Efficiency In Any Job Business Essay

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For every task one needs certain competencies. Efficiency in any job is dependent upon the presence of particular competencies required for that job. For having a better insight into what the term 'competency' means, we need to go deeper into its meaning. Competency is a set of knowledge, attitude and skills, which could exert an influence on specified work performance, and it also symbolizes the performance based on the reason, the feel and what can be done with this capability (Parry, 1997). Competencies are defined as "the set of knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for future, which manifests in activities" (Katane, 2006). These competencies are considered behavioral, and specify the skills required of a person in a specific task (Sudsakorn, 2009). Thus, we see that competencies are required in all areas of work in order to ensure efficiency and constructive output.

Competencies were traditionally associated with entrepreneurs. An entrepreneur is an enterprising individual who builds capital through risk and/or initiative. The term was originally a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon. Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to a person who is willing to help launch a new venture or enterprise and accept full responsibility for the outcome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneur). Thus we see that risk-taking, initiative and accepting responsibility for outcomes are characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. The entrepreneur always searches for change, responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity Drucker (1985). However, there are different opinions on the kinds of competency a manager must have (Chen Hu, 2010). From an educational perspective, scholars are primarily concerned with the development of individual level competencies for entrepreneurship (Bird, 2002). Competence based education and training can be designed to promote entrepreneurial activity among university students (Izquierdo et al., 2005).

Teachers must also have these competencies for success in teaching profession. Teachers not only have to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge for developing the abilities and talents with which he is born (Siddiqui, 2004). A competent teacher always encourages active learning, gives prompt feedback, emphasis time on task, clearly communicates high expectations and respects the diverse talents of students (Kulkarni, 2011). A teacher with high competence is one of the most significant factors which manipulate the student learning as well as serving the schools to meet its objectives and missions (Achwarin, 2010). Teachers' competencies have been broadening with respect to reform studies in education, development of teacher education, scientific results of educational science and other fields (Selvi, 2010). The kind of professional knowledge teachers require, the role of teachers in making this knowledge available to their colleagues and students, and the impact of motivation on teachers' job effectiveness are essential to educational development (Ololube, 2006).

Managing performance means keeping employees focused on the right goals and helping them accomplish their job successfully (Employee Development Systems, Inc., 2007). Numerous programs are organized which seek to develop these competencies among the target group. Numerous courses in entrepreneurship are being taught all over the world in schools and colleges, seminars and conferences are being organized and EDPs are being conducted (http://ichm.edu.np/files/download/BHCM24.pdf). A key assumption underlying these programs is that entrepreneurship skills can be taught and are not fixed personal characteristics (Oosterbeek et al., 2007). Entrepreneurial competencies therefore, include those clusters of related knowledge, attitudes, and skills which an entrepreneur must acquire through managerial training and development to enable him produce outstanding performance, and maximize profit, while managing a business venture or an enterprise (Inyang & Enuoh, 2009).

ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES

Different thinkers have suggested different categorization of these competencies. The Entrepreneurship Development Institute has also enumerated fifteen entrepreneurial competencies. They are Initiative, Seeing and Acting on Opportunities, Persistence, Knowing, Concern for High Quality of Work, Commitment to Work Contract, Efficiency Orientation, Concern for conservation of time/money and effort, Systematic Planning, Problem solving, Self-confidence, Assertiveness, Persuasion, Use of Influence Strategies, Monitoring and Concern for Employee Welfare. In the present study, the researchers have undertaken five important competencies which are pre-requisites in both education and management fields. These five competencies are described below.

INITIATIVE

http://www.thefreedictionary.com defines initiative as the power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task; enterprise and determination. Students of both the management and education field need to develop initiative in them. Managers have to take initiative in taking decisions regarding the smooth working of the company. Similarly, teachers have to initiate activities which foster all-round development of personality among the learners.

PERSISTENCE

Dictionary.reference.com defines persistence as the continuance of an effect after its cause is removed. Teachers and managers should have the tendency of not giving up easily and making sustained efforts in spite of failures and less-than-desired output. In the field of education, the teacher encounters situations when in spite of consistent efforts, performance from students is not obtained. Similarly, managers too encounter situations where there is lack of output from employees in spite of all favorable facilities and environment.

