E-Recruitment is a young concept which has revolutionized human resource industry within no time. Today, the importance of e-recruitment has been acknowledged and people are using it. Today's world is different in terms of e-recruitment, human resource and advent of information technology in human resource management. Like all other industries, IT has benefitted human resource industry and things have altered altogether forever.
In Pakistan, like all other concepts e-recruitment appeared late, however, it expanded beyond expectations. In this case, Pakistan did not witness mushroom growth of e-recruitment companies but those who took the initiative have done excellent job. ROZEE.PK is the pioneer company who introduced e-recruitment in Pakistan. The company has flourished with the passage of time. Today, the company has become a nationally recognized brand and premium company in providing the online recruitment tools to both jobseekers and employers. The study conducted in this regard will explore various achievements and techniques adopted by ROZEE.PK. The study will mainly revolve around the change which has been brought by Information and Technology in human resource management.
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The research will present organisational perspectives through interviews with Human Resource Practitioners of eight mid- to large-size organisations. Results indicated that the quality of applicants generated by e-recruitment is equivalent to or better than that of other sources therefore, it is a better way to hire qualified candidates.
Future goals and prospects of ROZEE.PK have also been inducted in the research. The overview of company's prosperity and novelty will provide the developments of e-recruitment industry in Pakistan.
Key words: ROZEE.PK, E-recruitment, Human Resource Management, Information and Technology
Chapter # 1
The purpose of the study is to broaden the research on recruitment by assessing source effectiveness based on new measures that examine pre-hire criteria, with a specific focus on e-recruitment. This chapter will provide an overview of the current study in terms of the rationale behind the research based on identified gaps within the literature. This will be followed by a review of the research design and methodology, and a brief outline of the structure of the thesis.
Over the years the importance of effective human resource management practices for organizations has been highlighted by the increasing amount of research published within the media, in both scholarly and practitioner-focused journals and magazines (Barber, 1998).
A key element of human resource management is the recruitment of staff, as this function generates the human capital that forms the foundation of companies. The future success of the company is predominantly based on the success of human resource efforts, which evolves through the identification and attraction of quality new employees generated from the recruitment process (Barber, 1998).
The research on organizational recruitment has attempted to assess how the recruitment process influences the applicant job-choice decision process. The measures for this assessment have primarily been post-hire recruitment outcomes as researchers attempt to link recruitment process variables with the applicant's subsequent success on the job (Breaugh & Starke, 2000). The elements of the recruitment process which have been recognized as having a potential influence on recruitment outcomes include the impact of the recruiters involved in the process, the administrative recruitment policies and procedures of the organization, and the recruitment sources used to reach and attract potential applicants (Rynes, 1991).
Information about the job and organization is initially reflected through the recruitment sources organizations use to reach potential applicants. The impact of source information on applicant perceptions is of interest to the current study as this relationship is recognized as being a primary determinant of source effectiveness. Traditional sources commonly used by companies include employee referrals, newspaper advertisements, employment agencies, and direct applications (also known as "walk-ins"). More recently organizations are introducing alternative sources such as internet recruitment to identify and reach candidates (Barber, 1998).
Source effectiveness, or superiority, has been the fundamental research issue investigated in relation to recruitment sources. This has primarily been assessed in terms of the effects of realistic information on applicants, the identification of demographic similarities between applicants and sources, and applicant perceptions of their fit with the job and organization based on information provided by the source. Underlying these recruitment research theories is the concept of applicant self-selection, which implies that the recruitment source and the job and organizational information portrayed can influence the applicant job-choice decision process. These research theories will now be briefly discussed to further clarify the basis for the current research.
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In terms of the general literature on e-recruitment, advantages attributed to this source relate to its perceived cost-effectiveness, speed, geographic reach, and ease of use, whilst common disadvantages cited concern high application numbers, privacy and security issues, discrimination issues, and technology problems (Feldman & Klaas, 2002; Galanaki, 2002; Smith & Rupp, 2004). There have been few empirical studies undertaken to assess e-recruitment effectiveness based on measures of source superiority and the realistic information theory. The findings of these empirical studies provide little evidence to suggest that the internet attracts more quality applicants than other sources, despite its popularity as a source (Breaugh, Greising, Taggart, & Chen, 2003; Epstein & Singh, 2003). The confusion over the effectiveness of this source warrants further investigation and will be the focus of the current research.
