Educating And Training The Technical And Management Graduates Business Essay

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In the current economy where giant corporations are right sizing, restructuring and reducing layers of management, jobs are being eliminated. Some departments of these businesses are being hived off. Many home based businesses are springing up at the same time. Some of these have contract with large businesses to provide services they now outsource. Hence, while jobs are being lost, more jobs are being created than were there before through entrepreneurship. Falling trade barriers improved communications, the internet and globalization have facilitated creation of new venture worldwide.

Technical and business skills presents amongst MBAs & B. Techs are not enough to operate a business in today's economy. They should be learnt Entrepreneurial skills, which are very much required to anticipate changes, identify opportunities and create a high performance working environment according to the realities demanded by global competition. The curriculum should be designed compulsorily in a manner that it lays emphasis on producing entrepreneurs, intraprenaurs but not only managers who though have capability of managing but do not have ability required to become entrepreneur. The development of entrepreneurship amongst management and engineering graduates may be an effective mechanism for technology innovations, helpful in the removal of regional imbalances and sustainable growth of small industries.

This research paper focuses on the need of the day i.e. educating and training the technical and management graduates at their study point in a manner so that they should become well equipped with all entrepreneurial skills required for startup of an entrepreneurial venture and managing it to make success. This attempt shall change make their entrepreneurial intent strong and they will primarily think about entrepreneurship rather opting a job.

Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Development, Entrepreneurial Culture, Technical & Management Graduates, Entrepreneurial Skills.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Our vision of India in 2020 is of a nation bustling with prosperity amongst each class of the society, energy sufficient, entrepreneurship and innovation. The country's people will be better fed, dressed and housed, healthier, more educated and longer living than any generation in the country's long history. India will be much more integrated with the global economy and will be a major player in terms of trade, technology and investment. Rising levels of education, employment and income will help stabilize India's internal security and social environments. A united and prosperous India will be far less vulnerable to external security threats. A more prosperous India in 2020 will be characterizes by a better educated electorate and more transparent, accountable, efficient and decentralized government.

Realization of this vision will depend on many things, but most importantly on our self confidence, self reliance and determination to make it a reality through inculcation of continuous development of entrepreneurship and innovation. Are we really seriously in the area of entrepreneurship and innovation? Today, Entrepreneurship is typically a choice for those who belong to business families, for those who wish to be independent, to achieve something personally and also for staving off unemployment. In essence, entrepreneurship is motivated by the drive to meet personal, emotional, or financial needs. Home based businesses allow people to balance work with family commitments.

MBA & B. Tech degrees have often become a Gate Pass to get a job but not to become entrepreneurs. Number of MBAs produced by Indian Universities and Colleges today, are many times than in earlier years. Indian Universities and Colleges manage to get these MBAs placed though mostly in service sector. As a result, service sector in India is growing rapidly but mere having growth in service sector is not sufficient to remove the ever growing problem of India- Unemployment.

The placement scenario of management and engineering graduates is not very much satisfactory. A major chunk of these students is employed in service sector. In general MBAs have been now replacing simple Graduates who had been assigned task of direct selling, preparing accounts, etc., though exceptions are there but the so called exceptions are also not sensitizing their students to think beyond a job. Is this true solution of eradicating the unemployment problem? Why not these students are trained and produced in a manner to provide long term solution to the problem of unemployment by rather working as an employee in either sector, emphasizing on startup and development of an organization of any size whether micro, small, medium or large in manufacturing sector.

Why not these students who are well equipped with tools and techniques of engineering and managements get pushed in the area of self employment- a form of entrepreneurship, these students in comparison with others, have better understanding and ability to take risk for new venture development and manage it?

Management and Engineering colleges emphasize only on their placements even the world renowned IIMs do so and do not emphasize with same intensity to make them first self employed and then offer employment to others. They feel proud in declaring 'all of their students placed in MNCs on a very handsome salary' but don't they feel highly proud in asserting all of their students have started their own venture and given employment to many skilled and unskilled unemployed.

Educational institutions also have an important role in educating and training in order to inculcate entrepreneurial skills amongst the produced workforce to make them work independently and lead a team of workforce of their company. They should also educate and train them as vendors to employers who seek outside providers of training. The government is providing various incentives to attract young graduates towards choosing entrepreneurship as a career choice. The need of the day is to utilize and optimize such schemes and policies towards further employment to unemployed.