EFFICIENCY ORIENTATION

This implies having concern for the management and utilization of time, energy, money and resources. Teachers have to utilize the time spent in classrooms constructively; utilize the teaching resources for maximum efficiency and ensuring that efforts payoff is maximized. Similarly, managers are concerned with efficient investments, monitoring of work hours and proper utilization of resources. Thus, efficiency orientation is another important competency of managers and teachers.

PROBLEM SOLVING

http://en.wikipedia.org defines problem solving as a higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills. Both teachers and managers confront problem situations while performing the responsibilities entrusted to them. Educational problems can only be dealt with effectively when we have educationists who have this important problem-solving competency in them. Similarly, managers too confront these types of situations in organizations. This enables corrective action to be taken to prevent further failures.

PERSUASION

http://en.wikipedia.org defines persuasion as a process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. It aims at obtaining the support of others for a job. Teachers have to persuade the administrators, parents and community members for support in best development of learners. Similarly, managers have to persuade the employees, unions and customers to develop trust in their products and services.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The present study compares the entrepreneurial competencies of B.Ed. and BBA students who are prospective teachers and prospective managers respectively. In future, B.Ed. students will be entrusted with the all important task of handling and directing the youth of the nation. BBA students will handle and guide the economic development of the country. Hence, it becomes essential to study the entrepreneurial competencies of these undergraduate students. A comparison of these competencies will provide useful data about the type of programmes required for in both the areas for effective development of skills. Competency equips an individual with the knowledge of how to do a particular task. Study of important competencies like initiative, problem solving, efficiency orientation, persistence and persuasion provides hints regarding the future programmes required in the areas of education and management.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurial Competencies of Undergraduate Students of Education and Management Streams

OBJECTIVES

To compare the entrepreneurial competencies of B.Ed. and BBA Students

To compare the entrepreneurial competencies of male B.Ed. and BBA students

To compare the entrepreneurial competencies of female B.Ed. and BBA students

HYPOTHESES

There will be no significant difference between entrepreneurial competencies of B.Ed. and BBA Students.

There will be no significant difference entrepreneurial competencies of male B.Ed. and BBA students.

There will be no significant difference entrepreneurial competencies of female B.Ed. and BBA students.

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The present study is conducted on 180 students (90 students from B.Ed. and 90 from BBA). Out of 90 students in each stream, 45 are male and 45 are female. The sample is drawn randomly from B.Ed. students of one college of education and BBA students of two institutes of management in Ambala district of Haryana (India).

TOOL USED

Based on the list of entrepreneurial competencies given by Entrepreneurship Development Institute, five competencies namely, initiative, problem solving, efficiency orientation, persistence and persuasion were undertaken for the present study. A self designed questionnaire consisting of 25 items was used to collect data about these competencies. The responses were scored on a five-point Likert type scale consisting of responses strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. For positive statements, the scoring was 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (in order) and for negative statements, reverse coding was done.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Table 1 - Comparison of Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

Dimension

Group

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Initiative

B.Ed.

90

17.90

4.832

4.578

BBA

90

20.59

2.776

Persistence

B.Ed.

90

18.66

4.508

3.853

BBA

90

20.82

2.854

Efficiency Orientation

B.Ed.

90

18.67

11.497

1.951

BBA

90

21.11

3.011

Problem Solving

B.Ed.

90

18.37

4.573

6.001

BBA

90

21.83

3.021

Persuasion

B.Ed.

90

18.13

4.458

4.053

BBA

90

20.44

3.065

Total

B.Ed.

90

91.72

13.743

8.244

BBA

89

104.79

5.917

Table 1 given above shows the comparison of mean scores of B.Ed. and BBA students on various dimensions of entrepreneurial competency and its overall score. It is evident from the table that the calculated value of't' for the dimensions 'Initiative', 'Persistence', Problem Solving', 'Persuasion' and the overall score are greater than the table value for 178 degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the mean scores of B.Ed. and BBA students on these dimensions and the overall score. However, there is no significant difference between the mean scores for the dimension 'Efficiency Orientation'. The mean scores for BBA students are higher than that of B.Ed. students on all the dimensions and on the overall score. This may be attributed to the orientation which the BBA students' receive during the course. These competencies are taught to them and special programs are organized for BBA students, whereas, no such or very few programs are organized for B.Ed. students. Therefore, B.Ed. students have scored less.

