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A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. For many people, this is their first step into a management career.
FUNCTIONS OF A MANGER
The first component of managing isÂ planning. A manager must determine what the organizations goals are and how to achieve those goals. Much of this information will come directly from the vision and mission statement for the company. Setting objectives for the goal and following up on the execution of the plan are two critical components of the planning function. For example, a manager of a new local restaurant will need to have a marketing plan, a hiring plan and a sales plan.
Managers are responsible for organization of the company and this includes organizing people and resources. Knowing how many employees are needed for particular shifts can be critical to the success of a company. If those employees do not have the necessary resources to complete their jobs, organization has not occurred. Without an organized workplace, employees will see a manager as unprepared and may lose respect for that particular manager's supervisory techniques.
Managing and leading are not the same activity. A manager manages employees; this person makes sure that tasks are completed on time and policies are followed. Employees typically follow managers because he or she is the supervisor and in-charge of employees. Employees see a leader as someone thatÂ motivatesÂ them and guides them to help meet the firm's goals. In an ideal situation, the manager also serves as the leader. Managers who want to lead effectively need to discover what motivates their employees and inspire them to reach the company objectives.
The controlling function involves monitoring the firm's performance to make sure goals are being met. Managers need to pay attention to costs versus performance of the organization. For example, if the company has a goal of increasing sales by 5% over the next two months, the manager may check the progress toward the goal at the end of month one. An effective manager will share this information with his or her employees. This builds trust and a feeling of involvement for the employees.
Being a manager involves many different tasks. Planning, organizing, leading and controlling are four of the main functions that must be considered in any management position. Management is a balancing act of many different components and a good manager will be able to maintain the balance and keep employees motivated.
The most importabt function of a manager is,
This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. Say, for example, that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include increasing advertising, inventory, and sales staff. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales.
Mintzberg Managerial Role
Mintzberg (1973) groups managerial activities and roles as involving:
Interpersonal rolesÂ - arising from formal authority and status and supporting the information and decision activities.
Information processing roles
Decision roles:Â making significant decisions
The broad proposition is that, as a senior manager enacts his/her role, these will come together as a gestalt (integrated whole) reflecting the manager's competencies associated with the roles. In a sense therefore they act as evaluation criteria for assessing the performance of a manager in his/her role.
Social, inspirational, legal and ceremonial duties must be carried out. The manager is a symbol and must be on-hand for people/agencies that will only deal with him/her because of status and authority.
The leader role
this is at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and managerial power and pervasive where subordinates are involved even where perhaps the relationship is not directly interpersonal. The manager
Defines the structures and environments within which sub-ordinates work and are motivated.
Oversees and questions activities to keep them alert.
Selects, encourages, promotes and disciplines.
Tries to balance subordinate and organizational needs for efficient operations.
This is the manager as an information and communication centre. It is vital to build up favours. Networking skills to shape maintain internal and external contacts for information exchange are essential. These contacts give access to "databases"- facts, requirements, probabilities.
- the manager seeks/receives information from many sources to evaluate the organization's performance, well-being and situation. Monitoring of internal operations, external events, ideas, trends, analysis and pressures is vital. Information to detect changes, problems & opportunities and to construct decision-making scenarios can be current/historic, tangible (hard) or soft, documented or non-documented. This role is about building and using an intelligence system. The manager must install and maintain this information system; by building contacts & training staff to deliver "information".
- the manager brings external views into his/her organization and facilitates internal information flows between subordinates (factual or value-based).
The preferences of significant people are received and assimilated. The manager interprets/disseminates information to subordinates e.g. policies, rules, regulations. Values are also disseminated via conversations laced with imperatives and signs/icons about what is regarded as important or what 'we believe in'.
There is a dilemma of delegation. Only the manager has the data for many decisions and often in the wrong form (verbal/memory vs. paper). Sharing is time-consuming and difficult. He/she and staff may be already overloaded. Communication consumes time. The adage 'if you want to get things done, (it is best to do it yourself' comes to mind. Why might this be a driver of managerial behavior (reluctance or constraints on the ability to delegate)?
