Diversity Literature Arguments In The Workforce

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Diversity literature presents an argument that increasing diversity is portrayed as a magic formula that will automatically provide with competitive advantage (Newell,2007). London metropolitan police is keen to increase diversity at workplace. Human resource management must play a positive role in reducing discrimination in workforce as it has faced these issues in the last decade. "human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation most valued assets the people, working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives." Storey (1989) argues that "human resource management plays a vital role in philosophical and underpinning diversity activities".(Armstrong,2007)

London metropolitan police staff raises the standards of police workforce so there should be job satisfaction and motivation with honour and dignity and London metropolitan police must utilise its entire staff the development of improvement and improvement of the organisation. Failing to do this would result in complex issues like discrimination and inequality.

2.0.1 DIVERSITY

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Kossek and Lobel(1996) has defined diversity as ''It is derived not only from differences in ethnicity and gender, but also based on differences in function, nationality, language, ability, religion, lifestyle and tenure." While Hubbard (2004) argues that all the organizations must not only define the diversity unlike Kossek and Lobel but all the roles of leadership and higher management should be clearly defined and organisation must address the diversity in its vision and mission statement.

London metropolitan police does not consider and factor the diversity at workplace in its vision and mission statement as authors described in different literatures. London metropolitan police mission statement is to make London a safer place. If we see the long term objectives of the London metropolitan police workplace diversity does not fit into that frame which is quite mysterious. London metropolitan police must include diversity management in its short term and long term objectives.(London Metropolitan Police, 2010)

In reviewing all the author Diversity refers to human qualities that are different from our own and those of groups to which we belong; but that are manifested in other individuals and groups. Dimensions of diversity include but are not limited to: age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities/qualities, race, sexual orientation, educational background, geographic location, income, marital status, military experience, parental status, religious beliefs, work experience, and job classification.

2.0.2 MANAGING DIVERSITY

According to an article by Vidu Soni(2000) a twenty first century reception for diversity in public sector says that concept of diversity management suffers from similar disagreements. the advantage of managing diversity have been met with considerable backlash. He further added that staffs do not know the clear understanding or meaning of diversity initiative programs or activities that enhance the diversity. Different groups have different perception about diversity. He described that organisation have internal and external pressures. It's not the pressure which makes an organisation more diverse but organisations understands the importance of diverse work force and more competition and output has been seen in result of workplace diversity. As far as programme or initiatives to enhance the diversity management is concern it is closely link with rules and regulations like race relations act etc.

London metropolitan police diversity and citizen focus helps in managing diversity in many ways like disability, age, race ,equality and diversity .in addition to that London metropolitan police MPS equalities strategies and reports are managing the diverse workforce .Gander annual reports helping towards individual and communities and build the trust and confidence of the society. More over race and diversity further enhance the importance of a diverse workforce.(London Metropolitan Police,2010)

London metropolitan police race and diversity policies should be enhanced further and where discrimination and race relations act should be implement accordingly and reviewed quarterly and yearly with the help of all the management and staff from all ethnic backgrounds should be represented. Another article from university of Michigan provides evidence that managing diversity can create competitive advantage in n organisation. He further added that cost, human resource management, marketing, problem solving quality and organisational flexibility are directly impacted by management of cultural diversity. But it might create conflict amongst the diverse workforce because people from different culture might create complexities amongst the organisation.(Cox and Blake,2009)

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Kandolla and Fullerton(1998) describes managing diversity is not just focussing on issues concerning discrimination regarding sex,age,race and ethnicity but also enhance the use diverse workforce to improve employees potential and contribution towards an association. Kandola and Fullerton further states that managing diversity is an apprehension for all organisation and its employers.

Diversity management in practice published in "international journal of contemporary hospitality" discussed that diversity implemented in organisation does not match to the standards of theorist. There is wide difference in theory and implication of diversity management. Author further added that the starting point must be to improve overall mission statement in the organisation.(Kandola,1999) It's not always difficult to implement diversity management as discussed because rules and regulation of modern organisation and race relations act, sex discrimination act and others also support diversity management while internal and external pressures makes an organisation more diverse.(Doherty,2000).

Another literature by Robert D.lawson(2001)"identifying and managing diversity of workforce" organisation must carry out necessary changes in terms of culture and structure in gaining the new and raw talent from diverse culture. While innovation and change in organisation face criticism and bring insecurity amongst the employees. Senior management can help by bringing in the positive climate by maximising the diverse workforce.(Lawson,2010). Journal of business and psychology also described the importance that ethnic minorities work attitudes were strong in case of a diverse workforce .While work attitudes are indictors of positive diversity management but it depends upon demographic trends.

