E-RecruitmentÂ or e Recruitment is the process of personnel recruitmentÂ using electronic resources, in particular theÂ internet (R. J. Stone, 2006).
Companies and recruitment agents have begun to shift their manual recruitment process into the "e-channel" or online process to enhance the performance and modularity matched with vacant jobs. With use of IT technologies such as data base and online advertising and also search engines, employers can now search for job candidates and fill positions faster.
The internet, which reaches a large number of people and can get immediate feedback has become the major source of potential job candidates and well known as online recruitment or E-recruitment. However, it may generate many unqualified candidates and may not increase the diversity and mix of employees (Robbins and Coulter, 2009)
In terms of HRM, the internet has radically changed the recruitment function from the organisational and job seekers' perspective. Conventional methods of recruitment processes are readily acknowledged as being time-consuming with high costs and limited geographic reach. However, recruitment throughÂ World Wide WebÂ (WWW) provides global coverage and easiness. Likewise, the speedy integration of the internet into recruitment processes is primarily recognised due to the internet's unrivalled communications capabilities, which enable recruiters for written communications through e-mails, blogs and job portals. Meanwhile, advances in technology have transformed the way recruitment can be handled, and the past decade has seen a marked trend toward Internet-based recruitment, especially among large, multinational organizations (Anderson, 2003; McManus & Ferguson, 2003).
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Since 2000, online job search or e-recruitment has evolved gradually. Online job search has become a hub of million job seekers worldwide. Prospective employers also focus extensively in a few things, some of them make e-recruitment as a place to find new position, and there's also made this field as a place to test their labour market.
In this paper, I would like to highlight few things that will be discussed here, first is to get some idea from the advantages and disadvantages of e-recruitment from employer and jobseekers perspective. From the result, I will bring those points to discuss the finding and from that point, we will be able to determine whether the information is enough to prove the effectiveness of e-recruiting can provide high workforce and vice versa. Finally, conclusion will take place for further improvement and to trigger other researcher to study about this area.
Effectiveness and efficiency have to do with finding suitable applicants/positions and the use of resources in doing so. When reflecting on efficiency, costs and comparative costs are important. The relative costs of Internet recruitment are perceived to be lower in comparison with non-electronic recruitment sources. "The Internet has proven to be a relatively cheap recruitment tool in comparison with non electronic recruitment sources".
Effectiveness of e-recruitment is very subjective, lower company attractiveness and lower search engine ranking imply that, ceteris paribus, Internet recruitment is more effective for companies already known to jobseekers (Galanaki 2002). In this case we have to look at few factors in few areas in order to get the final conclusion on how effectiveness e-recruitment can provide high potential workforce. One of the factors that need to study is the process of recruitment between manual process and "e-process". In each phase of the recruitment process traditionally, typically several processes such as data filtering, recording, filing and some process will be done. But with the availability of IT, the process can be done automatically and is performed in an online system. With the online system, indirectly, the average time taken by manual systems can be reduced and increase value-added in the existing job performance. Some experts estimate that the average recruitment cycle is one-third to half as long as it is in the pre-internet era.
In using the Internet rather than more traditional recruitment channels, employers and applicants will experience certain advantages and disadvantages (Bartram 2006; Tong and Sivanand 2004). The advantages and disadvantages of e-recruitment from employee perceptive and jobseeker perspective need to be discussed as well. From this point, we can see from both side as it might contribute and idea of this study. Table 1 will show the general advantages and disadvantages of e-recruitment based on a large review of academic and practitioner literature.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
(CIPD 2005; McDougall 2001; Mohamed et al. 2002)
Higher expectations regarding relocation costs.
(Alfus 2001; Bartram 2006; Burke 1998, JWT research 1998;Laabs 1998, Pin et al. 2001)
Transparency of data
(Pin et al.2001)
Greater chance to find right candidate quicker/greater effectiveness
Overwhelming number of candidates
(Brooke 1998; Galanaki 2002, Haley 2000;Lawrence 1999 cited by Bartram 2000)
Higher quality of applicants
Number of unqualified candidates
(Kaydo and Cohen 1999; Greenberg
1998; IRS Employment review 2005)
Table 1: Advantaged and disadvantages of e-recruitment and selection for employers.
From table 1 as above, we can see that, the few areas have been identified as an advantages and disadvantages at the same time. For example, research result by Galanaki on 2002, researcher found that by using "e-channel" the chances to get better candidates are high due to resume submission by jobseekers. Indirectly it does also can contribute to the effectiveness to get the candidates quicker. But what has been found by Brooke 1998; Galanaki 2002, Haley 2000; Lawrence 1999 cited by Bartram 2000, they found out that, by using e-channel, employee will get unexpected of submission by candidates due to unlimited time and space over the internet. Due to geographical perspective, the information may spread over the world, so that the possibility of higher submission is there.
