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Today, various organizations are endeavoring to prosper the culture of being a customer centric organization. Being a customer centric organization requires shifting from the traditional control oriented management to the modern participative management. There is various dimensions of modern management including participative management, engaging employees at workplace, intrapreneurism, team oriented management, management by objective and employee empowerment. This study mainly focuses on employee empowerment. It is evident from various studies that today in Pakistan and in other countries; organizations are preferring employee empowerment to improve the productivity of employees, efficiency and profitability of organization but with lower operational costs. However, in Pakistan the public sector lacks this. A descriptive study is planned to examine the need of employee empowerment in a public sector organization of Pakistan to improve the customer service of SSGC. Sample of 25 and 10 employee and customers respectively is drawn from a public sector organization of Pakistan; Sui Southern Gas Company Limited, where the traditional management approach is followed and employees are not empowered. Data that is being used is consisting of primary and secondary source. Primary data is collected through questionnaire and structured interview whereas secondary data is collected through articles, company's annual reports and internet.
It is found from the study of data that the practice of employee empowerment is not promoted in SSGC and the employees are not motivated to fulfill their duties. Resulting, the customer service is poor and the customers are not satisfied with the service of SSGC as they have to wait for long period for the issue to be resolved because of lengthy procedures being followed in processing the queries of customers in SSGC. In contrast, in literature review it is found that empowered employees are more inclined towards the productivity as they feel themselves completely associated with the organization and are fully concerned about the profit and loss of the organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE 7
3. LITERATURE REVIEW 10
5. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 30
7. APPENDICES 35
This research will give a detailed idea that how the state-owned organizations in Pakistan can become the competent organizations & can improve its efficiency through shifting from their traditional management styles to the modern approach and to what extend the service of these organizations would get influenced by employee empowerment. The aim of this study is to determine whether SSGC fosters the culture of employee empowerment and to what extend it will help in improving the quality of customer service and satisfaction level of customers.
This study is an effort to find out how the employee empowerment could be successfully used to improve customer service in the public sector organization. For this concern Sui Southern Gas Company Limited (SSGC) has been chosen to enhance the understanding of this research; what is traditionally followed by the management of the organization to serve its customers, is there really need to foster the culture of empowerment and what would be its impact on the service.
1.1. THE EVOLUTION
SSGC has taken an initiative to change its culture to be a customer-centric culture in order to improve the service of the organization. The decision to carry out the study on this subject was made to find out more about SSGC and see how true SSGC is, in making a public sector organization a customer-centric and what can be the other factors or dimensions of management styles are used other than availing the latest technology for improving the customer service.
In various organizations attitude towards authority and work has changed, the employees now a day are more prone to freedom from the management's control and decisions making. The employees today are less willing to accept traditional style of management which promotes the full control of upper management in strategic decisions of the organizations. Thus the organizations are shifting form their traditional HR approaches which involves centralized-control to the modern HR approaches promoting the importance of engaged employees at the workplace, participative management and teamwork for increasing efficiency and profitability resulting in higher market share. Employee empowered is considered to be the essential element of the modern management in terms of the quality of customer service.
In sight of the nature of service, employee and the organization, empowerment has become the most important question to be resolved for various organizations aiming to improve the customer service and being the customer centric company. The customers and the employees both are the important players in delivering the quality service. In this era where the companies are facing accelerating changes in the business environment and intense competition, the rapid response to the changes and swiftly making the most important strategic decisions have become the essential elements in order to survive in the long-run. The one way to do is through empowering employees evident from the previous studies. Empowerment enables the employees to entail mutual adjustments balanced with the standardization in the organization.
It is evident from the different studies on the employee empowerment that in past most of the companies were more prone towards the employee empowerment as the mean to improve motivation level of employees, productivity and efficiency of the organizations.
The customer service employees are the important players in delivering the quality service and driving the customer satisfaction as the customer contact employees are the one which usually represent both the organization and the service at the point they contact to the customers. It has also been observed that many organizations are focusing on empowering customer contact employees at lower level because these employees are more close to the customers and they understand the customer needs quickly.
By having the authority with the customer contact employees it helps in raising the service level of employees to the utmost and also it induces the employees' satisfaction which is necessary for quality service and higher level of customer satisfaction. The employees are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs when they are given authority to manage the queries by themselves; without frequently inquiring with their supervisors.
