Effects Of age, tenure, and marital status


Workers are the most important asset in any organization and thus a successful and highly productive company can be achieved by winning them in improving their performance. All workers are not alike in their working and they have dissimilar modes of working for instance some have highest capability despite of the incentive however other might have occasional jump-start. There are numerous factors which can be affecting the employees' productivity. Every employee may have dissimilar effect from diverse things at workplace. Numerous factors have been shown to make a difference in the productivity of call centers, although age, tenure, and marital status have been overlooked.

The levels and the changes in the age structure of employees and their production are expected to be related, the majority of the previous studies apparently suffer from an endogeneity bias. Gobel and Zwick (2009) in their study of the two used dynamic GMM methods for the evaluation of the age productivity profile. In their final specification they found that the productivity increases with age until the age of 40 to 45 years. But, they did not find a significant decline of the productivity till the age of 60. Many prior studies came up with an inverse u-shaped age productivity relationship. Owing to demographic and institutional changes the labor force is aging speedily in most western, industrialized countries. Because there is proof that individual productivity is declining from a definite age, an aging personnel could have harsh consequences on the development of the economy as a whole. In the developed nations the young workers frequently enter the employment market later as a result of longer education. Also, due to low birth rates the comparative size of the younger cohorts is comparatively small in a lot of countries and the personnel is aging as a direct consequence of the demographic change.

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There is evidence that persons productivity is declining from a certain age. But on the contrary to these many experts claim that old employees have gathered experience and knowledge through their working life which may well outweigh the decline in person performance. Generally, it is expected that there is a correlation between age and productivity and an aging labor force could possibly have severe consequences on the performance of the economy as a whole. It is therefore of considerable importance to know the relationship between the age of the workforce and organization productivity.

Numerous studies show that the age-productivity profiles can differ between establishment groups and for diverse personnel measures chosen. An appealing new step so will be to distinguish between the age productivity profiles of for instance small and large, old and young firms, unlike sectors or establishments pursuing diverse personnel measures for their older affiliates of their workforce. Pekka, Vegard, Jan and Weiss, (2009) in their study established that productivity decreases with age and at the same time increases with the job tenure. Castellucci, Padula, and Giovanni (2008) say that the nature of the age-productivity profile has propositions for the cumulative productivity, the economic expansion, the sustainability of pension schemes and the structure of tax systems.

The connection between age and genius emerges to be the same in science. It is frequently said that physics and mathematics are youthful games, and physicists and mathematicians tend to believe they are at their climax at age 25 (Kanazawa, 2003). The correlation between age and genius, not merely among scientists but among workers as well, is very likely to contribute to the increased productivity. These young minds tend to be more innovative and experimental a fact the help them achieve more in their daily work relative to the old workers who are though to be slow and precise thinkers.

A happy marriage has been established to have an extraordinarily helpful impact on the work or profession of individuals (Oentoro. 2009). He says that a happy marriage increases the level of an employee's productivity. Men and women base their self esteem on accomplishment in the workplace. But, the feeling of happiness comes from the value of their marriage relationship. A study was done by UCLA comprising of 1,361 high ranking executives established that: one 85 percent of them were still married to their initial spouse, two 92 percent grew up in a two parent family and three 90 percent professed trust and an effort to keep by the teachings of their faith

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Marriage needs hard work and big sacrifices; however a great marriage as well requires intense effort. Many people see divorce as the way out, which is not. A study that followed ten couples that divorced, found that two years later seven of the individuals alleged they made the wrong conclusion. After 10 years, just one person out of the first ten couples declared to be happy. This effects of divorce and the secondary consequences are evidently demonstrated in the relation of he the individuals at the workplace thus consequently affecting their productivity.

Relative to single men, married men have significantly upper performance ratings and are more liable to be promoted. In approximations that control for selection beginning from quit decisions, the extent of the marriage productivity effect cascades but in the majority cases remains robust (Mehay & Bowman, 2005). Married male employees earn more relative to their unmarried co-employees a fact that is now well established in the work economics literature. A number of economists attach this wage disparity to dissimilarities in Job productivity among married and single workers. Further economists attribute the wage disparity to unobserved uniqueness of married workers referred as selection effects (Ryu & Kol, 2002).

The correlation between tenure and productivity in a study by Auer, Berg and Coulibaly (2004) for the period between 1992 and 2002 in the European Union shown that at a cumulative level, tenure has a positive impact on productivity for about fourteen years and may level off thereafter. In general, it seems that organizations remain productive with a lofty share of long-tenured workers. Although long tenure appears to be good for productivity, experts say that it may be less positive for the more flexible labor markets, as they are usually associated with higher employment rates.

The results of Holzer, (2008), illustrate that the prior experience and tenure in the recent job have important, positive effects on income and productivity. Tenure is essential both for employee's security in addition to for firms' productivity; nevertheless, this stability ought to be paired with interior, functional flexibility. Moreover, wide-ranging tenure and short tenure can have unfavorable affects on productivity. Still, that while extended average tenure seems not to be unfavorable to productivity; it may not always be good for the employment market as it's observed that high average tenure is usually accompanied by lower employment rates. The analysis of Lichtenberg, (1982) discloses that a considerable reduction in the work quality and in the expansion of productivity was connected to the decline in job tenure, plus that this decline is understated by conservative wage-weighted indices of the age division of the workers.