This study will be looking at the important factors that determine the successful performance of work organisations. Also view obstacles to effective organisational work performance and attempt to give recommendation on how organisations can overcome these obstacles using practical case studies and examples.
The relationship between organisation and its members is influenced by what motivated them to work and the reward and fulfilment they derive from it. Individuals have diversity of changing needs and expectations which they endeavour to satisfy in different ways. If an individual s motivational needs and expectations are not satisfied by the organisation, this may lead to frustration- induces behaviour or absenteeism in work environment. This can negatively affect both the quality of the work in the organisation and how efficiency they carry out their duties. Motivation can be defined as the driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goals in order to fulfil some need or expectation (Mullins, 2005)
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Mitchell defines motivation as the degree to which an individual want and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours .
Chartered Management Institute gave a full definition of motivation as the creation of stimuli, incentives and working environment that enable people to perform to the best of their ability. The heart of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. In returns managers should expect more in the form of productivity, quality and service .
Different theories have been propounded on motivation and its importance to motivating employees. These theories provide relevant framework on how best to motivate staffs to work effectively and willingly.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 1917) believed in economic needs motivation idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued that workers do not naturally enjoy work so need close supervision and control. Workers would be motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages through working in the most efficient and productive way.
At Ekulo Group of Companies, its employee reward has a similarity to F. W. Taylor s theory of motivation. The sees good pay to its employees as one of its ways of motivation. Ekulo Group of Companies increase in salaries has contributed to the good performance of the employees. Ekulo Group of Companies goes beyond increase in pay in motivating it staffs. They have some other motivating factors such as training and development, promotion, looking after the well being of its workers with non-financial benefits. Also yearly, Ekulo Group of Companies invites its staffs to take part in a staff satisfaction survey called Viewpoint. This survey gives the staff the opportunity to express their views on almost every aspect of their jobs. The results from the survey help Ekulo Group of Companies to know the right things to do to its staff to keep them motivated always. Ekulo Group of Companies employees also benefit for its Pension scheme.
Abraham Maslow (1908 -1970) focused on the psychological needs of employees. He argued that human needs are motivated by what they want that is their essential needs. Maslow put up these needs into a pyramid for to demonstrate theses needs which he called hierarchy of needs . He arranged them in a series of importance starting from the bottom psychological needs, safety, love, Self esteem and self- actualisation.
At the bottom, psychological needs which are the food, water, sleep that motivated people to work. Once these need are met through pay, individuals move up to next need in the hierarchy safety. They want safety and security through job security, good working environment. Then love needs (social needs) the need to belong, love and be loved, respect, affection and social activities. Self Esteem needs (ego needs), arising from self respect, promotion, attention, appreciation, independence and freedom. Self actualisation or fulfilment needs from the top is the growth, achievement in work, advancement in the organisation, challenging jobs, creativity. Maslow suggests that achieving one level motivates the individual to achieve the next level.
Ekulo Group of Company inculcates Maslow s theory of hierarchy of needs in motivating it workers and achieving it goals and objectives in the following ways;
Self actualisation or fulfilment: Ekulo Group of Company offers personal development plans, promotion opportunity, and training through career progressive programme. They also have Options fast-track management programme which provides a route for capable staff to reach higher levels.
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Self Esteem: Ekulo Group of Company has not only self-respect for its workers but also praise them for hard work and contribution. Its appraisal method helps to recognise individuals contributions and importance.
Love needs (social needs): Ekulo Group of Company recognises the importance for team and group work at all levels which makes the employees feel loved and not cheated or left out regardless of their position in the company.
Safety needs: Ekulo Group of Company provides job security as well as pension schemes. They also have a union which allows its staff to have a sense of belonging. Also they provide health schemes for its workers.
Psychological needs: Ekulo Group of Company never fails to pay its workers their regular monthly pay and also provide other facilities like restaurants, staff lounge, locker rooms.
Frederick Herzberg (1959) developed the Two- Factor theory of motivation. He argued that there are certain factors that an organisation can use to motivate its employees to work harder. Such factor he called Motivators or Satisfiers or Growth factors. More so, there were other factors he also argued that can de-motivate or dissatisfy an employee, Hygiene or Maintenance factors.
Hygiene or maintenance factor Herzberg argues could bring dissatisfaction to an employee if it is not present but not necessarily make them work harder either. These factors surround the job but rather than the job itself. He suggests that for an organisation to truly motivate its employees there has to be a balance between the Motivator and Hygiene factors. It needs to create a condition for its workers to be or feel fulfilled in their work places.
