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In any organisation, primarily what MUST be prepared and organise to be setup first is the recruitment team. Who to hire and why he or she should be hired is all base on the CEO's guideline about the future of the company and is expected from the staff. He will set its path, know his goal and draft his vision and mission. This recruitment team not only plays an important role in assisting to build the structure for the company workforce but also as to strengthen the basis and pillar of the organisation in whole. It must ensure not to hire the wrong person for the job and to draft and recommend a nice perks to lure good job seekers into the group. By all means a staff pinching if necessary (thou it is not recommended). I do not see this as ill treated but merely giving an opportunity for those who required, that have the potential.
This team is placed under Human Resources Department and managed by a Human Resources Manager so to speak, it vary depending on the organisation requirement but never the less the function and role is still the same. However, Human Resources Management not necessarily solely the responsibility of the HR Department, other supporting entity also must be held responsible for itself such as production etc.
Before we can even proceed to discuss further, we must first understand what actually is Human Resources Management goal is all about, the benefit it expected to gain from. Where will it drive us from now in order to achieve the directive goal of an organisation say five years down the line if not more.
Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and rational approach to the management of an organisation's most valued assets - the people working there, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organisations. In simple words, HRM means employing people, developing their capacities, utilising, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organisational requirement. In short, it is "Managing people".
Human resource management (HRM) is one of the key aspects of running an organisation, and an effective human resource management model is essential to success.
To get the best out of a business, one have to get the best out of its people and having human resource management policies in place will go a long way to determining the fortunes of an organisation. However, HRM should not necessarily be departmentalised. It is every manager's responsibility to improve their human resource management skills.
This assignment is to identify a management problem in the organisation of choice, and to conduct an Analysis on how to improve the situation.
This assignment is to determine as to how an organisation can improve the employees development in order to be competitive in the 21st century, and become the most outstanding or preferable working place in the nation and perhaps in this region above its rivals.
There are many top employers or top pay master out there that certainly we could not challenge, never the less to retain a sustainable workforce must require a certain degree or level of strategic planning towards maintaining this workforce in order to become competitive in the market.
The key point to find out is;
- Are employees happy at work?
- What makes the employees loyal to the company?
- What makes the employees satisfied with what they have?
- Can company compensate by giving other than monetary?
- Can remunerations be ample to sustain employee's needs?
These are some of the questions that the companies need to know and have the answers in order to sustain their human capital, and to do so Human Resources Department must be able to outline these issues and later discuss among top management. All that was said
1.2 THE ASSISGNMENT AND ITS PURPOSES
The assignment outlines are as follows;
- Employees' Development is viewed as a value added activity for the 21st century organisations. For the developmental plan to be deemed 'strategic', organisations need to shift the focus to a 'learning' approach. To discuss this proposition critically in the context of an Employees' Development plan supporting individual and organisational effectiveness in an organisation of our choice.
In this analysis discussion will show that employee development plan is crucial and that can contribute to business improvement in the long run especially cooping in the 21st centuries.
Result of this analysis can be use as the tools for the company to look into the other problem and solution. By studying the root cause of this problem it can be determine that HR next move in the open markets that oriented by the customer requirement must be strategically be considered as a value added activity for the 21st century organisations.
1.4 LAYOUT OF ANALYSIS
Final report on the Analysis will be explain further detail in the project paper.
The project paper will contain as per table mentioned below;
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
Selecting Which Business Analysis Method to Use
Thou it will not be mentioned in the body of this assignment, just for the sake of arguments purposes the research model is used as an outline for this analysis.
Selection one of the two approaches for selecting which business Analysis method to use. The two distinctive approaches (Carter McNamara, 2010) is;
Overall Goal in Selecting Methods
Four Levels of Analysis Results
The first business Analysis method in the assignment which emphasise on overall goal in selecting basic business Analysis methods as to get the most useful information to key decision makers in the most cost-effective and realistic fashion. Consider the following questions:
What information is needed to make current decisions?
Of this information, how much can be collected and analysed in a low-cost and practical manner, e.g., using questionnaires, surveys and checklists?
How accurate will the information be?
Will the methods get all of the needed information?
