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Organisational structure is formed if there is more than one person involved in every organization. A Manager in a Nursing home will designate one leader in every area so that he will be responsible to his team. In addition to that an organisational chart represents the chain of command in which works inside the organisation. A Nursing home will be owned by shareholders that choose directors to look after. To manage the nursing home on an everyday basis the directors then appoint managers.Â The Manager has the major obligations for running a the nursing home, in mounting the nursing home's goal and to have a look on all sectors.Â The Accountant controls all the financial transaction and is responsible for producing management accounts and financial studies. Every organisation have unique scheme. While the customer needs or requires a customer services section will look after. For the selection of new employees and recruitment a Human resources department is liable.
In organizing people these are the typical ways:
1.By function - setting up groups in the organisation with same purpose and similar specialism
2. By task - grouping people according to the responsibility they are doing or specialism.
3. By geographical area- Distributed widely this are large companies
The very popular today of organising organisations is the matrix pattern. A matrix can have more dimensions but often have 2 dimensions. At the same time a worker can be in two or more scheme in a matrix system. Matrix structures accept considerable flexibility so that the employees can switch to various groups inside the whole matrix structure. Directing will be tough from the middle or in a highly centralised structure which is the Head Office of the organisation. In contrast, decentralised organisation power will be passed down to the various project managers and teams.
People are organised in different ways in different organisations such as the size of the organisation, the culture of the organisation (typical pattern of doing things in the organisation), the nature of the industry, and the managers preferred structures etc.
Most common divergence can come out between tall hierarchical organisations, and flatter teamwork structured organisations. Several labels of command will have a tall organisation. Form and reform much consist to various project teams as projects begin and last, team structures will be supported in contras on cells of team members working together. The count of people that an individual manage is the word span of control. An individual employee may have a broad span of control in tall hierarchical organisations. The span of control may be limited or may not exist at all in a teamwork structure.
Direct or indirect stake in an organization can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies because a stakeholder is a person, group, or organization. In a business organization the key stakeholders include creditors, customers, directors, employees, government, owners, suppliers, unions and the community from which the business draws its resources. All stakeholders are not equal and different stakeholders are eligible to different circumstances although stake holding is usually self-legitimising.
Owner/manager- A person who has the general responsibility for a process, program, or project and chief executive in making decision.
Nurse- A medical professional, licensed to provide nursing care with passion, including distribution of medication.
Maintenance staff- A maintenance staff member is someone who is responsible in repairing and cleaning for an establishment.
Activity coordinator- is the one who assesses plans, implement and evaluates programs for patient activities which are multi-faceted, meet the patient's functional needs and reflect interests of each patient.
Community-it is a social unit that shares same interest common values and has social cohesion.
Family-group of persons descended from a common ancestor.
In my place of work the middle manager concentrate effort where it's needed, motivate us as employees to do focus work and prevent things which aren't relevant or productive. She makes sure that the coordination of the organisation with peer groups or with other organisation to achieve its goals. All above mentioned roles and responsibilities of the middle manager demonstrates how important the middle manager is in an organisation, the middle manager in my place helps the organisation to achieve its goals and objectives by building the organisation and its capabilities in employing the best brains, improve the individual staff by increasing our talents with regular training and development programme. In our nursing home it is important that our manager is our role model she is the one who will guide us specially if there is a newly hired carer and nurses. As a newly hired carer they need to read all their policies on their first week and the manager should do the induction. She have to organized trainings for the nurses and all the employees so that they are all updated to the new trends on how to care patients. As an employee, I liaise more with my middle manager than the home manager, because she is a very good listener, effective communicator, always available to support and have very good relationship with all the employees.
Corporate social responsibility is a type of company that is self-regulation join together into a business model. CSR guidelines perform as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms. CSR is a process with the aim to embrace responsibility for the company's actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere who may also be considered as stakeholders. CSR is titled to aid an organization's mission as well as a guide to what the company stands for and will uphold to its consumers. Development business ethics is one of the forms of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR. Public sector organizations adhere to the triple bottom line (TBL). It is widely accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles but with no formal act of legislation. The external corporate social responsibility of our company is joining the walk for a cause we are engaging to this kind of activity to support the cancer survival patients. While the internal corporate social responsibility of our company they are giving trainings to all the employees for them to enhance their knowledge to be more knowledgeable on what they are doing.
Developments in organisation structure:
Entrepreneurial: This structure is characterising of young, small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that operate in fast-paced environments which are constantly changing. They are dominated by the entrepreneur, who has direct control over the business. The entrepreneurial structure is flexible, but, as the organisation grows, it may need to restructure.
Bureaucratic: this is based on hierarchy and the division of the organization into functional areas, such as HR and administration. It is reliant on formal rules and procedures, authority and coordination. Bureaucratic structures are predominant in large organizations that have been in existence for some time and may be geographically spread over several sites or regions. They are inflexible and are slow to respond to change.