The empowered employees are more likely to respond rapidly to the customers' demands and problems. They provide the service in time as promised to the customers. The customer service is considered to be the source of customer satisfaction.
1.3. SUI SOUTHERN GAS COMPANY LIMITED (SSGC)
The Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC) is the only natural gas supplier of Pakistan. Not only because of its being the only supplier it has the monopoly position in the market but also it's the only buyer of natural gas in market. Therefore, it is also classified as monpsony. It was initiated in 1954 and 1989 it went into merger with Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited, Karachi Gas Company Limited and Indus Gas Company Limited. (Wikipedia, 2006)
Sui Southern Gas Company is one the leading company in the public sector of Pakistan. It is fully owned by the Government of Pakistan. Its 70% shares are owned by the Government of Pakistan. (Wikipedia, 2006). SSGC has also its business in the manufacturing of gas metre with the joint venture of Schlumberger Industries, France. (Wikipedia, 2006).
Some citizen-centric strategies are needed to be adopting to deliver the quality services to the citizens of Pakistan. Customer focus and profitability should be the main aim of public sector organizations like various private companies.
Many state-owned organizations like other companies are encumbering the challenges to give high quality service with low cost. The various public sector entities of Pakistan are trying to take initiatives to improve their performance and increase their efficiency in terms of service quality.
By keeping this in view Sui Southern Gas Company needs to take an initiative to implement and foster the culture focusing on changing itself from a traditional government monopoly in a market to the organization that swiftly grab the new opportunities for innovation and efficiency that will enable it to have citizen-centric organization.
Competent strategies and business models are need to put into practice by Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC) resulting in a resourceful organization and providing cost-effective customer service to its millions of customers.
Although the main objective of Sui Southern Gas Company is to provide the utility services to the citizens of Balochistan and Sindh but despite of it, SSGC is also responsible of providing competent job opportunities for the public, training for the employees that will polish their skills, efficient working environment and productivity. It has to not only operate as government subsidized but also to be a profitable organization providing cost-effective service to the customers at industrial level, commercial level and household consumers.
Like many other organizations in the world SSGC is facing the same obstacles and challenges regarding globalization, accelerating changes in the business environment, being an efficient organization by lowering its cost of business processes. SSGC is struggling to overcome the possible problems that arise within the organizations.
Culture that fosters the customer-centric approach in the business processes.
Productivity and efficiency is to be enhanced.
The improvement in the customer service.
The political and unionized influence must be minimized by adopting a policy of meritocracy.
Reduce operation cost.
The customer service at SSGC needs to be improved; it lacks efficiency and productivity due to improper system. The customer services activities at SSGC is constituted of Customer Relations, Sales and Billing.
1.4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To study the need of employee empowerment to improve the customer service at Sui Southern Gas Company.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is targeted at the management of organizations within the public sector entities of Pakistan, and industries producing highly intangible-dominant services, it suggests that the employee empowerment when implemented would create a good service quality and can boost the employee satisfaction as well of customers' satisfaction. This study is problem-oriented at micro-level and this study can also be an impulsive instrument as reference material for the general public and students who have an interest in the study.
By taking into consideration the constraints of time and resources, the scope of study has delimited to one public sector organization so the problem area can be fully analyzed.
The implementation and need of empowerment practices is only limited to SSGC; no other public sector organization in the same industry has been compared.
The other limitation was biasness as the target audience was considering us external auditors hired by the organization to know the inner feelings of employees. Some were taking our activity as it might result in their favor or promotion.
The customer-contact employees were also vey confused in defining their intensity of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. They were also unable to understand the facts that the questions are linked and the answer of one depending on other as well which gives entirely different perspective.
A part from that, the management was not very co-operative at one or two places as they think that it is wastage of time and workers should concentrate on their work rather than giving answers to questions. The manager was very reluctant to answer and to be part of it.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.7.1. Customer Service:
The service provided by the company for supporting its core products or services.
1.7.2. Flat Organization:
An organization with few levels of hierarchy of between the top management and lower management is said to be a flat organization. The flat organization structure enables organizations to empower employees by making them a larger part of the decision-making process.