What additional methods should and could be used if additional information is needed?
Will the information appear as credible to decision makers?
Will the nature of the audience conform to the methods?
How can the information be analysed?
Diagram 1.1 will illustrate the elements that will be discussed further in the paper. It may not align to the hierarchy of importance or might have left out a certain point but it will bring out the area that should be analyse in this assignment.
( INTRODUCTION )
2.1 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
Model company taken is Beyonics Technology Limited which is a public listed company having operation not only in Malaysia and Singapore but also in other countries in South East Asia are dealing in electronics parts assembly, engineering precision works etc. It is a labour intensive company. In order to sustain its workforce the company should implement a strategic approach in making employee feel wanting to stay on a long-term basis.
Competitors are looking on every side of their opponent to be the best working place and lure workers to their workplace and this includes staff pinching if necessary. The problem that company are facing is to improve their employees' development plan. Let us study other rival company's employment strategy such as Flextronics and Celestica, then compare what should be improve.
This main player as we know have a very high turnover, but the questions is what makes employee stay and HR replenish fast? How does employee development plan may help Beyonics to establish into such a high profile company. Make known their secret of success and aim to place Beyonics, a local public listed company in South East Asia to be rank as top 50 in line with their rival.
By improving the employees development plan (EDP) Beyonics will be able to put itself as equal as their two rival or at least work their way to achieve the standards that can boost the company to become one of the most popular electronic and precision company that giving not only good salary but at least a better perks too.
2.2 ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES
2.2.1 MAIN ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES
The main Analysis objective is to determine the key factors that contribute to improvement of employee's development plan to the company. With it, the company will use it as a benchmark to ensure the success and to monitor it for KPI achievement review.
2.2.2 SPECIFIC ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES
To determine the influence of HR Development, Learning Approach and Concepts, Effective Organisation and Effective HR Functions as the key factors that contributes to the improvement of employee's development plan for the company.
Thou it is important, all that was highlighted for the analysis could not be established due to requirement constrain.
2.3 BENEFIT TO THE COMPANY
Since Employees' development plan is viewed as a value added activity for the 21st century organisations. Planning for a strategic development plan for employees is crucial in order to make the organisation stands tall above its rival in manpower planning.
Being able to understand the need and nurture the welfare of the employees will be able to assist to reduce high work force turnover. Worker are human that need to be understand and treated as human that require to furnish all the basic necessity in life to survive.
Working culture is one of the area that should be look into, other area of concern is in HR Development, in educating, new learning approach and concepts, become an effective organisation and effective HR Functions are some of the major area that need not to be neglected.
Employee development and customer satisfaction are somewhat interrelated, suggesting that employees may have a higher ability and willingness to solve crises encountered because of training courses that are encouraged. Employee development plan has become a necessity for surviving in a complex and dynamic environment that continually poses new challenges to the organisations acting within its framework. Failure to seriously look into this area may result in shortage of manpower and subsequently will result in dropping in revenue and soon after will cause the company to be on halt if not closure.
By conducting this Analysis exercise, finally will enables to improve on employees' development plan in Beyonics Malaysia. This achievement can be derive by improving the others main factors related. Upon completion of this exercise, it will be expected that company will acquire skills to locate problem areas in the organisational settings and plan.
(Jeffrey K. Liker, David P. Meier, 2007) When former Toyota Motor Manufacturing North American president Atushi (Art) Niimi was asked about his greatest challenge, when trying to teach the Toyota Way to his American managers, he responded: "They want to be managers, not teachers." He explained that every manager at Toyota must be a teacher. Developing exceptional people is Toyota's number one priority. This has become ingrained throughout the company as a cultural value of the Toyota Way. It is a concept frequently talked about in other companies, but it is one that is rarely practiced.
Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.
- Abraham Lincoln
What can be understand here is, any projection for any job must be realistic and taken into consideration even the time for preparation which normally we neglected. Employees cannot be self develop overnight; it needs time and strategic plan so it will be effective.
If you want one year of prosperity, grow seeds.
If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees.
If you want one hundred years of prosperity, grow people.
- Chinese proverb
Development plan for employees are not only to cater short tem but also should be on going and if possible bring it into the next generation.
