Differences in cultures

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In the international scenario,experiencing and discovering cultural differences can make a huge difference between productive business negotiations and demeaning declines. International business communication plays an active role in this, we know how to communicate through their point of view is a great vantage.

Each country represents their own way of saying things, what may not be appalling to you or may be scandalizing to them. International business communications is all about experiencing the important things that dwells behind people's words in the international arena.

International business communication is communicating across cultures and the first thing you must always put in mind is the basic understanding that one size doesn't fit all. Always putting in mind that the cultural practices or habits you have does not mean that everyone else around the globe does. As they say, When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

The most important and worrying variables in the international scene of business are the cultural differences that most international business executives fail to comprehend resulting in most international business slip-ups. The failure to identify and adapt to these differences through effective international business communication can mean the difference between a closed deal and a faceless failure. Assuming cultures affect the way people communicate with each other and language above all else, is the core of culture.

Culture is the different ways in which people behave, act, or think towards themselves, families, and other people in the society. It includes customs connected with social, political, family, and religious values. Different cultures have deviating values for time and its use, for personal space, and for family values and chats. These differences must be identified and recognized to bridge the gaps between cultures and for real communication to take place [1] 

Opportunities 

Multifariousness: It has been proved through many studies of fortunate teams that diversity can decrease the happening of "groupthink" and allows a team to make improved and more creative decisivenesses. Team members from dissimilar cultivations automatically bring variety to the group. This diversity should not be disregarded or decreased; rather it should be encompassed and applied. Effective ideas from one country or market can be adapted successfully for others [2] .

In other cultures, kinships and trust are predominant in doing the business. If practical team members from the United States manage to earn the trust of foreign companions, that trust could very well translate it into a lifetime of profitable business fundamental interactions.

Cultural difference necessities not to be discussed within the team:

Sources of disputes

coteries or factions adjoining to discuss issues differently, when they impressthe whole organization

one group not working of devising an event which should admit everybody

groups using jeopardizing mottoes or symbols to show that their group is right and the others are improper

Whenever individuals form groups, they tend to emphasize' on things that make their group "ameliorate than" or "unlike from" other groups. This happens in the fields of sport, culture, religion and the workplace and can sometimes interchange from healthy competition to destructive dipute [3] .

Fear of Stereotype

Fear can demonstrate in legion ways and involve entire races of people, ethnic nonages in a given population, aboriginal people the common divisor is the differences. There could be a deviation in colour, sexuality, language, culture, expression or even the way a group chose to dress. So, from fear, we can add conflict to our reasons why people stereotype.

Such stamps tend to be self-upholding. If one side arrogates the other side is ambidextrous and aggressive, they will incline to respond deceitfully and sharply themselves. The contender will then formulate a similar image of the first party and respond misleadingly, thus confirming the initial stamps. The stereotypes may even grow more forged, as communication§ shuts down and increases heighten emotions and tension [4] .

HOWEVER, people really are much more fairish than their stereotypes would suggest. In that case, getting to know people in person§ helps to break down electronegative images. This is very true when people determine that they actually have things in plebeian with people from the other side. Such things can cast from enjoying the same music, hobbies, or sports, to having the same headaches about children or aging parents.

Even when people learn that they share both fear and gloominess, they can begin to understand each other more. When they come to empathize that the other is frightened of being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people unitedly. Such shared emotions make people appear human, while stereotypes generally "dehumanize§" people. Likewise, shared emotions make fellow feeling possible, which opens the door to new forms of fundamental interaction and trust building§, at least among the individuals byzantine [5] .

Conclusion

Culture difference means dissimilar people from different countries, places etc. IF 'FPD' did not talk about then it will be very difficult to control or manage the team and this will make colossal problem.

Task-2

Greeting rituals is an act of communicating in which human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) deliberately make their presence known to each other, to show tending to, and to intimate a type of kinship or social status between mortals or groups of people coming in tangency with each other.

Greetings rituals of USA

Hand shake is the common salutation.

Handshakes are immobile, brief and convinced.

Maintain eye liaison during the salutation.

In most positions, you can begin calling people by their first names.