1.1 GENESIS OF THE RESEARCH

Students should be informed that in term of career choices that an individual has three options: to work for someone else, be self-employed in a profession or be an entrepreneur. 'Where the students should be made intended to?' is the biggest question before the colleges and their stakeholders. What actually we want to produce? What is the necessity of the day? An entrepreneur, who gives a tremendous boost to the Indian Economy or a mere manager, who only work for a company.

Let us look at the first option of career choices, it is fine to work for someone, provided you can land a good job, and if you do not mind taking orders forms from someone else. In these days of unemployment it is not easy to get jobs, especially good jobs, if you do not have specialized academic qualification. Graduates as well as post graduates in humanities and even the science do not stand a chance, and if you do get a job, how much scope do you have for doing as and how you please?

If self-help is the best help, then self-employment is the best employment, the most exciting level of self employment. In employment one works for others, one work as others wants one to do. There is no scope for doing as you wish, doing what you wish. But entrepreneurship is opposite of employment. You work for yourself, achieve a target or a goal by yourself and reap the satisfaction of having achieved the goal yourself.

Entrepreneurship is not a matter of heritage, It is entirely a manifestation of such potentialities that any individual born in any caste, community and class can have. As such any person having a certain set of behavioural traits and mental aptitude in him/her can become an entrepreneur. Besides, there is no need for such a person to be groomed from very childhood for becoming an entrepreneur. Ever if he grown-up, has worked on a different line, and has developed these traits or aptitudes, he or she can be groomed and developed as an entrepreneur through counseling and motivational measures.

Who is the focus of all this attention- who is willing to accept risk and put forth the efforts necessary to create a venture? It may be a man or women, someone from an upper class or lower class background, a technologist or someone lacking technological sophistication, a college graduate, Post Graduate or a high school dropout. The person may have been an inventor, manager, nurse, salesperson, engineer, student, teacher, home maker or retiree. If someone able to juggle work, family and civic responsibilities while meeting payroll.

In entrepreneurship, the individual is most important. It is he or she, who takes decision to start an enterprise, and strives to make it a success. Three main factors influencing his/her behavior are: knowledge, skill and motivation. Entrepreneurship is not limited to any class, community or religion. There is no age bar, for any person who posses certain behavioural traits and attitude can work to become an entrepreneurs.

This is applicable to a greater degree to the Management (BBAs, MBAs), technology graduates (B. Techs.) and diploma holders for the simple reason that during education period, due to their constant interaction wish science and management subjects, they acquire a mentality for objective considerations and evaluation of any issue. Given to hard work, thoroughness and perceiving things squarely, in any moment of crisis, they are better qualified to face a problem and find out a possible solution.

Secondly, Management (BBAs, MBAs), technology graduates (B. Techs.) and diploma holders have a natural aptitude to pick up fast the technicalities normally involved in production process of any enterprise.

With these plus points in their favor, entrepreneurship should naturally be an attraction for Management (BBAs, MBAs), technology graduates (B. Techs.) and diploma holders. Some more material reasons for the same are:

It provides them an opportunity to enter into a process which leads to the realization of an individual's passion for innovation and development. Findings based on a research study done in the western countries have shown that small enterprises have been the origin of many radical innovations.

It is through management and technology inputs that modern technology can be introduced in the small scale sector and thereby a new cost effectiveness and sophistication can be brought about in the products manufactured in the small scale sector.

To find a suitable employment, one has to knock many doors and soak many shocks and even then one may not succeed. But to be an entrepreneur one has to knock only one door, that is, one's own self and if the qualities and competencies are there, in whatever small quantity, he has the prospects at his disposal to succeed as such. The shocks are there are in entrepreneurship too, but they can be absorbed if one is cast in an entrepreneurial mould.

The Government of India and the States of Uttar Pradesh offer so many facilities, incentives and schemes to help new entrepreneurs and particulars management and technology graduates in taking up entrepreneurial career. This career path is no more as thorny as it is used to be decades ago.

As an entrepreneur, one is not only employed, but creates employment for other -one is not only realizing the goal in his life but is also a source of livelihood for so many. The pride of being a lord of one's own destiny is coupled with the satisfaction of being the benefactor of so many.