SCOPE OF ANALYSIS
The implementation of this Analysis targeted to change peoples perception towards the model company and the employment activities to a new level, that with it aim to create a loyal employee, and in the long term will increase company's revenue to its peak.
This implementation of analysis will give the Human Resources division on how to improve employees' development plan for Beyonics, Senai Malaysia. Structured approach for steps taken not only for the organisation but indirectly can generate revenue and often represent a significant proportion of costs.
By having this Analysis it may support and develop a better understanding for Human Resources to sustain its manpower against rivals and hopefully to place the company more competitive in the global market which first required for a number of improvements.
To carry out this analysis we are to understand first the background of the company especially the vision and mission of the company, because from the mission we will know which direction it should be stir to.
2.4 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Human resource management has moved away from being recognised just as it was formerly known as 'personnel management' with just basic roles of paper-pushing, hiring/firing & transactional support function it has been. It is now becoming a bottom-line decision maker and the phrase most often used is that of a strategic partner. Human resource management is the utilisation of human resources to achieve organisational objectives. It is the process of obtaining, training, appraising, compensating employees and attending to their welfare needs such as labour relations, safety and health as well as concerns of fairness and justice. These are just the basic roles of human resource management as there are more roles involving strategic planning, business partner and decision maker and will be discuss deeper here are the employees development aspect of it.
No doubt, the global human resource management is facing challenges and practitioners need to be aware of issues affecting the global human resource management in order to effectively deal with the factors which is essential for success in the global marketplace. Cultural factor as well has been identified to be one of the most important issues affecting the global marketplace. These challenges or factors affecting the global human resource management shall be deliberated further in the coming sections.
For example, currently in Malaysia labour supplies are pouring in from countries like India, Bangladesh and Indonesia. What would happened if five years from now this so called third world country suddenly storming with new development that gives attractive remuneration and better salary placed in their home country. Surely the Human Resources Division will have to turn to some full proof strategy that will attract this work force to stay in the company and not wanting to go back even if there is an opportunity provided back home as what had happened to our skilled and professional workers that went abroad to middle east and so forth and not wanting to come back. This is where employee development plan play its vital role in keeping the workforce and ensure the organisation still stands for years to come. Remember the Toyota way, using Kaizen methodology to educate its people and this part of employees' development plan should be applied to any organisation to practice.
2.4.2 HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY
Human Resources management must be very vigilant and diligent in identifying organisation climate, where it is now and what next in the future before it happened. Therefore HR must already have a full proof strategic planning on its manpower aligns with mission and vision of the company.
When we talk about HRM activities, we tend to focus on what the HR office, itself, is doing even though we recognise that supervisors would bear the responsibility of HR decisions in an ideal world. After all, deregulation and delegation and the downsizing and outsourcing of HR office activities so that human resources management could take place at the line level, making it more responsive to mission-related needs. Additionally, the HR would be able to devote more time to broader organisational issues, thereby improving its contribution to mission accomplishment (Wintermantel, Richard E., and Karen L. Mattimore, 1997).
So what are HR's contributions toward mission accomplishment? All management members recognise that they could not accomplish their mission without the assistant from HR. HR most valued contributions are recruitment and staffing, employee development plan, and employee relations. Gradually HR becomes more involved and innovative in most areas that it would be extremely difficult to jobs done without the help of HR. An interesting example of innovative staffing is the involvement of HR in OSHA and preparing an Emergency Response Team (ERT) in the company to curb automated disaster deployment system before even there is a need of such activities. Similarly, employee development plan is as much crucial in HR strategy as it is compared to having to form an ERT member among the potential employees and this Analysis is about how to improve further on this areas of concern (Yeung, Arthur K., and Bob Berman, 1997).
2.4.3 OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS TO HRM
The benefits of employees' development plan to HR management are numerous. Good strategies make a lot of difference in the output given by the employees. In this analysis we will discuss some of the benefits of HRM have been explained. Area of concern obviously is staffing (recruitment) and without it there is no staff, no employee and no need for a Human Resource Department.