Ekulo Group of Company aims to motivate its workers both by paying attention to the hygiene factor and also to motivators factor. It motivates and allows its employees by involving them in decision making, delegating responsibilities to them, and proper communication. Its yearly meetings, where the staffs are allowed to express their opinion about their job and discuss their pay rise. They also value its staffs and recognise good work and provide good working conditions for them. This has motivated to work harder in achieving the organisations goals and objectives.
In conclusion, having looked at different theories of motivation and how Ekulo group of Company uses it to motivate its staff, it is in my view to say that employees are not all motivated in the same way or at the same level. For Ekulo group of Company to achieve its effectiveness, they should offer different incentives to its workers according to their level of motivation because if their motivational driving force is blocked and they are unable to satisfy their needs, this may result in frustration.
Management has been defined by many scholars as getting work done through the performance of others. Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its objectives and effectiveness.
Management is a basic or crucial part of an effective work organisation. It is that cornerstone of organisational effectiveness. It can be view as process of working with others to achieve organisational goals, aims and objectives effectively.
Management is active, not theoretical. It is about changing behaviour and making things happen. It is about developing, working with them, reaching objectives and achieving results. Indeed, all the research into how managers spend their time reveals that they are creatures of the moment, perpetually immersed in the nitty-gritty of making things happen (Crainer, S., 1998)
Effective management entails the management of the organisation to have an idea of what is being managed.
Organizations are integral part of society involving both public and private sectors including charities and voluntary sector. It is a structure of people that exist in an organization in order to achieve a specific purpose, common aims and objectives by means of planned and co-ordinated activities. Organizations are in different forms and sizes. Its management is also different but has a similar approach in achieving its goals and objectives, through people (its employees) and structure which without them, there won t be an organization.
Rosemary Stewart (1967) expressed management, when she described managers as on who get things done with the help of people and other resources, so management as a feature of most human circumstances, domestic, social and political as well as in formally established organistaion.
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Magretta (2002) described work of management as the building organizations which work in the same way that they use resources to create value. The genius of management is turning complexity and specialisation into performance.
Hales (2001) viewed management as an expression of human agency, the capacity to shape and direct the world rather than simply read it.
Many theories have been put forward on management; this study shall identify its importance in the relevance of modern day management in an organisation.
HENRY FAYOL: Principles and Functions of Management
Fayol s view on functions of management reflects on task-oriented rather than people-oriented. He recognised these functions as five (5) elements of managements which includes planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. In order words, for an organisation succeed, all these principles must exits and be implemented. He identified that putting these principles into practice won t be an easy task because organisations rarely apply these principles at the same time.
Planning (from French word prevoyance): This involves examining the future, determining sets of objectives and strategies, planning procedures and programmes for achieving these objectives for the organisation.
Organising: It means creating and building up a structure of task that needs to be carried out or performed in order the achieve the organisation s set goals, align these task into jobs for individuals, allocate jobs to each departments, delegate necessary authorities to carry out these task effectively.
Commanding: This also involves maintaining activity among the personnel. Giving out instructions to subordinates through the necessary authorities to carry out the task and getting feedbacks from them.
Co-ordinating: Here, the management harmonises and bring together the activities and effort of the individuals and teams within the organisation.
Controlling: The organisation makes sure that everything is in accordance to its plans and policies and gives corrections to lapses if any.
However, Fayol s five (5) elements of management are still relevant, helpful and appropriate to everyday management but should be seen as traditional approach for managers as it recognises only task-oriented and not people-oriented. It is of utmost importance to know that organisational effectiveness need also to focus on the human resource aspect. It must attract, retain and motivate its employees in order to get best out of their input in the organization. Fayol s theory had no recognition on motivation which he assumes employees should take command and instruction from the authority without a say. The world of work organization is changing; people are bringing in new skills and have great potentials so organization cannot afford to lose all these benefits from its employees so have to expand its strategies to maintain to their level of commitment.
Ekulo Group of Companies management approach reflects Fayol s view of management as being efficient. For example in Evans Industries limited manufacturers of Eva Soap a subsidiary of the company, the front line manager makes sure that all resources for the manufacturing processes are well utilised in production to avoid waste. He ensures that all the necessary equipments needed for production is ready both the employees that will carry out the task. He achieves this with Fayol s element of management and this has not yielded a good result so far in the production of the soap because of lack of motivation and recognising the needs of the staff which Fayol s theory omitted.
In my own view, it has created some lapses in the industry. During production, an employee may break down and because it s all about the task and the goals of the organisation, staff performance is reduced. It may cause damage to the production or create loss by reducing the quality of its product for lack of concentration. However, it is important to note that for the industry to be successful and achieve its desired goals, it will depend upon the quality of its people, its objectives and resources available to them for effective result. I suggest that for there to be an effective management in an organisation, the manager needs to draw a balance between task oriented aspect, motivation and communication of the organisation to enable successful performance in work organisation.