It is not enough to be having management education oriented or technically qualified and experienced; one has to let the society, nation at large to benefit from one's management education and technical competence and experience. Entrepreneurship provides an excellent opportunity to realize both the goal-the individual status as well as an individual's contribution to the society.

1.1.1 Develop Entrepreneurial Skills: Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

On the eve of 58th Independence Day the then President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam has outlined a three-pronged strategy to devise employment oriented education system. Dr. Kalam said:

Firstly the education system should highlight the importance of entrepreneurship and prepare the students right from the college education to get oriented towards setting up of the enterprises. This would include diversity of skills and perseverance in work. Dr. Kalam emphasized that the curriculum for arts, science and commerce should include topics and practical's where such entrepreneurship is possible.

Secondly, the banking system should provide venture capital right from every village level to the prospective entrepreneurs for undertaking new ventures. Banks have to be proactive to support the innovative products for enabling wealth generation by young entrepreneurs by setting aside the "conventional tangible asset syndrome".

Thirdly, there has to an economic pull for generation of marketable products and enhancement of purchasing powers among the people. This can come through by implementation of mega programmes such as rural connectivity, interlinking of rivers, infrastructural and power sector missions and tourism development.

Pointing out that a study has estimated unemployment level in the country to be around 36 Millions, the then president asserted that the country can find productive employment foe all these many people by launching certain missions such as bio-diesel generation through plants including Jatropha, dry land and herbal forming in the available 33 million hectors of waste land earmarked for cultivation.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research inter-alia aims at following:

To find out necessary skills to be inculcated amongst students to make them entrepreneurial.

To portray the role of stakeholders like Companies, Government, Colleges, etc. in the development of Entrepreneurial Intent amongst students and especially in inculcation of entrepreneurial culture. .

To study the structure and growth of entrepreneurship in the state.

To suggest suitable measures for the development of MSME in Uttar Pradesh.

1.3 HYPOTHESES

To meet the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses are postulated for empirical verification in the study:

Present Management education requires substantial change because it does not focus on entrepreneurial development.

Most of the students are interested in highly paid jobs while pursuing their management education.

Management education concentrates on developing future managers to work for others.

The government policies/supports are insufficient for the development of entrepreneurial activities.

The career planning of the management student is mostly influenced by the expectations of parents.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In order to achieve the objectives our present study requires both primary and secondary data. Accordingly, a field survey has been conducted to obtain primary data adopting a sampling design of "two stage purposive sampling'' with the selection of industries at the first and industrial units at the second stage.

Information is obtained from the eight districts namely Lucknow, Raebarelly, Fatehpur, Varanashi, Allahabad, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Jaunpur and Azamgarh about the existing agripreneurs. For this purpose an aerial survey of the district head quarters has been done.

An informal meeting and interview was conducted with the owners and workers of agribusiness. Information has been gathered from the Directorate of Industries, Government of Uttar Pradesh from the personal interview with the Director, Joint Director, Project Officers and the Dealing Assistants of different sections.

Out of uncountable number of persons involved in Agribusiness, a total number of 200 agripreneurs of these eight districts of Uttar Pradesh have been randomly selected as sample and tried to be interviewed. Out of these agripreneurs, responses from a total of 120 agripreneurs have been received. The entire eight districts have been included in the sample according to the relative strength of their existing business.

In order to accomplish the objectives, the present study is mainly based on both primary and secondary sources of information. The secondary data is mainly congregated from published and unpublished works on the related topics. Census reports, economic surveys, journals, news papers, government and non government organizations (NGOs) associated with the industrial sector especially the Directorate of Industries, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Directorate of Agriculture and Minor Irrigation, etc.

The primary data has been collected mainly from extensive field survey of the sample units. To obtain primary information, personal interview has been conducted through well designed questionnaires especially prepared in view of the objectives of the study.

The information collected from primary and secondary sources has been edited, categorized and arranged in logical order. In the process, certain errors and omissions were detected and corrected subsequently. Tabular analysis was done both manually and also with the 'Statistical Package for Social Scientists' (SPSS).

The collected data so arranged has been examined with the help of appropriate statistical tools to draw the inherent facts. In analyzing data, simple statistical techniques such as percentage, comparisons, mean and coefficient of correlation has been used to deduce the association among variables, in order to reach conclusions.