Figure 1 - Bar Graph Showing the Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

The bar graph given above shows that difference in mean scores is maximum for the dimension 'Problem Solving' followed by 'Initiative', 'Efficiency Orientation', 'Persuasion' and 'Persistence'.

Table 2 - Comparison of Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Male Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

Dimension

Group

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Initiative

B.Ed.

45

17.38

4.933

3.377

BBA

45

20.24

2.846

Persistence

B.Ed.

45

18.18

4.484

3.595

BBA

45

21.00

2.763

Efficiency Orientation

B.Ed.

45

19.82

15.653

0.394

BBA

45

20.76

2.630

Problem Solving

B.Ed.

45

18.82

4.769

3.904

BBA

45

22.11

3.032

Persuasion

B.Ed.

45

18.62

4.778

2.226

BBA

45

20.47

2.841

Total

B.Ed.

45

92.82

17.610

4.221

BBA

45

104.58

6.243

Table 2 given above shows the comparison of mean scores of male students of B.Ed. and BBA on various dimensions of entrepreneurial competency and its overall score. It is evident from the table that the calculated value of 't' for the dimensions 'Initiative', 'Persistence', Problem Solving', 'Persuasion' and the overall score are greater than the table value for 88 degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the mean scores of male students of B.Ed. and BBA on these dimensions and the overall score. However, there is no significant difference between the mean scores for the dimension 'Efficiency Orientation'. The mean scores for male BBA students are higher than that of male B.Ed. students on all the dimensions and on the overall score.

Figure 2 - Bar Graph Showing the Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Male Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

The bar graph given above shows that difference in mean scores is maximum for the dimension 'Problem Solving' followed by 'Initiative', 'Persistence', 'Persuasion' and 'Efficiency Orientation' for male students.

Table 3 - Comparison of Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Female Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

Dimension

Group

N

Mean

SD

t-value

Initiative

B.Ed.

45

18.42

4.727

3.120

BBA

45

20.98

2.706

Persistence

B.Ed.

45

19.13

4.531

1.963

BBA

45

20.73

2.944

Efficiency Orientation

B.Ed.

45

17.51

4.429

4.671

BBA

45

21.41

3.357

Problem Solving

B.Ed.

45

17.91

4.374

4.536

BBA

45

21.55

3.053

Persuasion

B.Ed.

45

17.64

4.107

3.410

BBA

45

20.34

3.299

Total

B.Ed.

45

90.62

8.335

9.516

BBA

45

105.00

5.628

Table 3 given above shows the comparison of mean scores of female students of B.Ed. and BBA on various dimensions of entrepreneurial competency and its overall score. It is evident from the table that the calculated value of 't' for the dimensions 'Initiative', 'Persistence', 'Efficiency Orientation', 'Problem Solving', 'Persuasion' and the overall score are greater than the table value for 88 degrees of freedom. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the mean scores of female students of B.Ed. and BBA on these dimensions and the overall score. The mean scores for female BBA students are higher than that of female B.Ed. students on all the dimensions and on the overall score. Hence, we may conclude that BBA students show significantly higher entrepreneurial competencies than the B.Ed. students.

Figure 3 - Bar Graph Showing the Mean Scores of B.Ed. and BBA Female Students on Various Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Competency

The bar graph given above shows that difference in mean scores is maximum for the dimension 'Efficiency Orientation' followed by 'Problem Solving', 'Persuasion', 'Initiative' and 'Persistence' for female students

CONCLUSION

Entering into a career is easier, but developing the required competencies to excel in that career demands a lot of persistent efforts. Fortunately, it is no longer agreed upon that entrepreneurial competencies are the sole property of entrepreneurs. Even in the field of teaching, the main emphasis has shifted on competencies, which provide the necessary skills to deal with the children effectively. The skills and abilities can be acquired by practicing them over a sustained period of time. Students of all streams, may it be education or management or any other, require basic skills like resource management, self confidence, systematic planning, initiative, risk taking, effective decision making etc. What is required is an ability to look for opportunities and to come out with creative strategies to capture those opportunities. A person who possesses these necessary competencies comes out of the problem situations successfully, while others struggle to find a way out of it. Thus, entrepreneurial competencies are the heart-and-soul of success in every profession.

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