Managing diversity sometimes regarded as the problem and perceived as a threat by the members of an organisation. Managing diversity is expected to threaten the team spirit. individual embodying some visible form of difference nationality, colour or gander were seen as not like the homogenous insiders in business organisation. Organisation may apply tactics such as negotiating with, balancing and pacifying different interest group as alternative of the defensive strategic response that is a result of this perspective. Diversity in language and diversity and nationality is necessary in order to understand the diverse customer. Managing diversity is not regarded as moral instrument any longer but economic and diversity is considered a business activity.

2.0.3 MANAGING DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:

Human resource management department in London metropolitan police accountability process starts with the diversity management. London Met Human resource director martin Tilpady believes that human resource should be more accountable in managing and increasing diversity policies. Later on mayor of London Boris Johnson discussed the race relations issues in London metropolitan police must ensure that all the

ethnic minorities should join the police force and efficient hiring and training and development in human resource management is very important in diversity. Racial discrimination cases in London met have been reduced the last decade but not completely vanished which proves that human resource management should be active in managing diversity.(Harrington,2009)

It is always important for an organization to manage strategically in economic and labour markets, a vital human resource strategy is to increase the diversity of the workforce through hiring and recruiting a diverse workforce. Most change efforts like the diversity change efforts that have been analysed are focused at the organisational or individual intervention levels and under-emphasis the work group level and the importance of group tipping points. (Ernest and Mchugh,2002)

One of the most important concepts in modern management is human resource management. Normally equality and diversity are clear terms for human resource management. Human resource managers in London metropolitan police are advised to make a representation from ages races and nationalities. There are other descriptions of human resource management which diversity approaches share. In contrast to that London met makes a point in reducing discrimination and improving diversity but in reality human resource management role makes no difference .More than that diversity move towards equality, Human resource management highlights the domination of management in initiating for policy making. According to dale (2007) there are similarities between human resource management and managing diversity.

Improvement in managing diversity techniques has helped United kingdom labour force to create human resource management more effective to utilize the maximum efficiency of talents and skills. Competitive advantage can be gained to utilize the human resource management diverse training ,research and development. There are three major components of cultural diversity like cultural audit. Organisations that manage diversity outperform the homogenous groups.(Bilimoria and Piderit,2007)

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Cox augmented that human resource management must conduct cultural and organisational audit such as recruitment, selection, appraisal and career planning. Training and development does not always bring success in the organisation and cultural diversity in the form of sex, age, race, colour and nationality make a fair contribution to an organisation which would result in harmony amongst the employees." diversity management must be conceptualised as an organisational level, change based phenomenon" (Burke and Cooper,2005)

London metropolitan police understands the importance of implementing the diversity excellence model besides having problems in the department regarding discrimination and other racial issues. London metropolitan police implement the diversity strategy the excellence model with the background of awareness ,understanding,application,integration and excellence. There is a process in diversity excellence model like first we must choose random staff of cross functional team and next step should be staff assessment and evaluation. London metropolitan police must share best practices. Evolution and assessment should be based on internal and external benchmarking. In addition to that there should be a focused diverse strategy understood by everyone and readily implemented.(national school 2009) The diversity excellence concept started in 1990' by management theorist and developed by organisational management. It has been suggested that current organization trends can never be successful without managing diversity in work force.(Hutchison,2008)

According to Taylor Cox (1993) a biggest supporter of diversity strategies says that the main purpose of diversity is to increase the maximum output and reduce the disadvantages in the management. Cox further says that managing diversity can result in contribution to organisational goals as an individual group identities like gander race, nationalities, age and departmental affiliations. Cox reviews that organisations with a view of diversity will have an edge of flexibility at workplace, creativity and problem solutions. Cox further suggest that a strong commitment to diversity at workplace will make a stronger management force which is a main purpose of company's long term goals and objectives.(Beret and Kohler,1994)

Fox and miller (1995) suggested that there are different strategies for effective diversity like hiring people from diverse culture .while Cox presented a change model for work on diversity. He presented the five the five main activities started with leadership, research and measurement, education, alignment of management system, follow up. These activities present a overview of the organisational change to become multicultural. He further reviews that leadership must comprised of management philosophy, vision, organization design, personal involvement, communications strategy, strategic integration.

