Empirical research into the Recruitment Process

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ABSTRACT

Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified people for a job. The objective is to obtain the quantity and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. It helps to create a pool of perspective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The process involves sourcing and screening which is done by the sourcing and screening teams respectively. The sourcing team helps in the generation of quality profiles. The selection team focuses on quality hires.

This project regarding 'Recruitment Process' helps in understanding the generation of quality profiles and .It mainly focuses on how to attract quality applicants and recruiting them. It throws light on various complexities involved in sourcing team activities such as generating initial interest among job applicants, identifying the most effective recruitment medium, significance of recruitment source to recruitment outcome, influence of realistic job information, variation in the recruitment outcome due to gender difference.

Recruitment acts as a link between the employers and the job seekers and ensure the placement of right candidate at the right place at the right time. Using and following the right recruitment process can facilitate the selection of the best candidates for the organization.

INTRODUCTION

With increase in technology advances like pocket P.C's, laptops, 3G mobiles have become a part of everyday life but one thing which will have its own place no matter what 'state of the art' technology comes is that of manpower. Without manpower technology is of no use. Human Resource is an asset to any organization. To have efficient manpower recruitment of potential job applicants is very important.

Recruitment process is about attracting talent, screening and selecting qualified people for a job. Selection of the candidates is done inorder to achieve the organization's goals and vision. Basically the process of recruitment involves various steps they are:

Forming the objectives: This is a very basic requirement of the process which involves the organization forming its necessities in order to achieve its long time goals eg: quality of applicants, Speed of achieving the targets.

Developing Strategies: Once the objectives are formed, the organizations has to concentrate upon the policies and protocols to achieve these objectives..eg: where to recruit, whom to recruit.

Recruitment Activities: The recruitment activities can be divided into two types: 1) Activities done by the sourcing team. 2) Activities done by the selection team.

Sourcing team

Helps in generation of quality profiles.

Focuses on right profile mix.

Determines the recruitment sources to be used

Co-ordinates with recruitment consultants.

Logistics management with consultants.

Recruitment message to be communicated.

Document Verification

Selection Team

Focuses on quality hires.

Informing correct profile target.

Document checking

Offer letter Declaration

Risk Verification

Onboarding Co-ordination

Key Variables: These are hypothesised factors that gives the relationship between the recruitment activities and recruitment outcomes. eg: Individual perception about the organization, jobprofile etc, applicant's expectations.

Recruitment Results: Finally the recruitment results are got by comparing the recruitment outcomes to that of recruitment objectives.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Research interest in the topic of employee recruitment has increased substantially over the last thirty years. Even though numerous recruitment studies had been published since 1976.Body of research was to be lacking in several ways. Most of the research was found to be focusing only three topics (i.e., recruitment sources, recruiters, and realistic job previews) and that the research on each of these topics was developed in isolation from the others.(Rynes 1991). Although understanding in certain areas (e.g., recruitment source effects) had increased. It was also pointed out that researchers still had failed to address adequately a number of significant issues (e.g., the site visit) It was also noted that methodological weaknesses (e.g., failure to measure key variables) made it difficult to draw clear conclusions from many studies. (Barber 1998). Most of the research conducted has addressed recruitment sources, recruiters, and realistic job information as the three major recruitment activities. The most commonly cited study of source usage was conducted by the (Bureau of National Affairs, 1988). This study examined the frequency of source usage across five job types (office/clerical, production/service, professional/technical, commission sales, and managers/supervisors). Regardless of job type,newspaper ads, employee referrals, direct applications (i.e., individuals who apply or a job without having received information that a job opening existed), and recruiting at schools were commonly used sources.With regard to recruitment sources, two theoretical explanations (i.e., the realistic information hypothesis and the individual difference hypothesis) for why sources may be differentially associated with recruitment outcomes have attracted the most attention (Barber 1998). The realistic information hypothesis proposes that persons recruited via certain sources are likely to have more accurate information about what a job entails (Rynes 1991). Possessing such information is thought to enable an applicant to make a more informed decision about whether to pursue a job. The second explanation commonly offered for recruitment source differences is known as the individual difference hypothesis , This explanation is based on the premise that sources differ in the types of individuals they reach, and that these differences result in different outcomes (Rynes 1991). Researchers have offered a number of explanations for why recruiters may have an effect on job candidates. The first of these has to do with recruiter informativeness. Researchers ( Powell, 1991) have theorized that recruiters provide more information and more specific information to applicants than other recruiters. Different researchers examined such issues as (Barber & Roehling, 1993 ) (Dean and Wanous ,1984) (a) whether the RJP medium makes a difference (b) whether having prior exposure to a job moderates the impact of receiving an RJP , and (c) whether RJPs make higher quality applicants less likely to pursue job openings. Overall, it was found that RJPs were related to higher job performance and to lower levels of initial job expectation, attrition from the recruitment process, and voluntary turnover. It was also reported that RJP effects were stronger when the RJP was provided verbally rather than via a videotape or a booklet.It was emphasized that many of the RJP effects were quite modest in magnitude (Colarelli ,1984).