Within the broader research on recruitment sources there has been an examination of the impact of the information contained within the advertisement on applicants' decisions to apply for the job, and subsequent post-hire outcomes (Dugoni & Ilgen, 1981; Kirnan, Farley, & Geisinger, 1989; O'Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). The results of this research has produced findings to support the premise that the provision of realistic information through sources regarded as being informal in nature, such as referrals, direct applications, and rehires, leads to better post-hire outcomes in terms of job satisfaction, performance and retention. Sources classified as being formal, such as newspaper advertisements and recruitment agencies, were found to be more likely to portray only positive information about the job and organization and subsequently had lower reported levels of positive post-hire outcomes (Taylor, 1994; Taylor & Bergmann, 1987; Werbel & Landau, 1996). The current study will expand on this research proposition that whether e-recruitment serves best for applicant and the percentage of the applicants dependence on such e-recruitment information providing platform on the basis of their reliability and track record.
A number of methods will be used within the present study to assess significance of e-recruitment and to visualize its capacity to grow, including secondary data, survey data and interview data. The first measure of assessment will involve an analysis of secondary data captured on the percentage of applied applicants and successful stories of human resource experts who have utilized the platform.
Further researcher will analysis data obtained from surveys issued to applicants of the organization which will investigate their perceptions about the e-recruitment and information provided, and subsequent intentions to apply for the job. The final measure about e-recruitment effectiveness will be based on the perceptions of human resource practitioners involved within the recruitment process. With the recruitment and selection of staff being one of the primary tasks undertaken by human resource practitioners, constructive feedback on key job or organization attributes they believe attract applicants and on the overall effectiveness of the internet as a recruitment source will form the ultimate opinion about e-recruitment tool.
As the research includes a case study of ROZEE.PK, so measuring growth of the said company from its inception till today will help researcher in declaring it a proper business outlet in modern Pakistan. It will also reveal the prospective growth of this particular industry on national level and interest of various government and non-government institutions. Reliance on e-recruitment will ultimately help the authorities to do proper planning and policy making for this industry. The study will explore the current steps that have been taken in this regard and the benefits availed by e-recruitment companies ROZEE.PK in particular. On the basis of conducted research significant number of recommendation in improving this industry will be made. ROZEE.PK will also support the research by providing the data of applicants and employers who have been using this platform. The opinion of both types of respondents will serve to strengthen the research on realistic grounds. Taking help from the case study indeed prove helpful in understanding the challenges this industry has been facing and also find a way out of addressing those issues.
The primary focus of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of the internet as a recruitment source. Whilst the research on source effectiveness has examined a broad range of recruitment sources, to date there has been minimal exploration on the effectiveness of the internet in comparison to its rapid uptake as a recruitment source. Much of the literature on internet recruitment has reported perceived positive and negative impacts for the organization with limited theoretical and empirical research to support such claims. The study will also explore Pakistan's e-recruitment industry and study its various trends within the country. Research will also include introduction of ROZEE.PK's and its role in steering the e-recruitment industry in Pakistan.
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In summary, the current research proposed to assess recruitment source effectiveness combines a number of new research variables. The two different perspectives captured within the current research, one at the applicant level, the other at the organizational level, both link back to the realistic information. The inclusion of the two different perspectives within the one study to assess source effectiveness is a first for the research on recruitment. As such the research has been designed into two studies. This unique research design will now be discussed.
Keeping the importance of the topic in mind, followings are the study objectives discussing under the umbrella of ROZEE.PK:
To find out the developments which have been done so far in e-recruitment industry;
Identification of the future prospects of the industry, i-e, intended and analytical aims and goals;
To evaluate and track the development path of ROZEE.PK and its working as a platform for e-recruitment.
There are numerous reasons which persuade me to select this very topic. The facts and my personal observation lead to define some key points which can well describe the reason behind selecting this very topic. Following are the reasons:
Enormously increasing in the number of online job applicants.
Corporations giving up the conventional newspaper advertisement and shifting to e-recruitment
Efficient human resource management
Influence of Information and Technology in human resource management especially the beginning of e-recruitment.
As has been highlighted in the previous section, the current research is assessing source effectiveness based on pre-hire measures obtained via two different perspectives, one at the applicant level and the other at the organizational level. In order to source the data from the different perspectives the research has been designed in the following way.