Most people will importune that you call them by their nickname, if they have one.

In formal contexts, you may want to use deeds of conveyance and cognomens as a complimentary until you are invited to move to a first name basis, which will happen quickly.

Business cards are substituted without formal ritual.

It is quite familiar for the recipient to put your card in their wallet, which may then go in the back pouch of their trousers. This is not an humiliation.

Making contact of USA

Americans are lineal. They value logic, additive thinking and expects people to speak manifestly and in a straightforward manner. To them if you don't "tell it how it is" you simply desolate time, and time is money. If we are from a culture that is more insidious in communication style, try not to be affronted by the directness. Try to get to our point more quickly and don't be frightened to be more direct and reliable than we are used to. Americans will use the telephone to comport business that would require a face-to-face.

Making contact of CANADA

Canadians begin confluences with a limited amount of small talk although one should anticipate to spend a few minutes interging jocularities and the like. In Quebec there may be more time spent on relationship-building.

Meetings are generally well-nourished and cleave to time schedules. They tend to be informal and decompressed in manner even if the subjects being discussed are severe. When meeting with Anglophones, meetings may seem more democratic as all players will affiance and bestow. Meetings with Francophobes, due to a greater respect for power structure and position, may orbit more around the most senior attendees.

Meetings in Canadian parties are used to review proposals, make plans, brain-storm and communicate decisivenesses. Attendees will generally represent a assortment of levels and experiences; all are expected to express opinions.

When presenting information, it is significant to have facts and figures to actualize claims and prognosticates. Canadians are fundamentally rational and logical and thus they will not be converted by emotions, passion or feelings.

These etiquette topics are relevant in both the United States and Canada and pertain to dealings with people in public.

Worker interactions

Workers such as waiters, receptionists store employees, and government employees, should be spoken to with politenesses such as "please" and "thank you." An self-important attitude, such as one used in dealing with servants generations ago, is not satisfactory. Snapping fingers, calling out loudly, beckoning money, or whistling for an employee's attention are insufferable. Rather, one may say, "Excuse me," or beckon after making eye contact.

Politenesses by clerks are sometimes used so gushily that they can lose their earnestness or craved effect. Such terms as "Thank you very much" should be used only when unfeignedly meant, rather than out of habit. Less frequent usage of such politenesses in the eastern U.S., for example, may cause employees to seem brusk to customers from the midwest, while exuberant but less than enraptured such politenesses may seem insincere to those visiting the midwest from the east, or Canada.

While clerks and customers often accost each other with terms such as: hon, dear, sweetie, darling, doll, honey, etc. (particularly in the American South), these are not proper forms of address and appear patronizing, condescending, and unprofessional to many.Proper terms are "Sir", "Ma'am," or "Madam", or if the name is known, Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. [Lastname].

Dress codes of USA

What is reckoned appropriate business dress code varies by geographic region, day of the week and industriousness.

In general, people in the East dress more officially, while people in the West are known for being a bit more insouciant.

Executives usually dress formally irrespective of which part of the country they are in.

Casual Friday is common in many posses. High technology companies often wear cursory clothes every day.

For an initial meeting, dressing guardedly is always in good taste. Women can wear business suits, dresses or pantsuits. Men should wear a business suit unless you know the immobile to be quite casual.

Dress codes of CANADA

When doing business in any of the colossal cities, business suits and ties are standard dress codes for men with bourgeois suits and dresses for women [6] .

Employees are sometimes required to wear a uniform or certain criteria of dress, such as a business suit and tie. This may depend on exceptional situations, for example if they are anticipated to interact with customers. However, on occasion these monetary standard are waived, for example on Casual Fridays. Some work places necessitate that tattoos be covered.

Schools usually have nonindulgent dress codes for its students and teachers and may demand students to wear a school uniform in school and while locomoting to and from school, or a sport uniform on sporting junctures.

frequenters of a disco or nightclub are sometimes awaited to dress in a particularized style, such as clubwear; and chucker-outs of a disco or nightclub at times refuse beguile to those whose clothing they consider not reproducible with the atmosphere of the venue.