AIMS OF THE STUDY

To find out how to generate initial interest among potential job applicants.

To investigate the various issues involved in recruiting these candidates.

To determine the most effective recruitment medium in conveying the recruitment message

To find whether the recruitment outcomes are independent of gender.

To find how realistic job information influence the mindset of the candidates.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research methodology used is empirical research. Empirical research is research that derives its data by means of direct observation or experiment, such research is used to answer a question or test a hypothesis. The results are based upon actual evidence as opposed to theory or conjecture.

Data Collection

Data was collected by direct personal contact with aid of pre-formulated questionnaire and also from the respective superiors in the organization.

Selection of Respondents

Since the project is about generating initial job interest among potential job applicants and recruiting them, newly recruited employees or employees having not more than six months of experience in the organization where selected as sample for project research inorder to maximize the accuracy of final result. Sample size selected is 30.

Data Collection Techniques

Questionnaire was formulated based on the objectives of the project. The data was collected using single item measure on seven point scale also called as likert scale.

Multiple choice questions and Rating tables were used in the questionnaire for gathering data from the employees.

Tools for Analysis

The collected data was edited, consolidated and subjected to suitable statistical test for analyzing and validating inorder to arrive at certain conclusions. Data was presented in the form of bar diagrams, percentage and table columns for easier evaluation.

Tools used for data analysis are :-

Student's 't' test

Chi-Square test

Percentage Analysis

HYPOTHESIS FRAMED

The framing of hypothesis 1 is to find the most effective recruitment medium that conveys the recruitment message. The null hypothesis H0 is taken as the value of a medium that conveys the recruitment message effectively is not less than 190 .The alternate hypothesis H1 is taken as the value of a medium that conveys the recruitment message effectively is greater than 190.

The framing of hypothesis 2 is to check whether the recruitment outcomes are independent of gender or not . The null hypothesis H0 is taken as recruitment outcomes are independent of gender of workers.The alternate hypothesis H1 is taken as recruitment outcomes are not independent of gender workers.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Determination of the most effective recruitment medium to convey the recruitment message

Table 1: Applying student's 't' test

S.NO

Recruitment mediums

x

x-x1

(x-x1)2

1

Media

177

-9.27

85.93

2

Websites

162

-24.27

589

3

Direct

195

8.73

76.21

4

Print

187

0.73

0.53

5

Word of mouth

197

10.73

115.13

6

Employee Referrals

199

12.73

162.1

Total

1117

1028.9

Recruitment outcomes are independent of gender using chi-square test.

Total Samples =30. No.of males =18. Females =12

Table:2 This table shows the importance of the recruitment outcomes surveyed from the male and female employees.

Recruitment outcomes

M

N=18

F

N=12

Total

N=30

Job-Satisfaction

124

79

203

Initial job performance

100

82

182

First year retention rate

121

79

200

Time lag between an organizati-on's annoncement of a job opening and applicant accepting a job offer

122

79

200

Cost per hire

126

83

209

Total

∑M =593

∑F=392

985

.