In our research we will collect the secondary data from the organization on the percentage of total applicants that were both shortlisted, and appointed to positions, over a nine year period. An analysis of this information will determine both the quantity and quality of the applicants as related to source. It will also help in assessing applicant's perceptions of source information and effectiveness, and their subsequent intentions to apply for the job. The data on applicant perceptions will be captured via the distribution of an electronic and mail survey to applicants of the organization.
Further study will evolve from both the literature on e-recruitment. It is important to assess whether the perceptions of organizations reflect the perceptions of applicants about what information is important to capture within job advertisements in order to attract quality applicants. It is also important to acquire information about source effectiveness, and in particular e-recruitment effectiveness, from an organizational perspective given its rapid uptake by businesses as a recruitment source. The questions will therefore focus on these two research areas, with the value of e- recruitment examined in relation to its perceived utility and value as a source.
In order to capture the two different perspectives and research issues of the current study a conceptual framework has been developed and will now be presented.
To date there has not been a formal theoretical model designed to assess the relationships between recruitment sources, applicant and organizational perspectives on their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is therefore to propose a framework that will assess these variables, with a particular focus on the effectiveness of the internet as a source and its ability to generate significant revenue for any organization. This framework is represented in the conceptual model shown in Figure 1.1. An overview of the structure of the thesis will now be detailed.
Chapter Two - Literature Review:
The second chapter provides a comprehensive review of the extensive literature on recruitment in terms of the measures of information effects on the applicant job- choice decision process. The first section presents a framework which captures the complexity of recruitment and highlights the different research areas of recruiter effects, administrative recruitment policies and procedures effects, marketing of platform, comprehensive details about ROZEE.PK, its marketing strategy and prospects of the industry in Pakistan. A review of the literature on these research areas is subsequently presented. The review will include literature on components of this job-choice decision process, are pre-hire measures identified for the current study and role of the platform providing this service. The final section reviews the literature on e-recruitment. An assessment of the effectiveness of the source in comparison to more traditional sources in generating quality applicants from both an organizational and applicant perspective has been identified as a gap in previous recruitment research studies.
Chapter Three - Study One:
The design and methodology of the research will be comprehensive covering all aspects of key research areas. Data of applicants and employers will be obtained from ROZEE.PK. Secondary data from the organization was sourced from questionnaire. Research methodology involved a sampling strategy which obtained data via the distribution of a survey electronically. A presentation of the results and subsequent discussion of the findings in relation to hypothesis will then be presented.
Chapter Four - Study Two:
Chapter Four presents the design and methodology of which involved face-to-face interviews with Human Resource Practitioners from said number of organizations based in Pakistan who has been using ROZEE.PK for recruitment in their organizations.
Chapter Five - Final Discussion:
The final chapter provides an overview of the results of the research and the implications from a theoretical and practical perspective. In order to further clarify the aims and purpose of the current research, an extensive review of the literature on recruitment research and on e-recruitment will now be presented in Chapter Two.
Chapter # 2
Introduction of Recruitment:
The efficacy of recruitment and human resource management has long been acknowledged by scholars and practitioners as a key component of the overall success of a business. Human Resource is not about recruitment only but it has many other important elements. Infact, among these elements recruitment is just one.
According to Barber (1998) recruitment is the practice and activity carried on by the organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. Recruitment and selection are significant human resource process started by the organisation to hunt the perfect employees. The process should be consistent and with the agenda of retaining the quality staff that meets the needs of the position and the company whilst minimising expenditure in the process.
Rynes (1991) states that recruitment is the practice and decision that effect either the number, or types, of individuals that are willing to apply for, or to accept, a given vacancy by all organisations. The definition clearly relates the recruitment with hiring an employee in any organisation.
In order to completely understand the concept of recruitment, one needs to differentiate selection process which is quite similar to recruitment. There is a difference between recruitment and selection. Selection is choosing the best candidate from the pool of different candidates with diverse skills which comprises of knowledge, personal abilities, communication and management skills. Both concepts are interdependent which is why it is difficult to differentiate from these two processes especially in a research where selection is dependant on recruitment (Barber, 1998). As well, the majority of researchers agree that recruitment is not a one-way process, but rather a complex, two-way process. Whilst employers focus on looking attractive to a potential job applicant, the applicant is also attempting to look attractive to the employer. The assessment of attraction from both parties continues from the initial recruitment process through to the final appointment outcome (Breaugh, 1992).
Hinton (2000) declared that the actual center of pressure is placed on organisations to ensure their recruitment and selection strategies are regularly reviewed and are sufficient in sourcing a diverse range of quality employees within an increasingly competitive environment. Human resource sector is changing frequently and companies cannot survive having traditional ways of recruitment and selection process. Companies tend to alter their HR policies and opt for innovative ways of recruitment using diverse platforms.