Patrons of a casino, shop or restaurant are usually expected to dress to a minimum standard, such as smart casual.

Fetish clubs often require patrons to dress in fetish clothing. [7] 

The grandness of Greeting rituals, Making contact, dress codes to understand other culture:

In defining others culture people have the need to know how they greet and make tangency and what the dress codes are. When we meet someone here in the US, at least in New York, most people will greet by shake hands. Some women don't follow this ritual, but younger women do. Most people in the clientele world shake hands when meeting a business comrade - whether for the first time, or even if they've met before. But if two people work in the same office, they broadly speaking wouldn't shake hands every day.

If we're recognizing a person you know, like a friend who we've seen latterly, you'd crediblyjust say hi. If it's a family member, you might kiss them once on the face. If it's a friend or family member who we haven't seen for a while (or might not see again for a while) you might give them a kiss and an upper body hug. This would generally be between either two women, or a man and a woman, or sometimes two men who are related to each other (like a father and son).

When doing business with North African countries we will be surprised of how warm and welcoming are the people, most business man might kiss and hug to greet each other, always talking with hand gesture, and touching each other like grabbing your hand, shoulder and always talking really close. In the US relationship are cold, a hand shake in the beginning and ending of a meeting, if someone start to touch us or get to close the American will feel nervous (and might think of suing the person). In this case adapt our self and don't be shy! Grab your interlocutor's hand and get even closer when we have an important message to send! They will respect you even more because they know your culture is different.

If we are trying to get a deal done with a French company, don't expect the email to be returned instantly and to do a deal in a day. Everything happens around the dinner or lunch table and a good bottle of wine. Even if in our own company you can get fired for having a drink between 9 and 5, there if you refuse to drink, laugh and be friendly chances are people won't trust us and our deal will fall apart.

Travelling through different parts of the world will open your eyes and help you see how much different people's behavior change from one country to another. For example travelling in Europe will show us how within a couple hour of driving you can go through three countries that are all different: They speak a different language, listen to different music, dress differently, and look different, what they concede acceptable differs from one place to another etc.

The important of culture in a business environment and how important it is to "live" a culture instead of just reading about it, and that the sooner us acquire an open mind and a global mind the easier adapting to new culture will become and the more natural we will become. Upon reviewing some of the key aspects of culture and their application to a business environment, it is easily understandable how one can fail when conducting business simply due to cultural differences. Often, people are afraid of differences but you need to know that people from another country know about these cultural barriers and won't expect much from us and often time as a foreigner we will be gratified a lot for trying, and that will give us an hedge against the competition [8] .

Task-3

Introduction

Employing the hofstede's maps, I would determine and describe the national culture deviations (two factors and four orientations) amongst the three FPD experts' countries of the USA, France, and South Africa.

Components of Geert Hofstede Analysis:

Power Distance Index (PDI) focalizes on the degree of equality, or difference, between people in the country's company. A High Power Distance outranking betokens that differences of strength and wealth have been appropriated to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow the old caste system that does not grant significance in upward quality of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking designates the society de-accentuates the differences between citizen's power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is distressed.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) emphasizes on the level of permissiveness for dubiousness and equivocalness within the society - i.e. amorphous situations. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking shows the country has a low leeway for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-tailored society that institutes laws, rules, regularizations, and controls in order to decrease the amount of precariousness. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less pertain about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is mulled over in a society that is less rule-oriented, more promptly accepts commute, and takes more and greater endangerments [9] .

Now, the definition of the maps of hofstede's map and also the four orientations among the three countries.

Figure-1: Hofstede's map.