Matrix: In a matrix structure, specialists are used from functional departments to work on projects that are led by project manager. Matrix structures are based on expertise, but this also entails duplication of support services across functional areas. Individuals also find themselves reporting to more than one manager.
Independence: is a form of non-organization-differing significantly from the previous three structures (Torrington and Hall 1991). It emphasis individual, their skills and experience and their ability to work independently. It also present in smaller organizations such as legal practices and dental surgeries, where the focus is on professional skills rather than on expertise.
The network organization: A fifth type of structure - which many theorists suggest is the structure of the future - is the network structures, which is very similar to the independence structures. Each node is semi autonomous and work is done in teams, which is similar to the matrix structures. Almost all operational work is subcontracted outside the organization. Nodes are linked together via series of networks which are supported by sophisticated information and communication technologies. This type of structure supports work that is done over geographically dispersed locations.
There are many management styles to suit different behaviours one of these is the theory x and y. In developing Maslow's hierarchy of needs McGregor (1960) proposed assumption about behaviour and human nature at work. He advocated that a manager's behaviour and attitudes adopted towards people is based on assumptions of employee behaviour and human nature. As we discussed the Maslow's hierarchy of needs it depends on the client on what and who is the priority if one of the client needs oxygen this is the priority compare to the client that needs company because she is crying due to she misses her family.
The key theme of Theory X is control and authority exercised by management, along with the imposition of sanctions and rewards. This according to McGregor, would lead to the adoption of authoritarian management styles. On the other hand, the key theme of Theory Y is cooperation and integration of individual and organisational goals. According to McGregor, this would be the ideal way to receive cooperation and commitment from employees to the organization. Both sets of assumption have implications for the use of appropriate management and styles to facilitate efficiency and effectiveness. Y theory is based on rewards, employees are doing their best in their job because they think of rewards like having a higher salary or being promoted if they will do their job right, while the X theory is based on company goal they think for the good of their company not just for their personal intention but for general intention.
The Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Professor Elton Mayo and his team for 1972 to 1932, had a major impact on the nature of groups in organizations. A variety of experiments were undertaken on the impact of working in groups; the studies concluded that actual job satisfaction is dependent upon the opportunity to socialise with others while working and the cooperation and friendliness between members of the group. The studies further concluded that group working can have a major impact on productivity.
Over the years, a number of key theories of leadership have been proposed. We start by exploring traits theory. According to Rollinson (2002), trait theory assumes that certain individuals have inherent personal characteristics that enable them to be leaders. Trait theory is based on three other assumptions:
Effective leadership relies on personal traits;
Traits are stable and transferable across situations;
Traits are identifiable and measurable; therefore leadership ability can be predicted.
In addition to trait theory, style theory suggests that leadership display a variety of behavioural styles that have specific effects on their followers. Lewin, Lippit and White (1939) classified these styles into following types:
Autocratic leaders exercise strong control over subordinates and make all major decision;
Democratic leaders actively involve subordinates in decision-making;
Laissez faire leader abdicate leadership responsibility- this is known as "hands off" leadership.
In our nursing home the leadership style that we practice is the Bureaucratic structure, our manager asks advice and also share her knowledge to the group before making a decision. She seeks recommendation from the group and hears all the opinion before she decides what the best thing to do. One time when there is a new way on how to treat a bed sore to our clients our manager told us about this and we had a meeting first before we practice it to our client and we decide if we will practice this way on not. We had a good working relationship in our nursing home because it's not only the manager who decides but also we have the right to give our opinion.
The two- factor theory
Herzberg determined that motivation at work is based on two factors:
Motivators (motivating factors that are related to the job. the job and its responsibilities, recognition, prospect of promotion, achievement, satisfaction and sense of achievement, administration and company policy/ corporate governance, interpersonal relationships.
Hygiene factors that are related to working conditions and general working environment. Salary or wages, general working conditions and environment, working relationship, incentives and benefits, personal advancement and growth, leadership skills and traits displayed by managers.
In an organisation, workplace behaviour ethics should be a core value. Aside from doing the right thing, conducting ourselves ethically has great rewards and returns. Being ethical is essential in fixing problems and improving processes. It is needed to establish baseline measures and increase efficiencies. Most importantly, it is essential to having strong working relationships with people. On the other hand, covering up our unethical behaviour does the opposite of these important workplace practices and impedes on our ability to grow as leaders, as workers and as people, it is the importance of ethics in the workplace.
Remember that ethical behaviour is not just about identifying right from wrong; it is about the willingness to admit it when we have done mistaken something and to recognize the penalty for our actions. It is about assessing integrity even if it hurts. Excellent managers are not only exercising ethical behaviour themselves, they support other people to get past looking out just for themselves and considering the excellent moral of team and company purposes. For the organisation to be successful we need to consider the ethical behaviour. I therefore conclude that in every organization it is better to involve all the employees to solve every problem of the company so that we can hear all their opinion and we will make them feel that they are also important part of the company.