Our present research deals with recruitment process. Robert Guion (1976) acknowledged that the rapid technological developments in employee selection led to an emphasis on research in this selection area with the recruitment component being largely overlooked. During the evolution time of recruitment it was endorsed that the recruitment is key contributor to an organisation's success as this component defines the applicant population available from which to select the best possible candidate.
Barber (1998) discussing about the impact of recruitment on any individual stated that it is not only an important business process for organisations it also has significant consequences for individuals. The overall objective of achieving a match between an organisation's job vacancies with an individual seeking a suitable job is influenced by the recruitment process, and because work is such a significant part of many people's lives, job choice can subsequently impact on an individual's wellbeing.
Different Process of Recruitment:
There are different possible methods of recruitment which are as under:
Internal Recruitment means hiring from the sources within the organization. There are some very sound logical reasons for hiring internally which are as follows:
Internal hiring is good because it is reliable. There are plenty of trusted references available which can strengthen the internal hiring.
Promotions from within build motivation and a sense of commitment to the organisation. Skilled and ambitious employees are more likely to become involved in developmental activities if they believe that these activities will lead to promotion. (Richardson, 2003)
Internal recruitment is cheaper and quicker than advertising in various media and interviewing outsiders. Time spent in training and socialization is also reduced. (Richardson, 2003)
Internal hiring may sounds inexpensive and quick but it does have some limitations. In internal hiring it would be difficult to find the right candidate. In the case of expansion one cannot cut loose one department and promote the potential candidate to other one. It further creates unhealthy competition which may result hurting the organisational repute.
Recruitment from External Sources:
External recruiting methods can be grouped into two classes: informal and formal. Informal recruiting methods tap a smaller market than formal methods. These methods may include rehiring former employees and choosing from among those walk-in applicants whose unsolicited résumés had been retained on file. The use of referrals also constitutes an informal hiring method. Because they are relatively inexpensive to use and can be implemented quickly, informal recruiting methods are commonly used for hiring clerical and other base-level recruits who are more likely than other groups to have submitted unsolicited applications. Former students who participated in internship programmes may also be easily and cheaply accessed. Formal methods of external recruiting entail searching the labour market more widely for candidates with no previous connection to the organisation. These methods have traditionally included newspaper/magazine/journal advertising, the use of employment agencies and executive search firms, and college recruitment. More often, now, job/career fairs and e-Recruiting are reaching the job seeker market. (Richardson, 2003)
College recruiting is sending an employer's representatives to college campuses to prescreen applicants and create an applicant pool from that college's graduating class. It is an important source of management trainees, promotable entry level candidates, and professional and technical employees. To get the best out of this hiring strategy, the organisation and its career opportunities must be made to stand out. Human resource professionals are aware that few college students and potential graduates know where their careers will take them over the next fifteen to twenty years. (Richardson, 2003)
E-Recruitment is carried out using the Internet which is faster and less expensive than many traditional methods of recruiting. Jobs can be posted on e-recruitment sites against a reasonable amount of money, remains there for longer period of time without any additional cost and are available round the clock. Applicants can view more information about the job and the organisation and can respond accordingly and electronically. Following are further details on e-recruitment.
Introduction of E-recruitment:
The research has specifically designed to know about e-recruitment and its functioning. Following literature will focus on e-recruitment, its trends, advantages and disadvantages. E-recruitment basically means recruitment using the Internet as a source. It is a new concept that was emerged nearly two decade ago but now it is being practiced by almost all major transnational and multinational organizations. Galanaki (2002) explained it wasn't until almost a decade later in the mid-1990s that more systematic and rigorous literature and research on e-recruitment began to appear in human resource related journals. According to him rise in the amount of literature on e-recruitment was initially attributed to the sudden increase in the use of online recruitment by IT companies and universities.
The popularity of Internet and e-recruitment is visible and the number of jobs being posted online is rising. More companies are now prone to e-recruitment as compare to conventional media, i.e. newspapers, magazines etc. Wyld's (1997) predicted that if the Internet may well be transforming forever the way corporations recruit employees and the way individuals hunt for jobs has certainly come to fruition in today's workforce. E-recruitment is a move that could vastly reduce the costs of corporate recruiters who currently pay fees to post jobs on commercial job boards, and has the potential to take the commercial job boards out of the market if they are unable to capitalize on it (Zappe, 2005).
