Employee Attitudes And Perceptions In Organisations Business Essay

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In every organisation the employee altitudes and perceptions is very essential. Employee satisfaction contribute a lot to the profitability of the organisation, hence every organisation has to make sure that their employee are satisfied with their job and motivate them in various way. Herzberg (year?) did a research to evaluate what exactly motivates employee, he came with two factor theory of motivation, these includes hygiene needs and motivation needs. Herzberg (year?) suggests that hygiene needs are factors related to work for example payment and job security while motivation needs are intrinsic to work itself for example recognition responsibility independence. These two needs have to be applied within an organisation for employees to be productive and increase profitability.

It is the responsibility of human resource department to ensure that these needs are met which can be achieved through training their employees, motivating through various incentive ways like pay raise, rewards and promotion. According to Taylor's (1911 is this the correct year??? I don't think you can use this reference it is too old? Outdated!!!!), his research concluded that employees are satisfied by money alone. Workers are "Stupid and phlegmatic" and they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic return from it Siyadain (2004).

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However organisations have moved away from the traditional approach of Taylor to a more human oriented approach. Due to rapid increase in technology and innovation organisation have changed the way they operate, new skills and innovative ideas have increased in the 21st century and hence the field of job satisfaction remains a challenge to many organisation. This research is aimed at exploring various factors that motivates and satisfy employee in Tesco and hence influencing the productivity of the organisation.

Organisation Background

Tesco is one of the leading retailing stores in the UK .It mainly deals with food retailing and other associated activities .The group also focus on property management and development, personal finance amongst other activities. It mainly deals with four growth strategies that consist of:-

Expand internationally

Core UK business

Be strong in non food commodities

Retailing services

I think if you briefly explain the above points , you will add weight to your research

The company operates 3,278 stores around the world employing 450,000 employees. Its main aim is to deliver good services to their customers on every visit and every transaction through their core purpose "creating value for customers to earn their life time loyalty". The core purpose is achieved through the company that "no one tries for customers and treats people how we like to be treated". Re-write the underlined sentence coz it does not make sense. The board is composed of six executive directors, seven independent Non-executive directors and Non executive chairman.

Stores Formats

The UK stores are classified into six categories with different sizes and product sold in these stores such as.

Express

Tesco express stores offer goods of higher quality closure to where the customers live and work. The store mainly deals with food products with expectation of higher margins products. The first store was opened in 1994 and which have increased to about 700 stores. Selling different range of products such as food commodities wines and a bakery inside the store. do you really need this sentence here??

Metro

These kinds of stores were opened in 1992, with an intention of bringing Tesco experience in towns and cities. This kind of stores provide services to thousands of customers in the high street offering various range of products like ready meals and sandwiches.

Superstores

The first store of this kind was opened in 1970(correct year?) which are aimed at selling other non food products and also ready meals and sandwiches.

Extra

A store of this kind was first opened in 1997 which proved to be very popular. The stores offer various wide ranges of products and also non-food products such as electrical appliances, clothing, cosmetic products, home wares and other various products. Since 1997 the company has opened up 18 more Extra Tesco stores.

Core UK

The core UK has over 260,000 employees with about 1,800 stores outlet in various locations around the country. Their main unit whereby 80 % of their sales comes from the UK market??. Due to diversification the company has been able to enjoy the benefits of market leader in the UK market offering other non food commodities which are increasingly becoming more important than food commodities.

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The company offers various benefits to their employees for example child care vouchers insurance and save as you earn schemes. The company has a pension scheme as well with about 150,000 members.

Problem Discussion

Altitude and perception of employees mainly depends on the level of job satisfaction. If the employees are satisfied then it is more likely they will have high altitude and perception about the organisation. Good relationship is achieved when there is interaction and exchange of information between the employer and the employee. Employee relationship is a very major aspect in every organisation because it can lead to either success or failure of the business. Tesco success has been brought out by various strategies for example their corporate values "no one tries harder for customers "and also "treat people how we do [Tesco .com 2005].

The first strategy includes factors such as: Understanding customers need, being first for customers and delivering unbeatable value to their customers while at the same time looking after their employees so that they can look after their employees [Tesco.com 2005].The fact that we spend a lot of time in our workplace gives out the reason why we need to be connected and interact with each other within the organisation.

According to (Etzioni1975 cited in Leat 2007) he suggested that employees were engaged with, attached to or involved with employing organizations in a number of different ways and with differing degrees of intensity and this still has relevance today. Etzioni pointed out three different source form of power that can be used by employers' i.e. Coercive power, remunerative power, and calculative power. These forms of powers if well utilized can increase the productivity of the employees. According to Leat (2007) he indicated that Japanese organizations often demonstrate employment relationships that are high commitment with employees demonstrating an affective bond with the organization and the desire to remain.