An organization is termed as monopsony when it is alone buyer in the market and it has the power to manipulate the market price for what it is buying.
1.7.4. Customer-centric Organization:
When the companies fosters the culture which mainly focuses on the customers interest and develop the business strategies by keeping in view the customers' satisfaction is termed as customer centric organization.
2. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
In this part of the research the stages of this study will be illustrated as well the design of the research will also be illustrated. It also includes the description of the respondents of this study; the instruments used will also be justified.
2.2. RESEARCH DESIGN
The whole research process is divided into four main stages:
Initial planning and the proposal,
Collection of secondary data,
Collection of primary data and
Writing up of the report.
Data will include both Quantitative and Qualitative Data. This is a descriptive study.
2.3. RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY
Respondents are the major source of data collection that will represent the elements of the population. The respondents of this study are:
The manager from HR department.
Customers of SSGC.
As per constraint of time and other resources, the sample size will be of 30-35 respondents, the random sampling technique is used to select the sample for the study.
2.4. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The research instrument will be a survey method which is constituted of:
The qualitative data will be collected from interviewing the managers from HR department; the interview would be face to face and it will be a structured interview. The purpose of this interview is to find out currently what managerial practices are being followed at SSGC and what is their perspective regarding the employee empowerment.
The quantitative data will be obtained from questionnaires; the questionnaires would contain the close-ended questions, the questionnaires will be handed out to about 20-25 customers within a day at same place and also to the 10 customer-contact employees at different customer service centers of SSGC in order to get their opinion about to what extend are the employees satisfied with their job and to what extend the empowerment is needed at SSGC and how much the customers are satisfied with the service.
2.5. SOURCES OF DATA
The primary data will be collected mainly from the following sources.
The secondary data will be gathered from the following sources.
Company's Annual Reports
2.6. TREATMENT OF DATA
Since it is a descriptive research, the data gathered will be analyzed and interpreted both in qualitative and quantitative terms. The quantitative will be presented in the form of graphs, charts, figures, and tables and the qualitative will be in the form of concluding statement.
Final conclusion will be derived from the outcome of quantitative as well as qualitative analysis.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
In this chapter, a set of literature is developed which is extracted from various studies & articles. All the articles are availed through the internet. The literature will help us to understand the concept of empowerment from various dimensions and its impact on the organizations. The literature also helped in developing the theories for this study.
3.2. FOREIGN LITERATURE
Article 1: Employee Empowerment Key to Efficient Customer Service
The importance of employee empowerment in today's scenario; in which the companies are facing intense competition in terms of products, services, shifting of customers and employees to their competitors and customer service, is exhibited by the author in this article.
Author has emphasized that provide the service which leads to customers' satisfaction by doing or responding according to the customers wants and needs. This is the main aim of employee empowerment. In some cases the management is afraid of empowering employees they have the fear that it might result in the loss of their position and lower management would take over the company. But the author believes that empowerment enables the organization to respond to demands of customers in a quick manner and it would result in the profit of the organization.
Further, the ways to successfully implement the empowerment in the organization is also highlighted in this article. The first step is to involve the employees in strategic decision making, autonomy should be given to employees, team work should be promoted and the flow of information should be in effective way. In most of the organization the management refrain themselves by sharing the information; regarding the current business processes, its financial position, with the employees. Therefore in these organizations the employees are not motivated and they do not understand the changes occurring in the business environment & its impact on the organization, they are not familiar with the current cost-benefit situation of the organization.
The other most important element of empowerment is the system of 360 feedback. The practice of 360 feedback must be promoted in the organizations especially if it's a service organization. The feedback from customers, employees and top management helps in understanding the queries of customers and employees. The employees are more interested in making the decisions which are in the favor of customers as they truly understands the customers' problems because the management based on the feedback from employees and customers empowers the employees. Along with giving the autonomy to the employees the management should also take care of the rules and procedures regarding the empowerment so that the employees must know their limit that how far they can go in making the decisions to resolve customer queries.
Article 2: Employee Empowerment and Involvement
By: Duke Okes and Russell.T.Westcotts, 2009
In this article different dimension of empowerment is exhibited. Empowerment results in the productivity and efficiency for the organization. Some people relate the empowerment to give authority to the employees of make the right decisions & some relate it to the job enlargement and job enrichment thus empowerment means different to different people based on the culture, structure and nature of the organization.