Galanaki (2002) has cited that the increase in e-recruitment through internet has done via various sources which are as under:
Corporate websites became the prime source for job seekers to look for jobs in particular corporations. These websites added additional recruitment pages to the organisation's existing website.
Jobsites- The use of job portals which act as a medium between organisations and potential applicants. There are recruitment agencies, head hunters, and other online job platforms available for potential candidates.
There are media websites which involves placing an advertisement from newspaper. Such platforms paste the same jobs from newspaper to their websites.
Boehle (2000) identified another trend in e-recruitment by stating that organisations also promote and encourage the use of online recruitment by integrating it with the overall corporate marketing and branding strategies through the inclusion of their Internet address in mainline and classified advertisements. It is worthy to mention that there has been research which links corporate advertising with increased quality of applicants. The findings from his study indicated that organisational advertising was the only predictor that had consistently significant direct effects on measures of applicant quantity total number of applications and applicant quality education and one year of on-the-job experience.
Trends in e-recruitment:
It is beyond doubt that organisations are now more inclined towards using Internet technology and the World Wide Web as a platform for recruiting candidates. As per Institute of Employment Studies' (IES) (2003) a survey of 50 organisations has identified the main motivators of using e-recruitment and to pursue e-recruitment in future were to:
Building corporate image and profile
Recruitment costs cuts
Reducing administrative tasks
Provide efficient tools for the recruitment team
Fifty-five per cent of respondents expected their organisation to reduce the conventional recruitment methods in the future after shifting to e-recruitment. The most said draw backs of e-recruitment were:
Orthodox approach of the organisation towards recruitment
Insufficient knowledge of e-recruitment within the HR sector
Lesser usage by target candidates
Kerrin (2003) said that issues raised as causing concern with e-recruitment included the quantity and quality of candidates applying using web-based tools for example organisations being inundated with CVs attached by email many of whom were not suitable for the post, the relevance of short listing criteria confidentiality and data protection, and ensuring diversity of applicants.
There has been significant rise in online recruitment during recent years and there have been a number of research studies that have measured employer take up and progress. Almost 500 global companies now use some form of online recruitment. Taleo (2003) researched that 93 percent of global companies were using e-recruitment; 96 percent of those in Asia; 94 percent in Europe and 96 percent in America. According to Taleo another key development is the increase of the proportion, i-e 27 percent in 2000 and 77 percent in 2005 of companies allow applicants to apply only through corporate career website.
Advantages of E-Recruitment:
Success of e-recruitment means there are numerous advantages of this process which has facilitated human resource practitioners to a significant level. Following are the advantages of e-recruitment:
Galanaki, (2002) argued that the biggest perceived advantage of Internet recruiting is that individuals can quickly and easily access information on a wide range of job opportunities twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, reducing the need for employees to actively job hunt whilst performing current job duties, thereby minimising the visibility of the job search. As indicated in Radcliff's (2000) article on internet recruitment, using a few key words to search for job vacancies online is deemed by applicants to be easier than searching through newspapers, and responding to online advertisements quicker and more simplified than submitting hard copy resumes to companies.
On the other hand for organisations, online recruitment provides an opportunity for jobs to be advertised in global, local or niche markets, presenting the flexibility for recruiters to adapt the source to target an identified job market, or allowing for a broad scope of potential applicants by opening the job to the global market (Smith, 2005). It is worth mentioning another benefit of incorporating e-recruitment into the recruitment strategy and a key factor in its increasing popularity as a source is the ability for organisations to perform recruitment activities concurrently on the Internet, as opposed to a sequential batch process for traditional recruiting. Going online with the recruitment policy assures that the organisations are able to source and process applications round-the-clock as opposed to the long hiring cycle time associated with traditional sources.
Feldman (2002) also found in the results of their study that applicants accredited the internet as being a useful source to locate general information on a wide array of industries, companies and jobs, and also identified advantages in the ability to enter an array of search variables when looking for jobs, including geographic location, job type or industry type, and to assess how hot or cold the job market was for their skills and what remuneration they could expect.
Glickstein and Ramer (1988) criticizing on conventional recruitment tools says that the non-Internet recruitment and selection practice makes a categorization between 'traditional sources and alternative sources. Traditional sources include employee referrals, employment agencies, newspaper or radio advertisements and unsolicited applications or walk-ins, while alternative sources include sources such as on-line (Internet) hiring services, job fairs, and outsourcing programmes as means of identifying candidates.
