Driving forces behind workplace cultural change

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Hospitality and Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries around the global and it brings the host country's economic revenue. Undoubtedly, in such a globalised, where in most organisations have different people from over the world, hence, the significant of the organisation management style regarding to cross-culture has become an important issues for every organisation. Therefore, the multi-site and multi-national corporations have been regulated the development of strategies to diminish the problems of cultural diversity that may occur inside the organisation. According to, (Robbins, S P., & Judge, T A., 2010 p.254) stated that "The culture of any organisation, although it may be hard to measure precisely, nevertheless exists and is generally recognised by its employees. We call this variable organisational culture". Based on that, the majority of culture has been playing important role of management in order to understand the employee behaviour and needs to implement the more performance efficiency and effectively. For example, Disney theme park is one of the good examples which emphasis on the culture management and the organisation has their own culture that share values. However, the Disney failed when they have established the theme park in another country by lacking of proper study of national culture between French culture and American culture in another country. In addition, (DuBrin, A J., 2006) stated that the organisation culture is the system of shared values and beliefs that actively influence the behavior of organisation members. The issue, however, in organisation the term of shared indicated that many employees are guided by the same values and then elucidate in the same way and the values develop over the time which reflect the history and traditions. In consequence, the culture is being helpful and supportive to the new employees as well as customers. More importantly, (Rollinson, D., 2005 p.538 para. 2 cited on Schein, 1992 p. 9) stated that "a pattern of basic assumptions - invented, discovered or developed by a giving group as it leans to cope with its problems of external adaption and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valuable and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems". Based on that, there are three interconnected level the nature of organisational culture which are basic assumptions, value and beliefs, and artefacts and creations. For example, (Kezar A J, and Lester J, 2009) stated that Southwest airline has clearly mission statement directly to employees, the organisation is committed to providing the stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Therefore, the mission of Southwest airline showed the significant importance of creativity, innovation, and improvement of effectiveness of the airline which are all values. However, the value may change over the time, the core value of commitment which generate the high quality of service should remain the same (ibid.) Based on that, a strong culture of organisation may create the good working environment, the work performance more efficiency as well as diminish the employees turnover.

Furthermore, the culture difference can influence the performance of the organisation whether it efficiency or not, according to Hofstede stated that "Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Culture differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster" (www.geert-hofstede.com) Based on that, the hotel and tourism industries tend to expanding aggressively over the world, it is relevant to organisation that operated in another countries. Deal T E, and Kennedy A A, 1988 (p.13) stated that each organisation faces a different reality in marketplace depending on its products, competitors, customers technologies, government influence. However, the successful organisation depends on how to develop their culture in order to achieve the competitor advantage. For instance, the organisation needs to study and understand the local culture including the workforces and customer in order to perform more efficiency in organisation as well as to understand what customer needs. For example, Marriott international is one of the most well known for hotels, and have expanded the company around the world. Therefore, Fu S, and Liu H (2005) cited on www.marriott.com that Marriott's core values drive the culture. The culture influences the way they treat associates, customers and the community that impacts all their successes. However, in such a diversity culture there are complicated and difficult to persuade employees toward forming a new culture. Therefore, it is relevant to the manager in order to hire the right people to the right job that fit in the culture of organisation, nonetheless, Deal T E, and Kennedy A A, 1988 p. 16 stated that "a strong culture enables people to feel better about what they do, so they are more likely to work harder" For instance, Dubrin A J, 2006 stated that the term of the management organtisation engages in continuous learning by adapting to external environment. Therefore, a major responsibility of top management is to shape, manage, control, and find the ways to manage the knowledge more productively and encourage organisational members to share information. In addition, Christensen-Hughes J, 1992 mentioned that diversity was viewed as both a positive and negative force in the hotels and tourism industry. For example, in the positive way is that the hotels were better able to meet the needs of a diverse group of customers and new market segments were attracted to culturally diverse hotels. On the other hand, for having such a diverse group of employees created difficulties arising from each department such as cultural differences either language differences (ibid.) Boella M J, Gross-Turner S, 2005 stated that in global franchised hotel brands there were clear and formal systems of developing management and employees in the corporate culture and values of service intrinsic in the base company's strategic underpinning. Furthermore, Mwaura G, Sutton J, and Roberts D, 1998 cited on Hofstede according to the principle purpose of Hofstede's analysis was to differentiate between the assumed shared values held in organizations, and the unique values which could be identified as specific to national cultures. Due to the fact that, the national culture may influence the employee attitude throughout internal of organisation.

Although each

of these dimensions differentiates between the values held by cultures, the framework

does not suggest methods for bridging the national culture gap.

Topic two

Management strategies

How many?


What strategic or tactical approaches are available for CCM e.g. Perlmutter?

What are their relative advantages and weaknesses?

Consistency across organisations and cultures?

Can, for example, a manager of a branch in India adopt a different strategy from a manager in Spain?

Should they?

Topic three

Adapting service delivery

If we accept that staff from different cultural backgrounds create challenges for managers, does the same apply to delivering service to customers from different cultural backgrounds?

In other words, does service style differ for different national groups?


Are customer's perceptions of service quality culturally determined?

If so how does this make CCM more complex?

How can organisations in the service sector manage this complexity?


Summarise what you have written.

What are your conclusions for CCM and the management of service quality in multi-cultural environments?