In order to implement the empowerment necessary training to the employees is required, the employees must have the access to the information for that purpose organizations must induce needed support systems for the distribution of knowledge, accountability and restructuring of the organization. The empowerment required to reverse the pyramid of the organization structure & flattening the structure. The barriers to communication would be reduced and in this structure the customers' needs and wants are held at the first priority while the management is kept at the bottom in contrast with the traditional structure of the organizations. Before, fostering the empowered environment the rules and policies must be set to define the limits, boundaries and roles so that the employee know that how far they can go in resolving the customers' issues by themselves.
Article 3: Employee Empowerment A Key to Intrinsic Motivation
By: Vijit Chaturvedi, 2008
The ways to empower employees through HR practices is described in this article. Many people see the empowerment as delegating the power to someone but it's not the right perception. It is the continuous process of taking actions, controlling and making decisions without taking the shackles from the top management.
Participative management and employee involvement comes under the empowerment approach. Empowerment is defined as the process of giving customer contact employees the knowledge, power, reward and information.
The management should encourage the employees to give the feedback and suggestions, there should be the team oriented culture, a proper recognition & reward system and proper communication channels should be there to empower employees. It leads to the employee satisfaction which boosts the motivation level of employee.
The empowerment also encourages the innovation a culture of intrapreneurism, it increases the employees' motivation level. The employees are better able to respond to their customers' issues as they are allowed to take steps by themselves without waiting for the approvals from the top management.
3.3. GAPS TO BE BRIDGED
This study is an effort to ascertain extends to which employee empowerment is practiced and needed in SSGC and it would help in improving the customer service of SSGC. From the research on previous studies and literature it is determined that in conducting the studies on employee empowerment and improving customer service the public sector has not been remained under study. Hence, no study on specific organization regarding the impact and need of employee empowerment has been established locally or internationally.
This study is an initiative to improve the performance of public sector of Pakistan by shifting them from traditional management style to the modern one. In the study the perception of consumers and the perception of the management regarding the employee empowerment and customer service is not only gathered but their perception has also been shown in the systematic way to examine the various dimensions of HR practices and culture.
The labor union factor is ignored in this study just to narrow down the scope of the study despite of knowing that the public sector runs with the support of labor union. No previous studies have been found in order to bridge the gap among the labor union, empowerment and customer service for the public sector organization. This study will try to bring the empowerment in the SSGC by bringing changes only in the culture, organizational structure and in the human resources practices of the organization.
3.4. FURTHER AREAS OF STUDY
The further study can be done in the same domain. It could be the comprehensive comparison of HR practices among the other public sector organizations of Pakistan in the same area or industry; including SNGPL, KESC, and WAPDA and whether the same study can be applied at SNGPL for improving the customer service & performance of the organization. The study can also be done by comparing the public sector with the private sector of Pakistan including MNCs.
This study is limited to one element of management which is employee empowerment therefore more ways can be open to study for improving the efficiency of an organization. The areas can be through initiating the proper Customer Relationship Management, Internal Marketing & Intrapreneurism in the public sector of Pakistan.
4. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
In this chapter the empirical data is exhibited. The data is collected from surveying the employees & customers of SSGC by handing them a structured questionnaire and the results are also shown in this chapter. This data has helped in managing the necessary information required to fulfill the aim of the research.
4.2. DATA COLLECTED FROM CUSTOMER-CONTACT EMPLOYEES
1. Are you satisfied with your job?
In the above question the level of job satisfaction and commitment among the employees is measured. 12 customer contact employees are satisfied and committed to certain level. Some seem to be satisfied while doing their respective jobs. 2 of the surveyed employees responded that they are satisfied with the work they do.
2. How much freedom is provided to you to choose your own way of doing job?
This question is posed by keeping in view the literature review which says that freedom in work can have the positive impact in the productivity of employees and also in the motivation level. In SSGC the freedom in work is seemed to be less and they have to work according to what is dictated to the by their supervisors. Disempowerment lies in SSGC.