Traditional sources are mainly those who have been used for ages. Keeping this thing in view we can propose that the present sources for hiring which are internet and online will also become traditional sources after the advent of alternative methods.
It is not an easy task to get your advertisement published in newspaper as the corporation has to take care of advertisement guidelines set by the paper. The color of the ad should be appropriate and employers have mere liberty in availing the conventional hiring media. Galanaki (2002) explained in his research that these days, organisations are able to post job vacancies almost instantaneously, generating applications and resumes for these positions in hours.
In newspapers the employer needs to assign this task to a specific person to get the ad designed as per the rules and make sure the design reaches to the paper within the due time. Gale (2001) researched that the internet has also been classified as a more interactive source for organisations that are able to engage applicants by providing pertinent and more in-depth information about the job and the organisation through links to testimonials and employment benefit sites. Whilst there is potential to include a wide array of information, the success of e-recruitment will still rely on the information being of a quality nature, and relevant to the applicant.
The significant advantage of e-recruitment is cost reduction. Internet is cheaper media as compare to traditional mediums. Restricted number of circulation of the paper has no comparison with the online media with unlimited audiences. (Wyld, 1997)
One potential advantage of online recruitment media is that there are significant chances to attract highly qualified and literate people who are not specifically looking for jobs. They are known as passive job seekers. Kaplan-Leiserson, (2005) argued in their research that this phenomenon is closely linked to the concept of online social networking which occurs when individuals subscribe to or receive information about a company's jobs and then either passes this information on to friends or colleagues, or refers a potential candidate directly to the company.
Using e-recruitment as part of the recruitment for any organization has been beneficial and there have been number of advantages mentioned earlier by researchers. Addition of online media in Human Resource Management has certainly served best for corporations by all means and it is by far the most economical and affordable process of selecting suitable candidates for company. The accessibility of Internet for job seekers and for organisations has removed the geographical boundaries and provided a common platform to both in order to fulfill their requirements. Availability of the Internet is 24 hours a day; 7 days a week and applicants reach corporations on local, national and international scale round the clock. One cannot ignore the amount of information available on the Internet as compare to the conventional media. On newspaper one has to pay to get more space whereas, it is not the case on internet. Job seekers can have bundles of information about the corporation they are applying for and the required job description. Organisations cannot ignore the beneficial aspect of e-recruitment which can help them finding the passive candidates. There are certain jobs which are hard to fill and especially during labour shortage time passive candidates finding option is worth spending money on. However, there are also some loopholes which have been considered disadvantageous for e-recruitment. In the following review research will highlight some of the important disadvantages of e-recruitment.
Disadvantages of E-Recruitment:
There have been many advantages and revolutionary changes e-recruitment has brought in Human Resources Management, however, it came with some pitfalls as well. One of the most commonly accepted concern about e-recruitment is that Internet generates high quantity of applicants irrespective to the quality. It has been said that Internet recruitment does not keep geographical boundaries in account which is why it is advantageous; however, it proves as a shortcoming as well because limitless access brings diversified applicants which mostly are irrelevant. Following are some noted flaws of the system.
Galanaki (2002) expressed his concerned that as the Internet has a globalised market, then it can be assumed that more potential applicants can access and view the job being advertised from anywhere in the world which becomes nuisance for employer. In addition, as the majority of job seekers store their resumè electronically, submitting an application via electronic means requires less effort and involves fewer costs for the individual than traditional methods. As a result, an assumption has been made that the number of applications received by the organisation for jobs advertised on the internet will increase. Carlson (2002) further explained that whilst an increase in the size of the applicant pool allows the organisation to be more selective, potentially resulting in superior candidates being hired and subsequent improvements in organisational performance, a large applicant pool can also have the negative effect of increasing costs in administering recruitment and selection systems.
As Barber (1998) noted, small applicant pools provide the organisation with few options about which applicant to recruit, whilst large applicant pools place heavy burdens on the organisation's administrative system and may lead to the most suitable applicant being overlooked if the recruitment and selection process is insufficient. Thus, the primary objective of the recruitment process is identifying and attracting an applicant pool limited to a pre-determined ideal number of candidates who possess the right attributes.