2.0 HYPOTHESIS TESTING & DISCUSSION

Entrepreneurship development is the process whereby we take responsibility for, and control of, our own development. As long as 16th century, Galileo said "you cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him discover it in himself"

Anyone who is self employed, runs a small, medium or large business is an entrepreneur. It could be an independent operator or one who works as a part of a team or in a partnership. An entrepreneur is thus someone who organizes, manages and assumes risks of a business or enterprise. The trend of home based businesses has allowed women and reserved categories to obtain benefit of self employment. Physically challenged individuals and senior citizens are discovering that home based businesses allow them to be productive. Talented and experienced executives who are displaced from their companies are using their skills, expertise and managerial experiences to launch new ventures.

The Chi-Square test is thought to be appropriate to test the hypothesis as the data was in discrete categorical form. The Chi-Square test is an important test amongst the several tests of significance developed by statistician. Chi-Square symbolically written as χ2 is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing the variance to a theoretical variance. As nonparametric test it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. It can also be used to make a comparison between theoretical populations and actual data when categories are used. Thus the chi-square test is applicable in large number of problems. The test is, in fact, a technique through the use of which it is possible for researcher to test the significance of association between two variables.

For the execution of this research the following hypothesis were formulated and studied. An appropriate statistical test is used to test and validate the hypothesis.

Hypothesis 01: Present Management education requires substantial change because it does not focus on entrepreneurial development. This hypothesis was statically stated as below:

H0: Plans of respondents after management programme (V1) have nothing to do with the opinion about the change required in management education (V2).

Test Statistics: As variable V1 and V2 were discrete categorical variables chi-square test for association was thought to be most appropriate test.

Chi-Square Test

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

16.809

4

0.002

N of Valid Cases

120

Observation: Chi-Square value 16.809 with four degree of freedom with p value 0.002.

Inference: As p value is less than 0.05; Ho is rejected. Therefore V1 and V2 are associated.

Discussion: The plans of the respondents after completing their management education are dependent on their opinion that the present management education system requires changes to develop entrepreneurial qualities.

This further tells that the present management education system requires making substantial change in order to promote entrepreneurship as a career option among management students. This will ultimately results into creation of maximum number of entrepreneurs. Thus the hypothesis is tested and validated.

Hypothesis 2: Most of the students are interested in highly paid jobs while pursuing their management education. This hypothesis was statically stated as below

H0: Plans of respondents after management programme (V1) have nothing to do with family background of the respondents (V2).

Test Statistics: As variable V1 and V2 were discrete categorical variables chi-square tests was thought to be most appropriate test.

Chi-Square Test

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

19.678

2

0.001

N of Valid Cases

120

Observation: Chi-Square value 19.678 with two degree of freedom with p value 0.001

Inference: As p value is less than 0.05 Ho is rejected. V1 is dependent on V2.

Discussion: The plans of the respondents after completing their management education are dependent on their family background.

Majority of the students have their parents into salaried job hence they have also natural inclination towards salaried jobs. Thus the hypothesis is tested and validated.

Hypothesis 3: Management education concentrates on developing future managers to work for others. This hypothesis was statically stated as below

H0: Plans of respondents after management programme (V1) have nothing to do with the opinion of the respondents on present management education system trains the students to manage the business of others (V2).

Test Statistics: As variable V1 and V2 were discrete categorical variables chi-square tests was thought to be most appropriate test.

Chi-Square Test

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

1.779

2

0.411

N of Valid Cases

120

Observation: Chi-Square value 1.779 with two degree of freedom with p value 0.411.

Inference: As p value is greater than 0.05 Ho is accepted. V1 and V2 are not dependent.

Discussion: The plans of the respondents after completing their management education are independent on their opinion that the present management education system trains the students to manage the business of others.

This further tells that the present management education system does not develop future managers only to work for others, but very few numbers of entrepreneurs are developed through it. Thus the hypothesis is tested and validated.

Hypothesis 4: The government policies/supports are insufficient for the development of entrepreneurial activities. This hypothesis was statically stated as below

H0: Plans of respondents after management programme (V1) have nothing to do with government policies/support (V2).

Test Statistics: As variable V1 and V2 were discrete categorical variables chi-square tests was thought to be most appropriate test.

Chi-Square Test

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Squar

2.376

2

0.305

N of Valid Cases

120

Observation: Chi-Square value 2.376 with two degree of freedom with p value 0.305.

