovich, 1998; Deci 1971; Deci & Ryan 1985; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan 1999; Eisenberger, Rhoades, & Cameron, 1999; Gerhart & Trevor, 1996; Jordan, 1986; Kruglanski, 1975). Therefore the emergence of extrinsic reward such as incentive trip can make the employees focusing to achieve it, with the result that employees are less motivated in intrinsic part or monetary reward such as bonus, voucher, etc.
Example in Mr Bean