Hinton and Schapper (2000) expressed dissatisfaction and frustration with applying for jobs online where they were regularly asked to select from pre-determined job categories that did not fit with their skills, experience and abilities. High levels of dissatisfaction were reported from applicants who encountered some degree of failure in applying for jobs online, whilst for companies that had tested and implemented more sophisticated systems, there were high levels of satisfaction and positive reactions to the experience by the applicant (Bartram, 2000).
There have been various researches conducted on information security and privacy this very concern has been raised quite a while by candidates regarding the personal details provided in resumes and applications posted via the Internet, and the potential for this information to be used for unethical purposes. It is not about the regular jobseekers but passive job candidates are not interested in being targeted whose details are accessed via back-door measures by head-hunters through corporate websites. There are some organisations, websites and head hunting agencies worked on this issue by introducing passwords to limit access and protect confidentiality, and by including privacy and job security statements on their career websites but there is a lot more to be done on this as yet. One other issue which goes parallel to security issue is posting fake jobs. There are some fake organisations which, just for the sake of building a pool of applicants, post jobs. It has also been observed that females have especially been the target for such corporations. Users often complain about companies asking to hire females only and having their details allow them to use it as per their wishes, as it has been mentioned earlier that e-recruitment is cheaper for employers and free for applicants. There is a difference in reality as the e-recruitment faces the challenge of being misused. Fake jobs not always mean to access the applicant's information but it has been witnessed that companies initially post job, collect applicant's information and ask the jobseeker to pay a very small amount to the company in order to be considered eligible for the job. On the other hand, applicant in the dire need of job does not think for a moment, relying on the e-recruitment platform pays the amount and falls prey to this fraudulent act.
Other key issues that have been identified with e-recruitment include difficulties in posting resumes and applications; poor navigational links within and between sites; network problems in web searches; difficulties in accessing relevant information about jobs on web-sites e-g job descriptions, salary levels, location of job and travel requirements; and lack of follow-up from organisations about the status of the job. (Feldman, 2002)
Thus, e-recruitment has both advantages and disadvantages. The literature has revealed some of the potential benefits actual corporations can have from this innovative way of hiring, whereas, it has proved blessing for jobseekers on the same time. The reports available on disadvantages are not high in numbers but they are enough to be taken care of. Further in the literature researcher will present the introduction of company selected as a case study and its' working using e-recruitment.
Introduction of Case Study Company - ROZEE.PK
ROZEE.PK is a division of Naseeb Online Services (Private) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Naseeb Networks, Inc. USA. The company's management includes executives with over 100 years of combined experience running Internet businesses at companies including AOL, eBay, PayPal, Excite, Cisco, Google and Intel.
On January 14, 2008, ROZEE.PK's exceptional performance resulted in historic venture capital investments from two of the world's top venture capital funds, ePlanet Ventures and Draper Fisher Jurvetson. These funds have helped create other Internet power houses such as Hotmail, Skype, Overture and Baidu. (Forbes, 2008)
ROZEE.PK is Pakistan's #1 online recruitment portal according to Dawn's Spider Magazine, Netmag and Samaa Television reviews. ROZEE.PK serves over 25,000 leading employers and 1,300,000 registered job seekers. Over 6.4 Million job applications have been submitted through ROZEE.PK.
World-class Business Continuity & Recovery Infrastructure
ROZEE.PK understands the importance of providing secure, 24/7 robust service to our clients. It makes the technology investments in software, hardware and maintenance infrastructure and makes their e-recruitment portal strong so employers get the best candidature. ROZEE.PK's expert IT team knows what it takes to run complex applications and keep them running. As a hosted service, the only technology requirement its customers need to use it is a web browser.
It is estimated that the running costs of enterprise-grade applications often exceed the initial investment for purchasing them. By provisioning a large number of employers through common infrastructure, ROZEE.PK is able to absorb large infrastructure costs to the benefit of its clients.
ROZEE.PK's datacenter is located in Fremont, California and rated as a Level 4 facility with backup power and recovery provisions. With over 100 megabits per second of instantaneous bandwidth, it ensures an excellent user experience for customers. ROZEE.PK is the first website in Pakistan to be awarded the coveted TRUSTe consumer privacy certification and its network is guarded by state of the art Cisco firewalls. The website is distributed over twenty load balanced dual core 64-bit Opteron servers with 2GB of memory and 160GB of RAID storage each. The master database is replicated over multiple slave databases for enhanced performance and reliability. Daily backups are archived in three locations worldwide (Pakistan, Germany and USA) for instant and fault tolerant disaster recovery.