Inference: As p value is greater than 0.05 Ho is accepted. V1 is not dependent on V2.

Discussion: The plans of the respondents after completing their management education are not dependent on government policies/support.

This further tells that for the development of entrepreneurial activities along with government policies/support many other promotional activities need to be undertaken. Thus the hypothesis is tested and validated.

Hypothesis 5: The career planning of the management student is mostly influenced by the expectations of parents. This hypothesis was statically stated as below

H0: Plans of respondents after management programme (V1) have nothing to do with family expectation after completing the management education (V2)

Test Statistics: As variable V1 and V2 were discrete categorical variables chi-square tests was thought to be most appropriate test.

Chi-Square Test

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Squar

128.237

3

0.001

N of Valid Cases

120

Observation: Chi-Square value 128.237 with three degree of freedom with p value 0.001.

Inference: As p value is less than 0.05 Ho is rejected. V1 is dependent on V2.

Discussion: The plans of the respondents after completing their management education are dependent on their family expectation about the career.

This further tells that most of the students are choosing salaried jobs as a career option after completing their management programme; the reason could be their parents who are expecting them to opt for a salaried job. Thus the hypothesis is tested and validated.

3.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of results derived from general views of the respondents in combination with conceptual framework, entrepreneurs are suggested to:

Increase networks with other entrepreneurs to encourage sharing of ideas and experiences, and to mentor upcoming entrepreneurs.

Document failures as much as successes and learn from each experience.

Invest in people and build teams that follow inclusive approaches (address the needs of talent at all levels), develop incentives and bolster human resources - 'translate business strategy into talent strategy'.

Understand the product and markets well.

Conduct extensive background research, especially on marketing and financial aspects.

Focus on quality - 'Cost is forgotten, quality never'.

Match the skills, mindsets and beliefs with the business venture-focus on core strength and excel.

Do not cling on to the venture, - especially in up-scaling - hire individuals who are better than you; if you are responsible, give autonomy and divest authority.

Be open to ideas. Take informed risks.

Hard work, persistence, perseverance, confidence - these are the 'must qualities' for every entrepreneur.

Be honest - never compromise on ethics or offer bribes.

Build strong foundations and then grow; take incremental steps.

A history of paying taxes and having a decent balance sheet helps when you approach lending institutions.

Possess 'ferocious ambition' and believe that the 'sky is the limit'.

Develop clear business plans and targets for growth.

Undertake information disclosures and participate in the development of the rating processes of banks, to enable better risk management for finance.

Government in order to encourage a conducive business environment; ensure simplified startup processes; improve the delivery time; reduce corruption; collate informational needs of start-ups; improve corporate governance norms; create an environment that will reduce risk; and encourage more seed funds and corporate players to provide start-up funding should:

Create up-to-date information source for start-up entrepreneurs in the form of source books, web portals and 'one stop shops' and widen dissemination of all relevant information.

Introduce a Single Unique Company Number to be used by new businesses for company, social security and tax registrations.

Improve the current Single Window System of getting clearances and introduce a Single Composite Application Form.

Ease the process of filing taxes by reducing the frequency of tax payments and multiplicity of procedures.

Create specialized commercial courts for speedy enforcement of contracts.

Reform bankruptcy laws to ease the process of closing down businesses.

Speed up development of world-class infrastructure.

Ensure proper publicity and implementation of various promotional schemes and policies.

Set up a Public Fund for new entrepreneurs using innovative PPP mechanisms.

Explore venture debt instruments with the help of innovative PPP mechanisms, through SIDBI and similar institutions.

Establish a secondary market for trade in stocks of smaller companies.

Develop a comprehensive Incubation Policy at the national level, which would increase quantity, enhance quality and increase access to financing.

Explore crucial incentive structures in Incubation such as land schemes (given the level of infrastructure problems that start-ups face), tax sops, banking policies, micro funds, innovative financial schemes, outcome measurement and delivery mechanisms.

Explore possibilities of PPP as well as private incubation centres as a way to increase the number of incubation centres in the country and thereby providing wider access to incubation opportunity for new entrepreneurs.

Develop recognition and reward systems for Entrepreneurship, at the local, state as well as national levels (such as those instituted by MSME at the national level).

Implement far reaching changes in higher education policy to enhance quality, quantity and inclusiveness.

Modernize and make transparent and accessible IPR infrastructure.