3. Do you get recognition for your good work?
Reward and recognition system is not effective in SSGC as obvious from the question. 80% of the employees are not recognized for their excellent work. And only few said they are rewarded but keep in mind these two were in the high rank than remaining ones.
4. How do you rate the customer service of SSGC? (5 being the best)
Most of the employees believe that Customer service is good as it is processed according to the requirements of customers and 25% employees rated as the best and few ones believe that Customer service should be improved.
5. Is the senior management easily accessible to you as an employee?
The communication system is not effective in SSGC evident from the above data analysis. 10 employees responded that can not directly contact with the top management and are not involved in the decision making process. 5 respondents answered that the liaison between them and the top management is average.
6. Are you given authority to make decisions by own regarding customers' issues?
The above question was posed to determine the degree of autonomy given to customer contact employees. It is analyzed that most of the employees have no autonomy to make decisions.
7. Do you want to make decisions in fulfilling customer needs?
Most of the employees believe that they can make decisions quickly and implement it without consulting with top management as 12 out of 20 employees have chosen Yes and 8 have chosen No. Now there question arises that there is no much difference between Yes and No response. It is proved from the literature review not all employees can be empowered. Only those employees can be empowered who are willing to take responsibility and are willing to be held accountable. The management should provide leverage to use their abilities to those employees who believe in their abilities.
8. Do you think you can better handle the issues by yourself rather than going up?
From the above data it is found that most of the employees believe that they can better handle the customer issues as 60% have chosen yes & 40% rated no. It shows that the employees must be given chance to handle the issues by themselves as they believe that they have the ability to better handling the situation.
9. How much satisfied are you with the flow of information within the organization?
The above question was posed to analyze the communication channel system in SSGC. The employees mostly there are not satisfied with the flow of information as 75% rated it as medium in terms of intensity. 20% of the respondents rated it as low and only few of them rated it as high. From the above collected data it is cleared that barriers to communication lies there which is obstructing the establishment of liaison within the organization. Everyone can not attain the required information about the customer queries.
10. How do you handle the customer issues?
An open ended question was incorporated in the questionnaire to have the comprehensive understanding of the procedure that how the customers' queries and customers' needs are handled in SSGC. Through content study it is been observed that the employees are fully depending on the top management in resolving issue despite of ability to resolve it by themselves. The customer comes over there with the issue the customer contact employee ask them to submit the application and then the application is proceeded through the various levels of the management which takes the time of 1 to 2 weeks. When it is attained by the concerned person it is reviewed by him and then it is dispatched back again with the solution to the respective customer contact employee and it takes 2 to 3 weeks more in implementing the solution.
4.3. DATA COLLECTED FROM CUSTOMERS
1. How would you rate the customer service of SSGC?
The perception of customers about the customer service of SSGC is tried to find from the above posed question. Mostly customers rated the customer service as average and only few ones rated it as good which shows that there is ominous need to improve the customer service of SSGC.
2. Are the employees of SSGC friendly and cooperative?
Most of the customer contact employees of SSGC are not friendly and cooperative evident from the above findings. 60% said the employees are friendly sometimes. 40% of the targeted customers said the employees are never found to be cooperative and friendly. It shows that the employees are not motivated to perform their jobs.
3. Are you satisfied with the customer service of SSGC?
The CRM is not good in SSGC which can be evident from the above data; 50 % of the surveyed customers are not fully satisfied with the customer service provided by the SSGC, 40% are unsatisfied & only 10% are satisfied with the customer service. Being a citizen-centric organization the customer service must be improved.
4. Do you find the employees understanding when you tell them your issue?
The above question was aimed to find whether the employees have knowledge about the latest business processes and the changes occurring in the organization. They are not able to solve the issues of the customers without getting the approval or consulting with top management. The continuous training is required to the customer contact employees as most of the surveyed customers rated Sometimes and No.
5. Does SSGC solve your problem on time as it promised?
It is found from the above collected data SSGC most of the time fails in entertaining the customers properly and mostly they remain unsuccessful in providing the solutions to the problems of the customers in time. 50 % of the surveyed customers rated Sometimes and 40% of the surveyed customers rated Never in responding to the above question.
5. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion and recommendations are presented in this chapter to assert the fulfillment of the purpose of this research. The findings are based on the data extracted through the interview with the HR Manager of SSGC, its customer contact employees and customers. On the basis of the findings conclusion and recommendations are made.