According to Maslow's (1954) he argued that people satisfy their needs in relation to the context of their work. He also suggested that a person cannot recognize the next higher need in the hierarchy before attaining his or her current needs. In his theory he categorized five types of needs i.e.

Physiological for example hunger and sex

Safety; i.e. Security and protection

Love and sense of belonging; Love and to be loved

Esteem; Self respect

Self actualization; To attain ones potential

Organisation need to make use of these theories in trying to satisfy their employees. Many literatures on motivation have indicated that many people have problems when it comes to articulate what they really want from a job. Herzberg (1959) came up with another theory that is aimed at motivating employees. Herzberg classified his theory into two categories i.e. Hygiene needs and Motivation needs. He argued that employees are not only satisfied by meeting hygiene needs but also motivation needs.

The other value focuses on recognizing team work and having faith with its team member's .Respect and trust between the employees and employer. This is achieved through support to each other and offering various motivations incentive like promotion, gifts and recognition. Herzberg et.al (1959)argued that motivators cause positive job altitudes and satisfaction.

It is believed that job satisfaction can increase productivity of an employee. According to Siyadain (2003) he argue that a worker may be highly dissatisfied with the work environment and may produce more to prove his ability to the management, on the other hand highly satisfied worker may not be productive and can be able to get away with it if maybe they have a good relationship with the supervisor. This argument indicates that productivity and job satisfaction are two variables which are independent. Robbin (2005) point out that job satisfaction is a complex attitude which is determined by a large number of and often conflicting variables, hence to expect any relationship between satisfaction and productivity to be difficult. If people are happier in areas of their job then they are expected to be satisfied with their job.

Job satisfaction is different from motivation even though they are interlinked together. Job design contributes quite a lot in enhancing job satisfaction. Example of job design includes.

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Job rotation. This is where an organisation try to avoid boredom of routine, employees are rotated in various department in a planned way to gain more experience in other areas. A well planned and maintained job rotation can lead to job satisfaction. It also helps in retaining valuable employees within the organisation.

Job enlargement; This is described as a process whereby organisation tend to increase or extend the duties and responsibilities of a given employee in various departments. It makes the job to be more varied but doing various duties related to the work itself. For example a front office employee can be given other duties like posting mails apart from his/her normal duties.

Job enrichment; is the process whereby organisation try to improve the work itself and the environment in order for employees to become more satisfied

However (Rao,et al., 2000), argues that limited job opportunities and higher numbers of people aspiring for them, to get the job can be satisfying. An employee maybe productive just because he wants to retain the job and hence he /she become more productive. This is clear evidence that there is a positive correlation between productivity and job satisfaction.

Employee job satisfaction in Tesco has contributed quite a lot in their sustainability, success and growth while at the same time using other strategies like low cost provider and differentiation. Czeipel, 1990; Henning, Thurau et al.,2002 cited in Jamal 2007) argued that enhancing customer satisfaction through a continuous relationship and thereby creating value for the firm and the customer is the underlying principle behind relationship marketing. Maslow (1954) argued that all managers should have an altitude of valuing both production and their employees.

Methodology

Research methodology deals with the research methods and takes into consideration the logic behind the methods (Bhattacharyya, 2005). It is the scientific and systematic method of solving a research problem. According to Saunders (2003) he argues that research method is concerned with explicit explanation of the purpose of an investigation, and determination of the population to which the investigation is relevant and the design of study. In this research methodology will be used in order to establish goals and objectives. This research will rely on already collected information i.e. secondary data.

Secondary Research

This method involves the use of data that have already been collected by others(Saunders ,Lewis& Thornhill 2003).Secondary data is the information that has already been published or unpublished but still exist, for example research journals existing government statistics.

Data Analysis

In this research both qualitative and quantitative methods will be applied. Qualitative method is very important and it helps to get detailed information. On the other hand quantitative method helps to easily analyse and quantify collected information for example altitudes perceptions and motivation.

Findings

The aim of this section is to analyse and present the result found using various data collection method used in this research. Data collected will be presented and fully analyzed in accordance to the objective of the study. Thereafter the data will be interpreted.

Tesco use various strategies to enhance job satisfaction. The company is highly committed in offering training and development need to their employee. The company has a culture which is also reflected in the logo "every little helps". This shows how the company is committed to their employees as well as their customers.

The company has a policy whereby each and every employee within the organisation is given an opportunity for him or her to understand their roles which are geared towards achieving Tesco main purpose. All employees are highly valued in Tesco and they have a role to play in order for the company to achieve its goal and mission.