Table :3 Calculation of χ2

O

E

(O-E)2

(O-E)2/E

124

122.21

3.2

0.026

100

109.56

91.39

0.83

121

120.40

0.36

0.003

122

114.98

49.28

0.42

126

125.92

0.032

0.0003

79

80.78

3.16

0.039

82

72.43

91.58

1.264

79

79.59

0.34

0.004

69

76.0

49.168

0.646

83

83.17

0.028

0.003

Total

3.23

Influence of Realistic job information

Table 4:- Percentage analysis for influence of realistic job information

Factors

Satisfying candidates' job expectations

Role clarity

Candidates' perception about the organization

Higher level of job satisfaction

Low level of voluntary turnover

Professionel Level

J.L

N=19

M.L

N=7

S.L

N=4

J.L

N=19

M.L

N=7

S.L

N=4

J.L

N=

19

M.L

N=7

S.L

N=4

J.L

N=19

M.L

N=7

S.L

N=4

J.L

N=

19

M.L

N=7

S.L

N=4

Rating

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

2

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

3

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

1

00

00

00

3

0

2

0

1

1

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

4

2

1

0

2

0

0

8

2

1

0

4

0

4

2

0

5

3

1

3

0

6

2

3

0

0

3

2

0

5

0

0

6

0

3

1

7

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

1

2

0

2

7

13

0

0

6

0

2

2

0

2

11

1

2

8

1

2

Average

6.1

4.71

5.25

5.3

4.71

6

3.89

2.71

5

5.63

4.71

5.5

5.7

3.42

6.5

J.L- Junior Level, M.L-Middle Level, S.L- Senior Level

Table 1 exhibits the responses of 30 samples for various recruitment mediums such as media, websites, direct, print, word of mouth and employee referrals. X is the calculation of responses from 30 samples with respect to 7-point likert scale.The value of X lies within the range of 162-199.The lowest value (162) is observed in the case of websites and highest value (199) in the case of employee referrals.It was found that there was significant variation between the lowest (websites) and the second lowest (media) i.e 162 and 177 respectively. There was no big difference between direct, word of mouth, referrals as their values fall in the range between 195-199. The mean of X is calculated and named as X1 .Students 't' test is used to calculate and find the most effective recruitment medium.The difference between X and X1 are calculated for each medium and the square of difference between X and X1 are found for each medium.The standard deviation is calculated.The population mean µ is taken as 190 and accordingly null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis are formed.The test static 't' is calculated.The calculated value of 't' is compared against a predefined value or the tabulated value.If calculated value is less than tabulated value null hypothesis is accepted if not it is rejected.In this case we accept the null hypothesis H0 of Hypothesis I as the calculated value is less than tabulated value and the value of an effective medium through which the recruitment message was conveyed is found to be not less than 190.Hence it is observed that employee referrals, word of mouth,message conveyed directly from the organization are the most recruitment medium.

Table 2 exhibits the responses of various recruitment outcomes.The sample size was taken as 30.The number of male and female responses were 18 and 12 respectively.

The various recruitment outcomes taken for analysing are job satisfaction,initial job performance,first year retention rate,time lag and cost per hire.The response from the male employees ranged from 100 to 126 and from the female employees it ranged from 79 to 83.Overall taking both male and female samples the range was from 182 to 209.

The highest response was for cost per hire from both male and female employees and the lowest for initial job performance.Although while considering the female responses the recruitment outcomes job-satisfaction,first year retention rate,time lag got the least scores while considering both male and female responses initial job performance was found to be having the least score.Using these responses calculation of expected frequencies are made.