As spokesmanÂ (P.R. capacity)
- the manager informs and lobbies others (external to his/her own organizational group). Key influencers and stakeholders are kept informed of performances, plans & policies. For outsiders, the manager is an expert in the field in which his/her organization operates.
A senior manager is responsible for his/her organization's strategy-making system - generating and linking important decisions. He/she has the authority, information and capacity for control and integration over important decisions.
- he/she designs and initiates much of the controlled change in the organization. Gaps are identified, improvement programmes defined. The manager initiates a series of related decisions/activities to achieve actual improvement. Improvement projects may be involved at various levels. The manager can
Delegate all design responsibility selecting and even replace subordinates.
Empower subordinates with responsibility for the design of the improvement programme but e.g. define the parameters/limits and veto or give the go-ahead on options.
Supervise design directly.
Senior managers may have many projects at various development stages (emergent/dormant/nearly-ready) working on each periodically interspersed by waiting periods for information feedback or progress etc. Projects roll-on and roll-off,
TheÂ disturbance handler
- is a generalist role i.e. taking charge when the organization hits an iceberg unexpectedly and where there is no clear programmed response. Disturbances may arise from staff, resources, threats or because others make mistakes or innovation has unexpected consequences. The role involves stepping in to calm matters, evaluate, re-allocate, support - removing the thorn - buying time. The metaphors here are
If you are up to your backside in alligators it is no use talking about draining the swamp.
Stop the bleeding as only then can you take care of the long term health of the patient. (not Mintzberg's anecdote)
AsÂ resource allocator
- the manager oversees allocation of all resources (£, staff, reputation). This involves:
scheduling own time
With an eye to the diary (scheduling) the manager implicitly sets organizational priorities. Time and access involve opportunity costs. What fails to reach him/her, fails to get support.
The managerial task is to ensure the basic work system is in place and to programme staff overloads - what to do, by whom, what processing structures will be used.
Authorizing major decisions before implementation is a control over resource allocation. This enables coordinative interventions e.g. authorization within a policy or budgeting process in comparison to ad-hoc interventions. With limited time, complex issues and staff proposals that cannot be dismissed lightly, the manager may decide on the proposer rather than proposal.
To help evaluation processes, managers develop models and plans in their heads (they construe the relationships and signifiers in the situation). These models/constructions encompass rules, imperatives, criteria and preferences to evaluate proposals against. Loose, flexible and implicit plans are up-dated with new information.
- takes charge over important negotiating activities with other organizations. The spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles demand this.
Skills Managers needs to achieve their Objectives
Conceptual Skills:Â Ability to use information to solve business problems, identification of opportunities for innovation, recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions, selecting critical information from masses of data, understanding the business uses of technology, understanding the organization's business model.
Communication Skills:Â Ability to transform ideas into words and actions, credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates, listening and asking questions, presentation skills and spoken format, presentation skills; written and graphic formats
Effectiveness Skills:Â Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives, customer focus, multitasking; working at multiple tasks at parallel, negotiating skills, project management, reviewing operations and implementing improvements, setting and maintainingÂ performanceÂ standards internally and externally, setting priorities for attention and activity, time management.
Interpersonal Skills:Â Coaching and mentoring skills, diversity skills; working with diverse people and culture,Â networkingÂ within the organization, networking outside the organization, working in teams; cooperation and commitment.
Functions of Management
It is the foundation area of management. It is the base upon which the all the areas of management should be built. Planning requires administration to assess; where the company is presently set, and where it would be in the upcoming. From there an appropriate course of action is determined and implemented to attain the company's goals and objectivesÂ
Planning is unending course of action. There may be sudden strategies where companies have to face. Sometimes they are uncontrollable. You can say that they are external factors that constantly affect a company both optimistically and pessimistically. Depending on the conditions, a company may have to alter its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This kind of preparation, arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic planning, management analyzes inside and outside factors that may affect the company and so objectives and goals. Here they should have a study of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. For management to do this efficiently, it has to be very practical and ample.