( MODEL COMPANY )
3.0 COMPANY BACKGROUND - BEYONICS TECNOLOGY LIMITED
There are only brief explanations here in this topic; more information on the company will be available in the appendix.
Founded in 1981, model company taken is Beyonics Technology Limited, a raising company provider of advanced contract manufacturing services to original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") in computer storage devices, medical devices and electronics communication products and a leading manufacturer of precision machining parts for the hard disk drive, electronics and automotive industry.
The contract manufacturing services include printed circuit board assembly, full turnkey system assembly, testing, packing and distribution, manufacturing of plastics injection mould parts and precision stamping parts. The precision machining services include the design and fabrication of tools, aluminium die casting and precision machining.
Beyonics Technology Limited aims to grow strategic manufacturing partnerships with its portfolio of world-class, leading-edge customers. This will be achieved through its supply chain leadership, vertically integrated operations, strong customer focus as well as the synergies of its dedicated and motivated management team.
3.1 VISION AND MISSION
Mission statement of Beyonics Group;
- is to provide world class manufacturing, delivering high quality products and services to the customer through a dedicated team with excellent continuous improvement program.
Their vision is to support customer's global choice of partner trough vertically integrated manufacturing
It is a Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) operation or, a leading organisation in the contract manufacturing of Electronics and Electrical products continually strive to achieve total commitment to quality and on time delivery by providing highest quality product and excellent service for the well being of everybody. Committed to minimise adverse impact from operations and products to the environment, employees and surrounding communities. Through continually improvement, building a culture in which it is the fundamental responsibility of all employees, management and business associates to work in partnership towards a more friendly and accident free environment.
Commitment to environment protection, the company has committed to Environmental Management System based on ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007 for Occupational Health and Safety Management System. Beyonics Technology (Senai) Sdn Bhd - Plant 2 is certified for both ISO standard above by DQS Certification (M) Sdn Bhd in April 2008.
3.2 SELECTION FOR DISCUSSION
This company have a track record for expanding and improving further and are able to be compatible with its two major rivals i.e. Flextronics and Celestica. All are in the electronics industries initial business then emerge into conglomerate industries of expertise.
( LITERATURE REVIEW )
This chapter on literature review provides the information on the four core elements, which with it, will help to improve on EDP and in long run stimulate the growth of the company. This four core elements in no particular order as mentioned in the Research model for this analysis are Human Resources Development, Learning Approach and Concepts, Effective Organisation and Effective Human Resources Functions. They are vital in sustaining an organisation on EDP and to boost in business operation and increase in revenue.
There are various models indicative of organisation culture have been suggested. Important ones include;
â- Burns and Stalker - mechanistic and organismic organisations.
â- Henry Mintsberg - Simple Structure, Machine Bureaucracy, Divisionalised, Professional Bureaucracy, the Adhocracy.
â- Roger Harrison - power, role, task and personal cultures of organisations.
â- Pedler et al - the Learning Organisation.
In this Analysis we will focus in depth on "Pedler et al " or "Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell's Learning Company" which emphasise on the learning organisation.
With it we will apply this four core elements in the research model, Human Resources Development, Learning Approach and Concepts, Effective Organisation and Effective Human Resources Functions and by end of this Analysis we will find out the degree of relevance of any organisation particularly Beyonics to use it to curb in trying to improve employees development.
4.1 HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
In Human Resources Development contribution towards improving employees' development plan are further sub-classified by the following points;
â- In mission fulfillment â- In communication
â- In Trends and policy â- In Skills â- In Training
Employees and organisations will experience inevitable change. Human resource development enhances employee competence in their jobs by increasing knowledge, abilities, and skills. Pro-active career management and self-reliance will be the key to success in the 21st century. In this environment, the employee will be primarily responsible for career development but the company will also have responsibilities that include clearly stating the company's corporate strategy and providing information about its business.
4.2 EFFECTIVE ORGANISATION
In Effective Organisation contribution towards improving employees' development plan are further sub-classified by the following points;
â- HR Principles â- Strength And Weaknesses
â- In Future Challenges â- Competition
Peter Drucker who first said, "Management is doing things right and leadership is doing the right things." The idea being that once leadership figured out which were the right things to do for management set about figuring out how to get them accomplished. This may have been an appropriate operative perspective at some point in history, yet with the pace of change today leadership and management must be integrated to operate across all facets of the organisation. It is simply not possible for leadership to sit on high and develop the organisations objectives so management can effect the strategies to achieve the objectives. The Effective Organization is actually getting from objectives to results.