Explore the possibility of innovative social security for entrepreneurs to encourage ability to take risks.

Chambers of Commerce/Industrial Associations/Other Networks can also help SMEs by taking below mentioned steps:

Chambers need to take active steps to give prominence to regular entrepreneurial meetings, discussions and networking.

Chambers need to go beyond mid-size and large companies to reach out to young entrepreneurs.

Scale up current initiatives on Entrepreneurship; coordinate across associations and networks, and beyond metropolitan cities and top educational institutions.

Create networks of Entrepreneurship initiatives that are being undertaken across the country.

Strengthen mentoring programmes for upcoming entrepreneurs and actively leverage networks with successful entrepreneurs.

Provide platforms for discussing entrepreneurial best practices and experiences by holding nation wide workshops.

Create forums for partnerships with and mentoring by financial institutions.

Financial Community must also play its role very effectively and see to it that:

Banks must consider Entrepreneurship as a major business opportunity.

Explore innovative options such as venture debt, soft loans etc for start-ups.

Encourage current efforts on development of systematic risk management systems (SMERA-credit ratings, CIBIL-information disclosures, CART-credit appraisal tools, RAM-risk assessment models etc) as ways to increase risk appetite.

Incentivize entrepreneurs to undertake ratings and information disclosures by linking cost of credit to ratings (where more holistic ideas of risk can be evolved).

Encourage the setting up of special industrial and management consultancy departments in banks to address functional inadequacies and market gaps, as well as develop multidimensional skills and increased information flows to encourage entrepreneurial funding.

Actively assist entrepreneurs to develop multiple skills necessary for scaling up.

Implement significant policy initiatives, including relevant RBI recommendations which facilitate ease of credit flow to small entrepreneurs.

Banks need to reduce information asymmetries at various levels and disseminate information on various relevant issues (ratings, policies, schemes, consultancies etc).

Banks could explore ways to monetize aspects of the knowledge industry (including Intellectual Property in the form of licenses etc as assets) with a view to better finance for such sectors.

Realize the enormous potential for greater involvement of angels and VCs at the seed stage, especially in the newer, high growth sectors of the economy.

Increase awareness on the activities of angel/VC financing through greater involvement with educational and research institutions, incubation centres etc.

Scale up and publicize best practices in financial innovations for Entrepreneurship.

CONCLUSION

The researcher attempted to achieve all the objectives of the study based on the hypothesis formulated. Based on the output of the study, the researcher arrived at the following conclusions:

1. Students just after completing their graduation prefer to join management education. At this level they do not have much understanding about the business opportunities available. They are infatuated by the fat salary jobs in market.

2. Pursuing professional education is considered as a passport to get a handsome salaried job and students join the courses based on job market trend.

3. Middleclass family background may be the driving force for the students to take secured salaried job and avoid risk of starting any venture.

4. Students with business background want salaried jobs as secured earnings.

5. Flourishing market conditions are creating huge job opportunities with handsome salaries which attract the students from all categories, so the students are not serious about entrepreneurship as a career.

6. The present management education is developing very few numbers of entrepreneurs.

7. The present management education is developing manpower (Managers) to work for others.

8. Along with government policies/support, many other promotional activities like the tie ups with various entrepreneurship development institutions and venture funding agencies need to undertake for the development of entrepreneurship.

9. Parents can motivate their children to start their own venture activity.

10. Necessary qualities of entrepreneurship can be developed among the students through the appropriate mix of teaching techniques.

11. The present management education system can be made more oriented to build up confidence in the minds of students that they can become successful entrepreneurs.

12. An appropriate syllabus can be developed to motivate students to become entrepreneurs.

13. Students are interested in those business activities which have more profit margins, less investment in man, machine and material.

14. The socioeconomic parameters can influence the career decision of students.

15. The parents don't want their children to take risk in the early stage of their career by starting any venture activity.

16. Barriers for starting any kind of business activity can be traced out and a remedial action can be initiated to develop entrepreneurship.

17. Motivations can be identified and used for promoting entrepreneurship among students.

18. To have professional education and family business background create more favorable conditions to get into business.

19. There is no any specific age to start a business activity.

20. Entrepreneurs are expert of their own field which inspires them to grow further in the same or related line of business.

21. A corporate manager who shows intraprenurial behavior can become successful entrepreneur.

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