The second function of the management is getting prepared, getting organized. Management must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Through this process, management will now determine the inside directorial configuration; establish and maintain relationships, and also assign required resources.
While determining the inside directorial configuration, management ought to look at the different divisions or departments. They also see to the harmonization of staff, and try to find out the best way to handle the important tasks and expenditure of information within the company. Management determines the division of work according to its need. It also has to decide for suitable departments to hand over authority and responsibilities.
Directing is the third function of the management. Working under this function helps the management to control and supervise the actions of the staff. This helps them to assist the staff in achieving the company's goals and also accomplishing their personal or career goals which can be powered by motivation, communication, department dynamics, and department leadership.
Employees those which are highly provoked generally surpass in their job performance and also play important role in achieving the company's goal. And here lies the reason why managers focus on motivating their employees. They come about with prize and incentive programs based on job performance and geared in the direction of the employees requirements.
It is very important to maintain a productive working environment, building positive interpersonal relationships, and problem solving. And this can be done only with Effective communication. Understanding the communication process and working on area that need improvement, help managers to become more effective communicators. The finest technique of finding the areas that requires improvement is to ask themselves and others at regular intervals, how well they are doing. This leads to better relationship and helps the managers for better directing plans.
Control, the last of four functions of management, includes establishing performance standards which are of course based on the company's objectives. It also involves evaluating and reporting of actual job performance. When these points are studied by the management then it is necessary to compare both the things. This study on comparison of both decides further corrective and preventive actions.Â
In an effort of solving performance problems, management should higher standards. They should straightforwardly speak to the employee or department having problem. On the contrary, if there are inadequate resources or disallow other external factors standards from being attained, management had to lower their standards as per requirement. The controlling processes as in comparison with other three, is unending process or say continuous process. With this management can make out any probable problems. It helps them in taking necessary preventive measures against the consequences. Management can also recognize any further developing problems that need corrective actions.Â
Effective and efficient management leads to success, the success where it attains the objectives and goals of the organizations. Of course for achieving the ultimate goal and aim management need to work creatively in problem solving in all the four functions. Management not only has to see the needs of accomplishing the goals but also has to look in to the process that their way is feasible for the company
@A sales representative in charge of territory is NOT considered as the manager because he does not have the experience to manage people, he/she is there to make sales for the company.
Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth's motion Theory
Classical Organizational Theory School comprising the works of Henri Fayol's views on administration
Max Weber's idealized bureaucracy
Situational or Contingency theory,
Chaos theory and Team Building
Dimensions of Organizational Culture
Characteristics of Innovative Culture
Celebrate failure:Â .No one really celebrates failure. But they do celebrate the attempts at successful innovation. They do not consider an idea that does not end up as a rousing success as "career ending". And they always seek to learn from these pursuits. They encourage employees to introduce new ideas and to always look at what they are doing with an eye towards doing it better.
Supportive atmosphere:Â Innovative organizations provide an open environment with the freedom to kick around and explore ideas - even seemingly crazy ones. These offices often have white boards, flipcharts, markers, conference tables everywhere to encourage on-the-spot creativity. Meetings are usually not boring and sometimes include laughter as crazy ideas are discussed and debated.
Open culture:Â These organizations encourage people to get to know each other across the company. After all, it's not just a marketing person, or a salesperson, or an engineer that will bring a great new idea to market. It's a cross-disciplinary team working together.
Openness with customers:Â And I don't just mean a once per year satisfaction survey. I'm talking about proactively inviting customers to talk openly about company performance and provide ideas and input into developing new products and services. Ask them to participate in product and service design, development, and testing.
Market knowledge:Â In innovative organizations, everyone knows who the organization's target markets are, who their customers are (and their needs), and who their competitors are. They know the organization's products and services and how they compare to those of their competitors. They keep abreast of market trends - and the leadership team actively helps them stay up to date.
Clear mission/vision:Â Employees of innovative organizations really understand the organization's mission and vision - and can live within (and sometimes push the boundaries of) them. This is a result of a culture that involves them in strategic thinking. New ideas are "tested" against this strategic vision to see whether the new idea moves the organization closer to that vision.