According to (Paawe and Boselie 2003)he pointed out that strategic HRM has achieved credibility over the last decade and specifically on the impact it has towards organisational performance In Tesco each employee is considered to be as part of the company. Over the last decade there has been a higher need of investing on the employees and hence getting the best performance from them. Tesco aims to continue placing value on their employees by offering them the training that they need. The company is aiming at having the right people in the right time and t the right place. The company usually appraise their employees annually or after every six months, this strategy helps them to identify any training needs and any shortages in skill.

Reliability

This is the extent to which a research process can be repeated and produce constituent results (Bhattacharyya, 2003).This is a very important aspect in research because some people give different information which might give wrong judgement. A data is considered to be reliable in a research if the information collected correspond or is the same.

Validity

Bhattacharya (2006) point out that validity is the degree of success of the scale in measuring what it sets out to measure, so that differences between individuals' scores can be taken as representing true differences in the characteristics under study.

Literature Review

Many studies have been conducted in regards to job satisfaction .According to (Locke,1969 cited in (Lund 1999)he define job satisfaction as a function of the perceived relationship between what one wants from one s job and what one perceives it as offering. Several researchers have conducted studies in trying to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and other variable factors such as productivity and organizational commitment, while other researchers have looked at the relationship between satisfaction and commitment (Agho et al., 1993 Cramer 1996 cited in Lund 1999).

Literature review discuss published information in a particular area within a time period(Gill &Johnson 2002).Data collection will be done through review on journals ,published materials and internet. These materials will help to gain more knowledge about this study.

According to Burney (2002) he argues that literature review is very important aspect ,it indicates that a researcher has done a lot of study than what others might have done ,it makes it easier when there is a need to state the problem the research is addressing.

Many studies relating to job satisfaction have been focusing on operational sing rather than defining its meaning Lockle (1969) argue that such approach describes that a certain relationship only works but don't give out the reason why it works. Researchers are more concerned in choosing the unit of measurement from the available sources but little attempt has been made in defining job satisfaction(Siyadain 2003).

According to Hoppock (1935) he observed that job satisfaction is a combination of physiological, psychological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say "I am satisfied with my job". During his study he came up with six factors that can lead to job satisfaction. These factors includes:-

How individual reacts to unpleasant situation

The facility with which he adjust himself/herself to other persons.

The type of work in relation to the abilities and interest of the worker

Relative status in the social and economic which one identifies himself

These shows that the variety of variables that normally influence job satisfaction in every person.

Another survey that was conducted by Brayfield and Crockett (1955) indicated that there was no relationship between performance and job satisfaction. Herzberg (1957) came up with similar findings. However a study that was conducted by Nair(1965) indicated that low productive workers of large machinery plant are less satisfied as compared to high productive workers. He argued that high productive workers can be satisfied using various factors such as working conditions, salary management and union management.

According to Prakasam (1982) he pointed out those employees who are highly productive and low productive mills to narrate critical incidents of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The results indicated that employees of high productive mills indicate more recognition as compared to those of low productive mills. Prakkasam study indicates that high productive are provided with greater opportunities, the satisfaction of higher order needs and hence greater satisfaction.

The implication we gathered from this studies is that two variables i.e. job satisfaction and performance are independent of each other. According to Fincham (1999) he argued that there seem to be a reason why for this. He pointed out that job variation cannot lead to variation in productivity, secondly even when there is appearance of correlations, the association may be spurious, because both may be associated by another factor.

Research hypothesis

Given the fact that employee satisfaction can lead to high productivity of the organization, while at the same time dissatisfaction can lead to the failure of the business, the study will focus on various strategy that can lead to motivation using Tesco as an example.

According to (Kerr and Slocum 1987) they argue that any organizational culture that emphasize on the value of culture that emphasize on the values of mentors and respect for individual people, create a chance form commitment and help employee satisfaction. On the other hand Shellenbarger (2000) point out that organizational cultures that focuses on other aspect like order aggressiveness and desire of individual achievement may be termed as ruthless (lund 1999).

Its therefore believed that employees are more satisfied with their jobs in organisation which focus more on culture putting more emphasis on flexibility as compared to a firm which got hierarchy where the organization focus more on stability and control. Using conceptual frame work of my study it's therefore hypothesized that;

H1.The influence of employee job satisfaction will vary depending on various organizational culture and other factors like motivation need and hygiene need.

In every research there are obstacles that researchers normally come across which tend to limit some development in finding the answers for the research. As Gill and Johnson (2005) pointed out that large amount of information generated can lead to the researcher to be swamped by data and making him or her to be unable to distinguish the most significant variables from those peculiar to a particular case.

Conclusion

It is very important to make sure that employments are fully satisfied with their job. This study has indicated that people who are satisfied with their job are more likely to be more productive as compared to those who are not. Job satisfaction of employees in Tesco has contributed quite a lot in its profitability as well as increasing its market share. The company aims are to retain their customer and acquire new ones. This can only be achieved if the employees are committed in order to meet the company objectives

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