Table 3 shows the calculation of chi-square χ2.The responses from the people are taken as observed frequencies O and the expected frequencies calculated from these observed frequencies are taken as 'E'.With these observed frequencies and expected frequencies χ2 is calculated. χ2 is calculated by taking the difference of observed frequency and expected frequency and then dividing it by the expected frequency gives the value of χ2.This is the calculated value of χ2.This calculated value of χ2 is compared against a predefined value which is the tabulated value . If the calculated value is less than the tabulated value the null hypothesis formed is accepted if not it is rejected.Here the calculated value is less than the tabulated value,therefore null hypothesis H0 of Hypothesis II is accepted.

Table 4 represents the responses for influence of realistic job information.The factors considered here for percentage analysis are satisfying candidates' job expectations, role clarity, candidates' perception about the organization, higher level of job satisfaction and lower level voluntary turnover.This analysis is conducted across three different professionel levels -junior level,middle level,senior level. 'N' is the sample size.The average is calculated for every professionel level for all factors.The factor "satisfying candidates' job expectations" got the highest number of responses with the inclusion of all the professionel levels under this factor.And "candidates' perception about the organization" got the lowest number of responses."Role Clarity" got the second highest followed by "highest level of job satisfaction" and "low level of voluntary turnover.The average is found inorder to find the most influential realistic job information.

The most influential realistic job information was found to be the one which satisfies the candidates' job expectations.

Dicussion and Conclusion

The process of recruiting a candidate in an oraganization is an elaborate process.It starts with the organization's objectives where the organization compares its own objectives with that of its goals to achieved and frame the recruitment objectives for recruiting the candidate accordingly.Strategies,rules,policies are formed in order to achieve these goals.After this the actual recruitment activities starts. The recruitment message needs to be conveyed .A recruitment message needs to convey about the position, profile and also the eligibility criteria for that position to the job applicants.The medium through which the message is conveyed should be given adequate importance inorder how much is the reach of the message to the job applicants.Through student's 't' test it was found that 'employee referrals' is the most effective recruitment medium. Since the population mean was taken as 190,the result of the test was that any medium having value of more than 190 is an effective medium.Since the value of 'employee referrals' is more among the other recruitment mediums it is considered to be the most effective followed by 'word of mouth' , 'direct'.

Next step is the screening of the candidate's profile to check whether he meets the required criteria or not.If the candiadate qualifies through the screening process he/she will go to the selection team where the candidate will be interviewed based on number of aspects and also he gets an oppurtunity to discuss about his position and role in the organization.The recruiter may provide him realistic job preview.This will an impact on in various ways such as satisfying candidates' job expectations, role clarity, candidates' perception about the organization, higher level of job satisfaction and lower level voluntary turnover.Using the responses and by conducting percentage analysis across different levels in the organization that includes junior level,middle level, senior level it was found that realistic job information had greater impact in 'satisfying a candiadate's job expectations' followed by 'role clarity' and 'level of job satisfaction'.

After recruitment activities are over the outcome of these activities is the most important thing an organization should concentrate. There may be certain apprehensions regarding gender issues such as whether gender difference might hinder the recruitment outcome or whether females will perform equal to their male counterparts or not.To answer this, using chi-square test it was found that recruitment outcomes does not depend on gender since both male and female employees agreed mutually that the most important recruitment outcome is cost incurred for ever hire and the least important is initial job performance as they felt that initially every employee will take some time to get used to a job and only after he settles down with the job he will show his true performance.

So recruitment process is not just about identifying who is suitable for the job,checking with they meet the eligibility criteria,evaluating their knowledge through interviews, filtering the number of candiadates in every step of the process and selecting the best lot. It is more complex which starts with establishing the recruitment objectives,developing a recruitment strategy, considering pre-hire such as quality of job applicants certain sources yeilding high percentage of new hires and post-hire outcomes such as initial job satisfaction,initial job performance,first year retention rate. Determining and understanding the relationship between various recruitment activities and recruitment outcomes and finally comparing the recruitment outcomes to the established objectives.

From the study we can conclude that an organization should concentrate upon number of aspects such as the presentation and effectiveness of a recruitment message,recruitment medium, recruitment source, realistic job information and recruitment outcomes for the entire recruitment process to be effective.

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