4.3 EFFECTIVE HR FUNCTIONS
In Effective Human Resources Functions contribution towards improving EDP are further sub-classified by the following points;
â- Diversity â- Evaluation â- In Performance
â- HR Strategy
Other than the routine HR scope an effective human resource or HR management involves maintaining and improving all aspects of a company's practices that affect its employees. From the day of his recruitment to the day that he leaves the company, the employee will have regular contact with the human resources department. Such departments are usually headed by a manager or coordinator who leads a team and reports to senior management. Focusing on the four sub-classified could generally cover the aim of contributing towards effective HR functions.
4.5 LEARNING APPROACHES AND CONCEPTS
In Learning Approach and Concepts contribution towards improving EDP are further sub-classified by the following points;
â- In Creativity â- In Innovation â- In Learning Organisation
â- In Success factors
Learning approaches will vary from one organisation to another depending on field of expertise, never the less the concepts are still much similar to on another. Learning approach should not neglect the element of creativity and innovation, build into all levels and harvest the strong mind of a learning organisation that at the end will contributes to the success factors. Imagine with just a single creative and innovative idea could save thousands if not millions on wastage prevention. If it extends to a division it could save a life time.
4.4 EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT PLAN (EDP)
Base from the four core elements as mentioned above there are plenty of rooms for improvements. All and all what can be conclude here is that EDP has very much related to a learning organisation, employees do very little effort on its own compared to the involvements of a learning organisation in whole. Flextronics and Celestica are two of the best example of a learning organisation (see appendix), which provide one of the most comprehensive learning approach and highlighted it in their company profile.
EDP requires the employees to be prepared for the next level not necessarily ends with increment or promotions which gradually will, however it is more of preparing the employees for a an environment of multitasking, self motivated, innovative and creative etc.
Study by Moore (2004) strongly stress that the degree by which workplace experiences produce concrete outcomes is often important for this continuity. Concerns about the development of transferable knowledge through experience outside of educational institutions are legitimate (Evans, 1993; Prawat, 1993) and easy to identify. However, learning arising from experiences within education institutions is also far from immune from these reservations (e.g. Scribner, 1984; Raizen, 1994). There is evidence of both adaptable learning occurring outside of educational institutions (Rogoff and Gauvain, 1984) and concrete learning arising from experiences inside educational institutions (Raizen, 1994). Such evidence challenges easy assumptions about workplace learning experiences being inherently weak. Instead, it suggests that the qualities of experiences (i.e. activities and interactions) afforded by either educational institutions or workplaces, shape the potential richness of the learning outcomes. Importantly, it is a mistake to assume that learning environments outside education institutions lack these qualities, while somehow being privileged in those institutions.
An employee development plan is rather an important element of the career planning process; it list the goals setting and target for achievements which contain action plan and the techniques to achieve the target. Next to be done is to prepare the employees for the task, what is required and identify the strength and weaknesses there is.
4.5 LEARNING APPROACH & CONCEPTS
Guided by the lists highlighted in diagram 1.1, what comes under all these points can easily break into this meaningful 5 objectives for having employee development plan i.e.;
1) Core competencies
- Combining both leadership and technical skills required and find out the core competencies that really required and to be assess by which gaps there is.
2) Competency gaps
- The competencies gaps identified earlier, to analyse for further development which specific within each competency. It should monitor closely against goals setting and the objectives that was planned on developing which enables for a better results towards corporate vision. Identify any other gaps that may occur as per diagram 1.1 and put on the list in the employee development plan.
3) Plan to close each gap
- Now that we have identified the gap, try to close it using various techniques in career development base on gap selection for closing.
4) Target completion and status
- No plan is successful with putting in dateline or target for completion. Use an indicator by colour to assess the plan and ensure we are on the right track.