Professional Management Team:
Mr. Monis Rahman, CEO & Chairman Board of Directors
Mr. Rahman is a serial entrepreneur having founded and run multiple companies ranging from Internet startups to chip design consultancies. He started his career at Intel Corporation where he was a key member of Intel's microprocessor design team and has nine patents to his credit. Mr. Rahman serves on the board the Pakistan Software Houses Association (P@SHA) and The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE-Lahore).
Mr. Sameer Siddiqui, Vice President of Products
Mr. Siddiqui has over 17 years of experience producing products central to the way millions of users across the globe communicate and collaborate. He worked at America Online (AOL) the world's largest media company as a senior manager for over seven years.
Board of Directors, Advisors and Investors
1- Ayaz ul Haque, Board of Directors
Managing Director, ePlanet Ventures
2- Mohanjit Jolly, Board of Directors
Director, Draper Fisher Jurvetson
3- Reid Hoffman, Investor & Advisor
Founder LinkedIn, Founding Executive PayPal (acquired by eBay)
4- Joe Kraus, Investor & Advisor
Founder Excite, Founder Jot (acquired by Google)
5- Ali Jehangir Siddiqui, Investor & Advisor
Principal & Director Jehangir Siddiqui Group
6- Ken Morse, Investor & Advisor
Managing Director, MIT Entrepreneurship Center
Why is ROZEE.PK Pakistan's # 1 Job Portal?
ROZEE.PK is Pakistan's top job portal by all metrics. It receives more visitors than the next five Pakistani job portals combined, according to Amazon.com traffic analysis company Alexa. With over 1,300,000 registered professionals, it boasts Pakistan's largest database of professionals. Over 100 new job ads are posted on ROZEE.PK each day and 6.4 Million job applications have been submitted through the portal.
It has been recognized as a market leader by Dawn's Spider Magazine, Netmag Magazine and Samaa Television in comparative analysis reviews of Pakistan's job portals. In addition, Mobilink, Ufone and Zong have all independently selected ROZEE.PK to exclusively power SMS job alerts for their respective subscribers.
Over 95% of ROZEE.PK's 4.2 Million annual visitors are from within Pakistan, making the portal not only the best online recruiting platform in the country, but also a leader amongst overall local websites. ROZEE.PK is visited by over 425,000 unique professionals and receives over 40 Million hits each month.
ROZEE.PK, the top jobs portal of Pakistan has seen an 800% growth in traffic over the past one year to become one of the most visited sites in Pakistan. With the massive global demand for IT man power and the move of multinationals to Pakistan as an offshore destination, the prospects for IT professionals have never been better. Pakistan's strong growth rate, infrastructure development and formal IT policy has increased domestic demand as well. Fortunately for the employers, Pakistan's large computer literate, English speaking population is a steady source of engineers. Traditionally, there was a lot of distortion in the Pakistan job market place due to inefficiencies. The traditional media such as newspapers could not cope with the rapid paced jobs market and therefore caused unnecessary churn. ROZEE.PK, with its experience in Muslim social networking through its parent company Naseeb Networks fast job search algorithm as well as innovative services for job seekers has made the marketplace very transparent.
Salient Features of ROZEE.PK:
There are some distinctive features ROZEE.PK has introduced which are as followings:
CV Search Engine
Campus Career Portal
ROZEE introduced some very strong products like CV Search Engine and Power Tools. Through CV Search Engine, the employer could search for the best candidates of his choice from the database of ROZEE.PK and through Power Tools, they could now do short listing, emailing, and scheduling candidates for interviews. They could do much more like keeping separate folders of CVs for each position, sharing those folders with their colleagues and giving specified rights to the HR assistants who could help in doing the initial short listing, while refraining them from misusing any of the features. (Farheen, 2009)
Campus Career portal was one of the very unique attribute of ROZEE.PK. It links universities to employers without any hassle. Employers can post their job vacancy to respective university in order find the fresh graduates as well as experienced alumni. The project was successfully endorsed by universities as well as Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
Uniquely, designed applicant filter reduced the problem of excessive irrelevant resumes for employers. They can scrutinize their search to required number of candidates filtering irrelevant and below the mark resumes.
CV Search Engine has been one of the premium feature and many employers opted for this product. The companies who do not want to go to the hassle of posting job and short listing candidates CV search engine is perfect product for them. It helps employer to filter the database of ROZEE.PK and with the help of various facets employer can narrow down its research to a perfect candidate without even posting a job online.