An essential part of the process of management is co-ordinating the activities of people and guiding their efforts towards the goals and objectives of the organisation. This involves the process of leadership and the choice of the appropriate form of behaviour and action.
Goals are an important feature of wok organisation. Goal setting is an integral part of achieving an organisational objectives. A goal is a desired state in the future that is where an organisation or an individual want to be. It is something the organisation is striving to achieve or accomplish. It could be a personal goal or organisational goals, goal setting helps us to work towards achieving our individual or likewise organisation goals and be where we want to be. Goals are an essential part of successfully conducting business and living a rewarding life. Well-defined goals allows you to choose, design and implement important targets (objectives) necessary to achieve overall desired result(mission) (Rouillard, 2002). Goal setting is important in both our personal lives and in our professional lives. There are some theories on goal setting and this paper shall be looking at how and why goal-setting works, as well as review the practical issues involved in using goal-setting successfully in an organisation.
Organisational goals are more specific than the function. The goals of an organisation will determine the nature of its inputs and outputs, the series of activities through which the outputs are achieved and interactions with its external environment. For an organisation to be effective, goals must be clearly stated, emphasised and communicated to all members of the organisation.
We shall be examining goal-setting theory in an organisation and its impact. In order to achieve this, we will discuss the various types of goals-setting. For an organisation to reach its destination, it needs to know where they are starting from. Where an organisation is now and how they arrive at that point is gives them an insight of what the future of the organisation will be or look like. Setting a goal helps the firm to know and simplify its vision of where they want to be and to resolve and doubts, fear or uncertainties about its future.
Goal theory is based on mainly on the work of Locke. It is based on the premise that people s goals or intentions play an important part in determining behaviour. Locke viewed that goal-setting is more appropriately viewed as a motivational technique rather than as a formal theory (Locke, .). Also, the most fundamental and conclusion reached about goal-setting theory by Locke and Gary P. Latham in 1990 were that difficult goals lead to higher performance than easy goals as long as the person trying to achieve theses goals accepts it. They also concluded that specific goals lead to higher performance than general do your best goals because they produce a specific intention which helps the individual to shape their behaviours and attitude with accuracy. Feedback is likewise essential and important if the full performance of setting goals are to be achieved. The successful effects of goal-setting depends largely on an individual s goal commitment; i.e. their determination to try to achieve the goal and unwillingness to abandon or reduce it (Locke and Latham, 1990).
PERFORMANCE GOALS (Result Oriented): In a research conducted by Mone and Shalley, (1995), on multiple performances, they found out that in focusing on goal attainment, people appeared to be spending more time thinking about how to perform well rather than actually performing well. Performance goals draws attention to end result. It reduces the confidence and self-esteem of people. As Gary Latham (2006) suggests, A performance goal can lead to a highly unsystematic "mad scramble" for solutions.
LEARNING GOALS (focused on lessons learnt): This is all about increasing your competence. It reflects the a desire to learn and master new skills. This also draws attention away from the end result. In an organisation, learning goals encourage one to view failure as an opportunity. This type of goals determine the end result so for the interest of the organisation, it is better to set a learning goal because individuals with learning goals tend to have a higher commitment.
At Ekulo Group of Companies where I worked before, the executives of the company understands the idea of goal setting. The company sets a high level and clear of goals which has increases employees performance at work. They do not believe in do the best you can goal which some organisation practice. They set goals that are challenging yet realistic which has motivated its staff. They practice the learning goal type of goal setting because it is believed that people with learning goal orientation see ability and learning as flexible and changeable and are more likely to set higher goals and perform well than people who have a performance goal.
It is believed that when goals are established in association with management, employees feel ownership of the goals, which improves employees commitment to work and leads to improved productivity. In my opinion, the companies goals as are one way that is only organisational goals. However, organisational goals, individual manager and personal goals of an employee are sometimes in conflict. So in setting a corporate goal for the organisation, the manager also need to bring to line personal goals of the employee to solve this problem and to also avoid stress or burnout. According to Seijts and Latham, 2000, without goal alignment, personal goals may have a detrimental effect on a corporations performance .
THE CHANGING NATURE OF WORK ORGANISATION
Management is seen as the cornerstone of organisational effectiveness and integrating activity that permeates every facet of the operations of the organisation. Organisations of one form or another are a necessary part of our society and serve many important needs. Their decision and actions of management in organisation have an increasing impact on individuals other organisations and the community.
The changing nature of work organisation has made management more or less important to the organisation. The management needs to realise that we live and moving into the world of organisation. Its is a cornerstone of organisational effectiveness but considering the changing world of organisation we are into now, it is important to be aware of the new technology,