5) Manager involvement
- Lastly, make known to the superior or management for which plan is to be complete and that has been carried out. Welcome views from superior and gain support in return.
The employees' development plan resembles the Total Quality Management (TQM) programs in an attempt to retain or regain competitiveness in order to achieve customer satisfaction, however in this case it is for employees self satisfaction.
(CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS)
5.0 PROPOSED EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Based on research and comprehensive case study by Tamkin P. (1995), the key issues of concerned are;
Some key issues arising from the research concern:
scope and content of PDPs
the relationship between the focus of PDPs and their links with other processes
implementation and support
ownership, control and confidentiality
The employee development plan is somewhat a HR strategic device fly path an employee growth path which comprises all the training programs, workforce development initiatives and other processes needed to ensure seamless alignment with corporate strategic objectives and goals. No vision, growth projection, budget allocation and employee requirements would be meaningless without the top management executives key inputs and participations. Other key elements will be available in the appendix on research design.
5.1 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
The primary reason for the study was to learn through administration of questionnaires on the areas that contribute to the improvement of employee development in Beyonics Technology , a contract PCBA and a precision company. Baring in mind the limitation of this study, only a small scale investigation could be executed due to time constraint and confidentiality. More studies of the same nature need to be conducted before any conclusive result can be claimed.
Based on the data gathered from the questionnaire on employees requirement and expectation surveys. Author would determine and confident that the EDP would have a great impact to the organisation in long run and have a healthy growth.
In this chapter, author would want to share the outcome on analysis and findings gathered for this research.
Critical Success Factors (CSF) are the critical factors or activities required for ensuring the success your business. The term was initially used in the world of data analysis, and business analysis. Most smaller and more pragmatic businesses can still use CSF but we need to take a different, more pragmatic approach. Critical Success Factors have been used significantly to present or identify a few key factors that organizations should focus on to be successful. As a definition, critical success factors refer to "the limited number of areas in which satisfactory results will ensure successful competitive performance for the individual, department, or organization".
Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand.
In this chapter we will summarise all the argument, findings based on the outcome of analysis model and its individual elements that address to Analysis model i.e. Human Resources Development, Learning Approach and Concepts, Effective Organisation and Effective Human Resources Functions. They are vital in sustaining an organisation on employee development plan (EDP) and to boost in business operation and increase in revenue.
What we have learn so far is the importance of each elements for an organisation towards achieving the company target and directions or the company goals so to speak.
Each element have its own strong points and views that should be discuss further and act on, a strategically plan on each elements must be layout and draft by all level of management members in order to achieve a successful and achievable target and goals.
Remember our initial target i.e. in order for an organisation to be deem strategic in the 21st century in the context of Human Resources, it needs to focus strategically on the learning approach and how to effectively support the individual and organisation.
In other words, using the Pedler (1997) Analysis project (or PBB) modelled the characteristics of a "Learning Company" and suggested how to become one by the eleven characteristics:
1) Adopt a Learning Approach to Strategy.
2) Participative Policy Making.
3) Informating (Information Systems).
4) Formative accounting.
5) Internal Exchange (Client-Server relationships).
6) Reward Flexibility.
7) Roles and flexible, matrix structures.
8) Boundary workers as intelligence agents.
9) Company-to-company learning.
10) Learning climate.
11) Self-development opportunities for all.
PBB stress that the model is a simplification - not complete or rigid, it is not sequential although it starts with strategy and ends with creation of learning opportunities, they think it needs more aesthetic appeal (what would this mean?).
The model is symbolic rather than concrete. The metaphor speaks of ecological flows, energies, life forces, and balances - abstracted language is evident e.g.
"vertical and horizontal loop energy flows providing linkages between individual and collective activity/change and dynamics between vision and action".
Is this hot air - recursive polemic? The eleven characteristics become
an energetic, normative, persuasive device for those wishing to manage change. It is a professional "change agents'" model - independent of the context of change or analysis of change processes.
characteristics become prescriptions - commitments to flexible, self-managing, incremental, experimental, participative activities
the model has an ethically correct, personal values feel. Down-sizing and asset stripping do not quite fit in (unilateral, surgical management action) as a recommended approach to change