Formalization

Uncertainty avoidance (figure-2)

Deconcentrate

Generalist

People as free agents

Entrepreneurial

Flexibility

More delegation

Coordination through informal, personal communication

Output control

CONCENTRATE

Paternalistic

Loyalty

Generalist

Strong social versus task roles

Personal relationships

Social control

Low village market (Anglo/Nordic) family or tribe (Asian)

Decentralized decision- making

Narrow span of control

Specialist, technical competence

Discretion limited by 'expertise'

Strong role of staff 'expertise'

Top management team

Industry and company knowledge

Organized by function

Compartmentalized (chimneys)

Coordination through routines and rules

Structural solution

Throughput control

Efficiency

Centralization decision-making

Coordination at the top

Less delegation

'Cloisonné' highly specialized

Strong role of staff

Analytic ability

Pyramid of people

Informal relationships

'Systeme D'

Elitist (power and authority)

Input control Well-oiled machine (Germanic) Tradition bureaucracy 'pyramid of p people' (Latin)

High power distance

Low Hierarchy High

Now I am going to hash out the situation of France, South Africa, the US, accordingLY to the Hofstede's map.

USA:

The above figures, show that USA has the power distance score 40, which depicts small power distance and they also have very weak dubiousness avoidance which is 46.so, it is commanded to proof that, USA is in the 'village market' which means Decentralize, People, Generalist, as free agents, Entrepreneurial, Flexibility, More delegation, Coordination through informal, personal communication, and Output control.

In South Africa they have the power distance 50, which demonstrate large power distance, and they also have very imperfect uncertainty dodging which is 48.so, it is required to proof that South Africa is in the 'Family' meaning Centralized, Paternalistic, Generalist,Centralized Strong social versus task roles, Loyalty, Personal relationships, and Social control.

France has the power distance 65, which depicts humongous power distance. They also have impregnable uncertainty avoidance which is 90. By deliberating this, it depicts France is in the 'pyramid of people' which mean Centralization decision-making, Coordination at the top,, 'Cloisonné' highly specialized, Less delegation Strong role of staff, , Less delegation, Analytic ability, , Informal relationships, 'Systeme D', Pyramid of people, Elitist (power and authority) and Input control. This has been distinguish by viewing figure-1 & 2.

Task-4

Introduction

Three peoples are contending the FPD, and they might consider the following three chief task scheme or activities:

Three prime task scheme or activities for the FPD team are:

Sense of purpose is being created.

Setting dockets.

Assigning rules & responsibility.

Sense of purpose is being created-

The purpose of a business would bring forth its vision and the set of corroborate values which will inform the way the business operates and conducts. These first harmonic values serve as the precepts will guide the company and its employees in their decisivenesses. When there is a strong sense of determination, the underlying values are much easier to bosom by all - they not only know what's expected, but why.

CREATIVITY

In the intromission I listed Relationships and Sustainability, Creativity, in that order for a very specified reason - that's the chronological succession in which they happen.

Creativity is the set off that sets in motion the chain of events that lead to the creation of a company to supply a product or service. That spark can be a vision of a subversive new product (Geox - shoes that breathe; GoreTex), a dissimilar model for doing business (Direct Line insurance; EasyJet) or attaining the world a better place (Howies; Authentic Business) [10] .

Oftentimes, when a person produces a strong sense of determination, or a clear reason, then the end result is easier to reach. Clear goals and understanding why we want to incite our self can often be the most comfortable way to get motivated to do nearly anything. When you get ready to work on completing a goal and understand your determination for doing so, it will help us to attain goal. Think about what motivates us and then we can easily find ways to help ourself along the way. Make a list of small things that we could use for motivation. These could be rewarded that could range from a new book to a new dress.

There are a few key tips on how creating a sense of purpose can help us to motivate our self. When we do not feel motivated to do something, we can create a sense of purpose by thinking of want we want to achieve. It could be something very small, such as washing your car, or something much bigger, such as buying a new house. Whatever your idea is, we need to have a clear purpose in mind. Perhaps your purpose for accomplishing this goal is to better yourself, many it will improve the lives of others or maybe it is a way to be more efficient or make more money. Your purpose is an important way to motivate yourself [11] .

Setting dockets- An effective meeting dockets, which states what activities will take place during the meeting, serves various important functions:

It drives the assembling leader or group to think out what needs to be attained

Provided ahead of time (as it should be), the agenda lets people know what to expect and allows them to prepare as necessary

It provides a excogitation or path for the meeting to follow

It prompts people of what there is left to cover if time gets to be an issue

Now I would like to talk about the meeting civilization of the following countries:-

USA- USA takes their meetings very earnestly and they are very prompt and formal in doing work. Usually in USA people set their dockets before the meeting.