Whereas research and measurement involves preliminary diagnostics, comprehensive culture assessment, base line data, benchmarking, measurement plan. While these activities are comprised of managing change, development of in house expertise and address all three phases of learning process. Plus alignment involves orientation, recruitment and performance appraisal and follow-ups or feed backs in the form of accountability, continuous improvement and knowledge management programs. Lack of these activates would result in major barriers like discrimination and race related problems.

Human resource management department is responsible for equal opportunity. Human resource department or personal management mainly take care of individual discrimination or group discrimination. United Kingdom government has played active roles to make tough rules to reduce the discrimination in public and private sector. Several rules and regulations like equal pay act, disability act, and discrimination must have been implemented in London metropolitan police to avoid racial discrimination.(Wrench,2002).While we still face the racism in London metropolitan police. Human resource management role has not been played efficiently because HRM combines the all department and any disciplinary issues must have been dealt with organised and efficient manner

It is the responsibility of every manager in each and every department to manage the diversity. Managing diversity at work place is to respect age sex and nationality with dignity and allow everyone to work free. Managing diversity is handled by every manager in the work place. It basically focused on the development of the entire individual. Managing diversity is ''about valuing differences and treating people with dignity and allowing everyone to be able to perform to their level of ability. In addition, there has been a significant change in the expectation of customers in recent years. Both internal and external customers expect customer care, and they are themselves diverse, reflecting the structure of society in general.''(Fenman ,2009)

Some intellectuals believe that equal opportunity and managing diversity are quite dissimilar with each other in various activities, but chartered institute of personal and development discussed that equal opportunity and managing diversity are not equal or not an alternative to each other. The idea of equality and fairness are quite integral to each other. But the difference the equal opportunity is to treat everyone working an organisation in the same manner while in reality people are treated in their needs and according to their specified jobs. While diversity is the recognition of treating people on fair equal grounds.

London metropolitan police is actively the all the communities and they normally deal or from where these ethnic communities belong to. London metropolitan police contribute significantly contribute in lowering the anti social behaviour and solving crime. Communities can work together if there is mutual co operation amongst them. All the ethnic communities should work together for the betterment of London metropolitan police and for the whole society . MET believes that organisation business can be enhanced by diverse workforce and staff from different background and society brings the best work and extra hard work in result of greater competition.(London Metropolitan Police,2010)

Managing diversity always need to be sensitive towards its employers which brings different ethnicities and culture on one platform. Beside their social status everyone should be treated according to the rules and regulations and personal differences should be left aside to raise the organisation standard just to ensure that employer retention and greater productivity could be achieved by a diverse work force. Organisation or individuals must avoid such practices which could result in sexiest, racist or offensive behaviour or actions. All departments and employees must work together to manage a work life balance and avoid discrimination in terms of age,race,sex,ethnicity or nationality.

2.0.4 DIVERSITY APPROACHES

The value of any approach is how fully it allows us to address related issues. So the core question for given diversity becomes : do the concept, principles and tools help me to understand and navigate the dynamics of the diversity. if we have to achieve the next level of diversity effectiveness we must use those approaches which can be used both for micro and macro issues in London metropolitan police. Such improved approaches would play a critical role in securing across the border progress and address the challenge of increased community diversity.

Managing diversity approaches are characterised into three categories.

Diversity audit.

Diversity enlargement

Diversity sensitivity

Human resource managers have recognised the importance of managing diversity techniques in order to reduce the effect of cultural barriers and increasing the rewards of diverse workforce. Kossek and Lobel(2006) have described the three diversity approaches.

2.0.4.1 DIVERSITY ENLARGEMENT

This approach tries to focus on enlargement of representation of individual's ethnic minorities and various groups from different background. The main purpose is to change the organisational culture with the help of a diverse workforce. For example according to a Norwegian regulation backed by government that allows national and multinational companies to appoint women directorship for at least forty percent. There is a possibility that new staff will conform to the company's policy and no intervention will be required. Often these activities are bind with government rules and regulation and understanding the needs of business.(Barak,2010) Employers are often being considered utilizing the diverse workforce as it provides extra resistance and change management to the labour market.(Mustafa and Sayed,2010)

2.0.4.2 DIVERSITY SENSITIVITY

This approach understands the potential difficulties introduced by bringing various people from different ethnic backgrounds and ethnicities. The main goal of diversity sensitivity is to overcome adversity and promote productive communication and collaboration. The strategy is to train to diversity and improve communication. Diversity sensitivity has an assumption that it will increase the difference to affect the performance. (Kossek and lobel ,1996)

Training and development techniques makes a vital difference in teaching individual and groups for the existence of cultural difference. People from different ethnic backgrounds and nature are helped to sensitize the stereotyped nature of organisation atmosphere. Organisation with the diverse workforce promotes the communication and understanding amongst staff.

