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There are a number of different approaches, or 'styles' to leadership and management that are based on different assumptions and theories. The style that individuals use will be based on a combination of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the organizational culture and norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.
· Autocratic leadership
· Bureaucratic leadership
· Democratic leadership
· Laissez-faire leadership
· Transactional leadership
· Transformational leadership
Autocratic leadership style
Under this all the authority and decision making powers are vested in leader himself. he is work centered or leader centered. he designs the workload and work situation for his employees.
Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book", ensuring that their staff follow procedures exactly. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as cash-handling).
Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership
The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. the demotic manger keeps her or her employees informed about everything that affect their work and share decision making and problem solving responsibilities.
This French phrase means "leave it be" and is used to describe a leader who leaves his or her colleagues to get on with their work. It can be effective if the leader monitors what is being achieved and communicates this back to his or her team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, it can also refer to situations where managers are not exerting sufficient control.
This style of leadership starts with the premise that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they take a job on: the "transaction" is (usually) that the organization pays the team members, in return for their effort and compliance. As such, the leader has the right to "punish" team members if their work doesn't meet the pre-determined standard.
A person with this leadership style is a true leader who inspires his or her team with a shared vision of the future. Transformational leaders are highly visible, and spend a lot of time communicating. They don't necessarily lead from the front, as they tend to delegate responsibility amongst their teams. While their enthusiasm is often infectious, they can need to be supported by "detail people".
3.2 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
3.2.1 Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Higher order hierarchy of needs Reward
Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs:
The hierarchical arrangement suggests that the five levels of needs are arranged in order of increasing importance, starting with physiological needs. According to the theory, when needs at one level are satisfied, they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs, but it does not supply a complete picture.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory Vs Reward
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs in the perspective of employee motivation is to identify the satisfied needs and provide opportunities to meet the unmet needs to motivate the employees. The major weaknesses of the need theory; is the non-recognition of individual differences and ignoring other factors. For example the work itself can motivate employees.
3.2.2 Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y is about Human nature like the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Theory X assumes, humans are in average dislike work and avoid responsibility and must be controlled and threatened to work hard. As well, it assumes people that they don't like responsibility and desires security above all. They must be directed so that they work towards organizational goals.
These assumptions are at play behind most organization, which pursues tight control, and punishment or they prefer harmony at work and ignore more higher order needs as specified by Maslow's hierarchy of needs so that the employees behave as Theory X expected. Theory X must be used very carefully in modern organizational environment because it may be counterproductive and may reduce motivation of employees. Contrast to Theory X, Theory Y assumes people use mental and physical effort in work as natural as play.
3.2.3 Herzberg's Motivation and Hygiene Theory
In this theory, there are two sets of needs. They are basic needs and motivational needs. The basic needs can be working conditions, supervision, company policy and administration, salary and interpersonal relationship. These needs if not met, then employees will be dissatisfied, but not motivate them. That is, if the manager wants to stop the employees doing something, then they must consider hygiene needs. However, if they want to get someone to do something, then they must consider motivational needs. In this theory, the motivational needs are achievement and recognition, work variety, responsibility and advancement.
Positive Satisfaction and Motivation
Dissatisfaction but Motivation
Dissatisfaction and De-motivation
Motivational Factors Motivational Factors
Hygiene Factors Motivation Factors
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory Vs Reward
Salary and wages, Great working conditions, personal advancement and growth, leadership skills and traits displayed by managers. The absences of these dissatisfy people at work.
Promotion, satisfaction and sense of achievement, administration and company policy, corporate governance, interpersonal relationship. The presences of these motivate people at work.
Herzberg's believe that it was not the job that motivated people but the environment that the organization gives them to work. This suggests that to get the best out of employees, employers are encouraged to facilitate work environment that are conductive to satisfaction, harmony and productivity.
3.2.4 Vroom and Expectancy theories
Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice ,or choosing. it explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices.
Vroom model is based on three concepts.
1 - Valence
2 - Instrumentality
3 - Expectancy
3.2.5 ERG Theory
Alderfer developed the ERG theory of motivation in response to criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy.
ERG stands for existence, relatedness, and growth needs ERG theory. Existence needs are satisfied by food and water pay fringe benefits and working conditions. Relatedness needs are satisfied by relationships with co workers, superior's family and friends. Growth needs cover the need to advance and develop.
As with Maslow's theory, assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy, but it has two important differences:
ERG theory suggests that more than one level of needs can cause motivation at the same time
ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level; the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level, and begin to pursue lower-level needs again.
3.3 Relationship between motivational theories and management practice
Motivation theories were developed or built upon the "human relations" findings. The new focus for motivation theory was on the search for satisfaction of human needs. This new approach swept through management thinking in the 1950's. And management practice is where motivation theory is put to work. And the practices help to increase the productivity.
Motivation theory is one of the key concepts for individuals for developing a professional work environment in every workplace. The effect on the output of your business and concerns both quantity and quality.
Every employee needs to be motivated to work and love the work they do. then they have expect do her works.
The application of motivation theories can help managers to create work situations and employee recognition systems that help workers fulfill their needs.
Some aspects of all jobs may be routine or mundane, but other aspects can be developed to promote job satisfaction and increased productivity.
The sharing of responsibility can provide opportunities for growth, renewal, and achievement. This empowerment of workers can heighten employee motivation and improve morale.
ABX was implementing good for McGregor X,Y theory. because they have lot of low level staff. that staff mostly talented for some professionals but some time they're not indent five that use different fields. then they using motivation theory and indent five this like problem and arrange it.