5.2. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The findings are extracted and are exhibited by keeping in mind the literature review.
This part starts with the highlights on the management of the SSGC which exhibits what is traditionally followed in the organization pertaining to the management style. The accountability lacks in the organization as there is no strict accountability process for those who are remanded for the inadequacy & inefficiency and no one is held liable to fulfill its duty.
At SSGC there is nonaggressive workforce management and most of the employees do not know the job description and the assigned duties. And no attempts are made that will empower the employees so it will increase the motivation level of employees.
The organization structure is very important if the organization is service based, as the flow of information within the organization and outside the organization is the integral part of its business operation. Its tall and complex organizational structure usually hinders the flow of information and the lower management has no proper communication channel with top management of SSGC. The flow of information is not smooth whether it's horizontal or vertical.
The rigid culture results in difficulty for the employees to rectify the customers' problems. Additionally, it is difficult for the organization to access timely and accurate data because of improper database system. There is no proper needed support system as the HR manager stated during the interview that employees do not have access to the data about the customers' information.
Being a tall structured organization there is higher number of hierarchical levels and bureaucracy which hinder the free flow of information within the organization. These reasons have lead the SSGC to the non customer centric organization as the employees lack the information regarding current nature of service, company's objectives and its goals.
The lack of integration among the departments and functions, bureaucratic culture, barriers to communication with the top management regarding the issues faced by the customers and fragmented nature of its weak infrastructure has resulted in poor customer service in the form of late response to the customers. The above mentioned reasons have resulted in poor customer service in terms of signing up new customers and responding to the customer queries in time.
SSGC also lacks in providing the technical support to the respective persons in time because of the lengthy procedure of getting approvals by the top management. Thus, as the customer base of SSGC is increasing, its challenges related to business processes are also increasing with same pace.
The empowerment also depends on the approach the company is following in terms of its different functions; in which the HR practices are very important. In SSGC lack of meritocracy lies there as being a state owned company.
The best among the employees are picked up by the bosses and they are given additional duties to perform. This drifts the employees from their original duties which create uneven job distribution with result that some of the employees are over utilized and the remaining is underutilized. By having no proper job descriptions the employees are not satisfied, they can not be empowered thus the motivation level is zero resulting in poor efficiency.
The employees of SSGC especially focusing on customer contact employees are not proactive and have not enough autonomy to deal with the complaints by their own. An employee is unable to resolve the customer query by its own. He has to send the query to the top management and wait for the orders from the top management. The top management does not engage the employees fully at the workplace.
Appraisal system is not proper there and there is no system of recognizing and rewarding excellent jobs as stated by the HR Manager. The employees have no sense of responsibility because the employees do not held themselves accountable for the outcome of their work.
The aim of this study has been achieved through the detailed process of data collection and studying the relation. It has been concluded from the findings that employee empowerment has become the essential tool if an organization needs to deliver the efficient service to its customers.
Greater sense of recognition, motivation and satisfaction in the jobs is expected by customer contact employees of SSGC from their supervisors. In the study the interrelated mechanism between the employee empowerment, service quality (improved customer service) and customer satisfaction has been observed. From the above findings it is drawn that the organizational structure of SSGC is the biggest obstruction for the employee empowerment because of the close-end flow of information and also the nature of human resource practices in the organization.
The motivation, reward system and needed support systems for the employees have become the mandatory practices to be pursued in the organization. Thus, empowerment influences the perception of customers about the service resulting in the satisfaction. The organizational structure and human resource management practices are the two main influential elements for the empowerment of employees but in SSGC both lacks which results poor efficiency of organization.
However, it is concluded that SSGC can improve its customer service by following modern approach of management rather than traditional controlled approach.
Following are some recommendations in accordance with the findings and conclusion:
1. SSGC should develop the learning environment for the training of employees in order to equip them with the skills and knowledge needed to provide the quality service.
2. The employees should be provided autonomy in accordance with the organizational policy.
3. Proper reward and recognition system should be introduced.
4. The communication channels should be enhanced so that there are no barriers to flow of information.
5. The proper reward system should be introduced so that the top management shows the appreciation to employees' devotion and commitment to the service.