The sheer work force diversity of organisational feedback ,and many channels through which it conveyed ,make it difficult to generalize about techniques for securing effective feedback .however managing diversity involves moving away from assimilation to acculration. The purpose is not to emphasis stereotyping of individuals and grouping with the groups. A framework of diversity management should supply public managers with an approach to bridge problems of interaction to gain character organisational efficiency and effectiveness and to adopt to the ever changing environment within which they have to operate.(Fox,2006).

2.0.4.3 DIVERSITY AUDIT :

Diversity audit identify obstacles faced by employees of diverse background and modify company practices accordingly. The strategy is to audit current practices through surveys and focus groups and generate changes to address these deficiencies. There are few assumptions that problems are created by dominate cultural groups in an organisation and need to be addressed by the group.(Michelle and Barak,2010)

"In order to examine organisation overall management of diversity, three areas need to be investigated. First because organisation effectiveness and productivity depend on the human beings who work in them, there is a need to look to individual attitudes and beliefs. such issues as how open employees are to people who are different and comfortable staff is with change are important areas of assessment. How do managers use such organisational systems as accountability, reward and decision making to capitalize on diversity. How adept are managers at getting maximum commitment from all segments of the work.(Anita and Lee,2006)

2.0.5 CHALLENGES OF DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT

"Though diversity offers major advantages it can also present challenges. In particular as people with very different beliefs and values and priorities interact in the workplace conflict can arise. Some diversity related conflicts arise from people's fear of being seen as prejudiced. The goal of effectively managing diversity is to create a setting in which everyone feels valued and accepted and differences are appreciated.

Sometimes managing diversity is confused with affirmative action's or other laws favouring certain type of people. In Britain depending on the jobs, organisation settings a work environment there are many reasons why whites and non whites can have different career trajectories. Like jobs may have job-related skill and experience requirements that differ, on average ,by race or ethnicity. Racial disparities arising from such factors would not be considered as discriminatory, so long as the employer is not responsible for difference in qualification by race. Conversely, employers create racial barriers, when they make decisions, about individuals, suitability for jobs, training, advancement or compensations based on belief about a person's race or favouritism towards their own racial group rather than on individual actual qualification or performance".(Deborah,2004)

According to a report by CIPD(2009) supported the argument that 68% of the hr professionals implement diversity management due to legal obligation while only 30 % believe that there is a need of budgeting for diversity management. While 60 % of the managers do not consider diversity in marketing. Training and development and customer relations while mostly only consider it for recruiting and retaining staff. While there is complex threat in the recession period in terms of managing diversity. Specially in United Kingdom where job cuts has been done during the past 2 year. Ethnic minorities have been hit harder during the process of recruitment and selection

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.0 METHODOLOGY

According to Clifford woody ( 2009) research is comprised of defining and redefining problems, formulating or suggesting hypothesis, collecting and evaluating data, making research conclusions and necessary recommendations. And to analysis whether the conclusion fits the hypothesis or not. Redman and marry describes research as a combined effort to excess and gain new knowledge. While the online Webster dictionary defines the research a systemic examination and inquiry to establish a result or conclusion.(Kumar,2008)

3.1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

This research will focus on particular case studies. Main area of discussion would be discrimination amongst London metropolitan police. Is discrimination present in MET police. How we can identify the possible diversity problems in London metropolitan police. There are many methods of analysing data. Primary data or secondary data. My research will focus on secondary data due to the sensitivity of the topic. Data collection method will critically analyse the ongoing problems in London met police and how this organisation can overcome the problems.

3.2 THE RESEARCH FLOW CHART

Select Topic

Identify Broad Area

Decide Approach

Formulate Plan

Collect Information

Analyse Data

Present Findings

3.3 APPLIED RESEARCH

When the solution to a research problem does have a research practical consequences on any organization then we call it applied research. This research will be an applied research because it will create a practical consequences on London metropolitan police and will make some recommendations to change the diversity policies of the organisation and the problems faced by human resource management.(Wayne et.al,2005).