France- French orbicular companies are not very different from their American similitudes but some " traditions " may protest (particularly outside Paris). Among them :

The French do not orchestrate meetings to reach a determination: they meet to interchange infos, and then the person in charge takes the conclusion... If you need to have a grievous and/or difficult discussion with someone, you'll invite him/her for lunch and business lunches are an important part of corporate communication ; of course, be ready to drink wine

Beginning a meeting15 minutes later than scheduled so as to wait for those who are late and who expected it to be (it is called the "quart d'heure marseillais" or "parisien" or "wherever") : most participants are surprised when the meeting starts just on time.

Only written commitments are serious : nothing oral is really binding and lying is no big deal . Within the company, the French are less constrained by social codes such as "you must play golf with your boss", or "each of us must give $5 for this charity" etc... and they do not like to mix corporate life and personal life ; being invited at one's boss' home is the worst possible thing that may happen ! (read a funny anecdote§ about it)

The French are much more sentimentally attached and faithful to their company: they like to put corporate relations on a personal basis.etc [12] .

S. Africa- Scheduling meetings in advance is required. However, you can sometimes do this on short notice if the parties had previous business interactions. Since South Africans want to know whom they will be meeting, provide details on titles, positions, and responsibilities of attendees ahead of time. Agreeing on an agenda upfront can also be useful. That docket will usually be followed. While meetings may not start on time, Black South Africans may be less concerned with time. Meetings usually start with some polite small talk, which may be extensive with Afrikaners or Blacks. Senses of humor are appreciated, but know that South African humor is often dry and earthy. People rarely discuss their private life around meetings and you should not inquire about their family or marital status. The overall meeting atmosphere is usually quite formal, especially early in the business relationship [13] .

Assigning rules & responsibility of the team:

In order to alleviate the gap between employees and direction they have to collect a list of rules to help set managers off in the right direction. The first rule is really the key as accepting obligation will set managers on a path of discovery, practice and amelioration.

A person who manages, conducts, trains, directs, deals, supervises, manipulates, organizes and controls resources, an organization, an institution, a team, expenditures, household, etc. there are some rules and responsibilities set for 'FPD' and there are:

Roles and responsibilities

Superintend and manage the overall performance of staff in his department.

Analyzing, giving recommendations and formulating strategies reporting on how to improvise lineament and quantity.

Achieving business and organization achievements, visions and objectives.

Involvement in employee selection, career development, succession planning and periodic training, career development,

Working out recompenses and rewards.

Responsible for the growth and gain in the organizations' cash in hand and earnings.

distinguishing problems, creating choices and providing choices courses of actions [14] .

Task-5

What is Corruption?

"Corruption sabotages everything the law social control community works towards. It deprives whole communities, and imperils the safety and security of the many for the welfare of a very few" - INTERPOL Secretary General Ronald K. Noble§

Corruption is a miscellaneousphenomenon supported by dissenting historical and socio-economic considerations in each country. It subsists at all levels of society. Although in the past it could have been considered a largely domestic issue, corruption now often transcends national boundaries. Its consequences are global; itsconcealed costs immense.

The private sector has reacted by implementing ethics and compliance standards and regulations, while the public sector benefits from the ratification of recent laws and international conventions. Superintendence bodies and chemical mechanism have been created to ensure the smoothen running of efforts in both sectors.

Nevertheless, corruption remains rampant in many countries, continuing to siphon off valuable resources and economic gains [15] .

Motivational Activity for ethic behavior & social responsibility

 The jussive mood of day-to-day establishment performance are so compelling that there is little time or tendency to divert attending to the moral content of organizational decisiveness-making. Morality appears to be so esoteric and qualitative in nature that it deficiencies substantive relation to documentary and quantitative performance

Is it ethical, for example, to pay a grease one's palms to obtain a business contract in a foreign country [16] . For this being FPD needs to actuate their employees to act ethically.