Besides, there is third-party e-recruiters provide e-recruitment services to companies who are interested to use their web sites facility for job advertisements and viewing potential applicants that has posted their resume at very lower cost than most conventional recruitment methods. Most e-recruiters provide free services to applicants or jobseekers to post their resume online in their databases (Galanaki, 2002). With this free posting, the growth of resume is inevitable. Millions of resume are posted to famous e-recruitment web sites, becoming a true market; uncontrolled and unconstrained by geography (Cappelli, 2001).
Now we need to see an overview of advantages and disadvantages of e-recruitment from jobseekers perspective. Issues presented as advantages for one group, might be disadvantageous to the other group, and vice versa. Even thought this paper is more focus to get the how effectiveness of e-recruitment to get high potential workforce. But by providing this point of view, I hope that, this will trigger an idea to the reader to make the conclusion of this paper.
Easier to apply
(Kaydo and Cohen 1999)
Discrimination of those who do not
(Pin et al. 2001)
Feel for labour market
(Feldman and Klaas 2002)
Lack of personal touch
(CIPD 2005, IRS Employment review 2005; Feldman and Klaas 2002; Milman 1998, Pin et al. 2001)
Larger geographic area within
(Feldman and Klaas 2002)
For example, from table as above 'feel for the labor market' (Feldman and Klaas 2002), has been identified as one of an advantage for jobseekers, implies 'transparency of data', namely awareness of both jobseekers and organisations of what is happening in the market place and in the career progression of the candidates (Pin et al. 2001). Transparency of data maybe one cause of the current employees decided not to leave the organization and release the positions. Therefore, it is also an impact to the organization and may reduce the effort in finding a potential employee. Indirectly it could be detrimental to the employer. Furthermore, some disadvantages of e-recruitment and employee selection process have been identified by prospective employers, which then might become another disadvantage for use of the tool by the employer.
Changing recruitment and selection strategies require capitalizing on technology. Cappelli (2001) states that with the presence of online hiring (e-recruitment) in the internet through powerful search engines, the labor market has become a true market, uncontrolled by individual companies, and unconstrained geographically with thousands of resume being posted daily by job seekers to online hiring sites. Using internet for recruitment has the advantage of faster cycle time, cheaper, and more convenient for both the employers and the job seekers. It is providing a radical change to recruiting process. The change allows the company, employment information to be displayed on the sites for 24 hours a day, seven days a week, until the advertisement expires. It is easily accessible and provides direct interaction with the company by the interested job seekers (Braunschweig, 2000).
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One of the other issues associated with the use of Internet recruitment is the suitability of the tool for different types and levels of jobs. The image of the Internet being a tool used mainly to recruit for IT-related jobs is associated with this. For other jobs function that may comes from others background such as engineering job and lower level of profession such as factory operator may have very less usage and not suitable to advertise in e-recruitment. Although, some of big company and international company will use their e-recruitment tool to advertise those kind of position, but still the jobseeker will not use this channel as the first choice to get the position. The nature of job and jobseeker, they will go to traditional job advertisement rather than online job advertisement. Banner, walk in interview or "mouth to mouth" advertisement is more accurate and efficient for them.
E-recruitment also is suitable to middle range of position rather than high level position. The reason of this, middle range of position level such as none-executive, junior executive, senior executive and manager are the best selling point for the organization. These groups are the higher contribution in the organization as well. 50% from employee in organization is from middle range level. 30% is from lower level and 20% is from upper level. Thus, the percentage of the position is also mapped to the percentage of type of position level.
From discussion as above, I have identified few key points that can be used as prove to support the subject. From employee perspective, they can see that e-recruitment can give lot of benefits to the employer especially for filtering and selection process. Rather than to use manual process which is to read the resume one by one and to identify the information manually, e-recruitment is offering the solution for them. By using database and e-form, employer will be able to find the potential workforce easily. Time consuming also can be eliminated as by using search engine from the system, employer would be able to find the desire information quickly.
By jobseeker perspective, they have to register or deposit their resume in order to proceed with job application. In order to deposit resume, indirectly they need to use computer and apply their IT knowledge to fill up the e-form. From this point, we can determine the level or basic knowledge and identify group of jobseeker who find the job. Usually, the person who have basic IT knowledge is .......
The portal provide enough and sufficient information to the jobseeker.