3.4 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND QUANTITIVE RESEARCH

Qualitative research is a unique approach. A qualitative research mostly use ethnographic or field research, interviews, oral history, focus group, case studies, discourse analysis ,audio visual analysis, evaluation and narrative inquiry. Interviews and surveys will be conducted to prove the hypothesis. My research will focus on qualitative research and quantative research . London metropolitan racial discrimination will be used to analyse the current diversity policies and what are the problems faced by different groups. Historical data will also be collected from previous research journals and newspapers.

3.5 INTERPRETIVISIM RESEARCH

According to Briony (2001) intepretivism does not prove or disprove a hypothesis but tries to explore, explain and analyse how the factors in social setting are related or inter related with each other. So my research will discuss the current diversity trends in London metropolitan and how we can improve the problems faced by the organisation and human resource management. There are different characteristics of interpretivisim on this research like researcher is not neutral. I have my own beliefs and own values and actions to prove my point.

3.6 DEDUCTIVE APPROACH

There are two schools of thoughts one is inductive and other is deductive. They are equally important in the field of research. The deductive approach goes from general to the more specific. In this approach theories or hypothesis is tested though empirical research. This method is used for applying social theories in real scenario. Deductive approach is widely used in social sciences. first step is the generation of theory or hypothesis so my theory would be managing diversity and it is always beneficial so I have to apply the managing diversity theory approach to London metropolitan police.(David ,2006).

3.7 CASE STUDIES

According to berg qualitative approach is a type of research to identify uniquentify research . qualitative methods have been used in order to obtain valid results. The case study is a type of research where the study is not radically distinguishable from it content. Such en effort might be a programme or project in an evaluation study (Yin,2003).Berg augmented "a detailed examination of one setting, or a single subject, a single depository of documents, or one particular event" .

A case study may be phenomenal in dealing a wider approach. Such activities may be project or programme in an evaluation study. Case study is an empirical inquiry in which two cases of racial discrimination will be used to test the hypothesis. (Robert, 1994)

Research will discuss the case study of London metropolitan police racial discrimination and diversity policies. Research will critically analyse the London metropolitan police and how human resource management could have played its role to defuse the situation. Later on in the light of these problems what steps could be taken to improve the diversity in London metropolitan police. There are many ways of answering a question research is one of them. There are different types of research (Ranjit, 2001) .

3.8 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.8.1 PRIMARY DATA

Research is not only collection data from existing or previous research but new data must bring some new figures and facts. Collection of data is basis of any statistical analysis. In accurate and inadequate data leads to wrong and misleading decisions and analysis. Methods used for data primary data collection are direct structured interviews and public surveys and indirect observation. As identified by my supervisor Ian Avery primary research will enhance my area of research will support

3.8.2 INTERVIEWS

Structured interviews will be conducted on the basis of managing diversity and workplace diversity in their respective organisation. Interviews involve two types of people. First you can interview the experts and second you can interview from those who are directly related to the organisation. Interviews will be conducted from local staff working in London. There will be 44 structured interviews targeting the main topic, the need of managing diversity. Structured interview use a set of standardised questions asked from selected people of any organisation or group or locality so that comparison or analysis could be done more efficiently.( Mathis and Jackson,2002) .

"There are number of advantages that can be utilized within the qualitative research. Interviews enable participants to talk about their own experience and allow them to elaborate on any areas of particular areas of interest. Interviews allow unexpected data to emerge. By using interviews, researcher can introduce him or herself to the subject and establish truth and rapport, especially if any information is considered confidential and sensitive. interviews allow you to investigate target groups that may be less able to complete surveys(such as the less well educated, or older or young respondents"(Jones and Gratton,2005)

3.8.3 SAMPLING

"Sampling method refers to the way the simple units are selected from a parent population. When collecting which combination or numbers to select, researcher must make decisions in five basic areas.

Probability and non-probability

Single and cluster units

Stratified and un stratified sample

Equal and unequal probability

Single verses multistage" (Mcnabb,2004)

My research will take the stratified and un stratified sample approach in which ethnic minorities or police force from black or Asian minorities will be targeted to analyse the importance of diversity management. Interviews will only be conducted from Asian, black or women as they are the main victims of discrimination. Interviews will be conducted in central London, east London and north London. Name of the few staff will be kept secret due to the nature of questions. Most of the staff will be interviewed from London because I am living in London so it will easy for me to interview the staff another reason behind most of the sample taken from east London as this area is heavily populated with ethnic minorities and locals have good knowledge regarding London metropolitan police..