Cultural deviation need to discuss within the team because they have three different people, in three different countries, working in a group. So they really need to discuss the cultural within the team and the discussions are:

Role of government- The role of government in the United States and other western republics has elaborated dramatically over the last century. Compared to its pre-twentieth century purposes, government has taken on new and vast and important roles, including old-age pensions off, government-provided health care, and a host of other programs that typically constitute a modern eudaimonia state [17] .

The role of government is very important to understand because, as they have different people working in one team. So they really need to know the culture, attitude etc.

Legal context- differences in legal context, the nature of regulation and the likelihood of social control, also play an important role. In the United States, between 1998 and 1990, financial penalties increase by a factor of eight. This cost $100 million in fines for the Valdez disaster (oil spill), Salomon $200 million, and Drexel Burnham $650 million (which put into bank ruptcy).

Media- it is the subdivision of applied ethics§ dealing with the specific ethical principles and standards of media§. The field covers many varied and highly controversial topics, ranging from war journalism§ to Benetton§ advertising [18] .

Stake holders- it is a person, group, organization, or system that affects or can be affected by an organization's actions. Project stakeholder§- a person, group or organization with an interest in a project. Stakeholder theory§- a theory that identifies and models the groups which are stakeholders of a corporation or project. Stakeholder analysis§- the process of keying those affected by a project or event [19] 

Code of conduct- A code of comport of a corporation, or any organization for that matter, defines the chopine of the acceptable set of deportment within the group. Its main objective is to further promote a higher standard of practice within the administration.

Writing a code of comport for a corporation may be a difficult task in the beginning. The should be as impartial as it can go. It should never be pro-company or pro-employee alone. A definite balance between the two should be detected. In writing a code of conduct, the goal is to promote humanity and harmony between individuals' in spite of the difference in race, background, and beliefs [20] .

Task-6

Rational horizon

Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a theoretical account for understanding and often formally modeling§ social and scotch behavior. It is the main theoretical paradigm§ in the currently-dominant school of microeconomics§. reasonableness ("wanting more rather than less of a good") is widely used as an assumption of the behavior of individuals in political economy models and analysis and comes along in almost all economics textbook treatments of human decision-making. It is also central to some of modern political science§ and is used by some scholars in other disciplines such as sociology§ [21] .

This rational decision Making Model usually follows six steps:

Defining the problem, qualifying the general purpose of your decision.

Identifying the criteria, specifying the goals or objectives that you want to be able to complete.

Weight the standards, deciding the relative importance of the goals.

Generate alternatives, identifying possible courses of action that might accomplish your various goals.

Rate each alternate on each touchstone, assessing the extent to which each action would accomplish each goal.

Compute the optimum decision, evaluating each alternative by multiplying the expected effectiveness of each alternative with respect to a criterion times the weight of the criterion, then adding up the anticipated value of the alternative with respect to all criteria [22] .

Dynamic view

Dynamic Decision Making (DDM) is mutualist decision making§ that takes place in an environment that changes over time either due to the previous actions of the decision maker or due to events that are outside of the control of the decision player. In this sense, dynamic decisions, unlike simple and conventional one-time decisions, are typically more composite and occur in real-time and involve discovering the magnitude to which people are able to use their experience to control a particular complex system§, including the types of experience§ that lead to better decisions over time.

The moral force decision Systems are a collection of models that represent the operations of a company that is continuously measuring the market (the changes on demand due to promotions, macroeconomic shocks, publicity, prices, information events, etc.), and generating forecasts under different simulated scenarios.

Examples of dynamic decision making situations include managing climate change, factory production and inventory, air traffic control, firefighting, and driving a car, military command and control in a battle field. Research in DDM has focused on investigating the extent to which decision makers use their experience to control a particular system; the factors that underlie the acquisition and use of experience in making decisions; and the type of experiences that lead to better decisions in dynamic tasks [23] .

'FPD' should follow the dynamic view, because the current situation is not that amazing. Dynamic decision ceremonious one-time decisions are typically more complex and occur in real-time and involve observing the extent to which people are able to use their experience to control a particular complex system§. I think 'FPD' should follow this view and if they not I think they will not outlast.

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