Set employee expectations:Â Innovative organizations expect employees to come up with good ideas. Often it's actually built into the hiring and measurement processes. These organizations look for ways to identify prospective employees who are not just experienced and technically competent in what they do, but also demonstrate a spark of creativity, a willingness to take risks, to offer ideas, and are comfortable in an open, creative environment. These are the people who are willing to be the first to draft a document that others will review, revise, and edit. These are the people who may begin a sentence with "This may sound crazy but what if weâ€¦.". Employees are encouraged to help recruit like-minded people.
Broad-perspective employees:Â Employees bring their different perspectives, their different talents, and different mindsets. They might come from differing backgrounds, different academic disciplines, even different industries. They are open to exploring and adapting new ideas - from almost anywhere. They also don't feel constrained by what has been tried before.
Stakeholders of a company
Polycentric is the belief that managers and employees in a foreign operation should be from the host country. The feeling is that people native to the host country will not have problems with culture shock, knowing the language, realizing and adhering to the local customs, values, and attitudes, and being effective immediately instead of after a learning process has taken place. Key positions in the foreign operation are filled with host country nationals (HCNs). This saves money associated with recruiting, training, and transferring expatriates from other countries in which the company also has operations.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Â CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society.
Ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole. Applied ethics is a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions in many fields such as medical, technical, legal and business ethics
'Ethics is determined mainly by Conscience'
Everyone has a conscience - whether or not they have any experience of religion. True religion essentially teaches us to obey our conscience. Religion as an emergent feature of humanity - when applied correctly - serves as a framework, by which a young society stabilizes, allowing individual humans and family/ community groups to exist in freedom. From there, each group, and specifically each person has a choice about whether they develop themselves. There is room for exploration of the argument that humans may never have developed socially, to the point where we had 'ethics', without some form of revealed guidance. Most states/countries which are now considered 'first world', and thus are described as ethically advanced (or at least ethical in general) initially had a 'religious' foundation and has taken into consideration their conscience in decision making.
Religion and Ethics in Business Transaction
For Islam, the basis of these laws is the Qur'an, and they are amplified in the Hadith. Muslim wealth ethics include avoidance of the exploitation of people in need through lending them money at interest (riba) and prohibitions against false advertising; under Islamic law, if a vendor sells an item by making false claims about it, the customer has the right to have the transaction cancelled.
Religion and CSR
In Christianity, the basis of this theology is the Old Testament and the New Testament. For example, In the teachings of the Ten commandments it is written to love your neighbor as yourselves meaning treat to the people around you or people you meet as you would like to be treated, this has to be referenced and we are all made to believe that we are all equal before our maker as a Christian with an eternal mindset, ultimately God is our rewarder and to a fellow people should be left to God to reward
The three attempts to describe the decision making process are worth noting,
Rational/Classic Model, Administrative Model, Retrospective Model.
8 Steps in the Decision Making Process
-Identifying Decision Situation
-Allocation of Weights to Criteria
-Developing Objectives and Criteria
-Implementing the Decision
-Evaluating and Monitoring Results
Flexible Decision Makers
Flexible decision makers are satisfiers and multifocused. They collect limited information but are more flexible in choosing solutions than decisive decision makers. If the first solution they decide on falls short, they will select another solution. As more information becomes available, they are quick to change decisions based on the new information. Many small business owners use this style of decision making.
Decision making error and Biases
Overconfidence effect: the tendency to overestimate one's own abilities
Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions.
Selective perception: the tendency for expectations to affect perception.
Outcome bias: the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made
Hindsight bias: sometimes called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect, the inclination to see past events as being predictable
Choice-supportive bias: the tendency to remember one's choices as better than they actually were.
Focusing effect: prediction bias occurring when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.
Clustering illusion: the tendency to see patterns where actually none exist
Egocentric bias: occurs when people claim more responsibility for themselves for the results of a joint action than an outside observer would.
False consensus effect: the tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.
Self-serving bias: the tendency to claim more responsibility for successes than failures.It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous informationin a way beneficial to their interests.
Ambiguity effect: the avoidance of options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown"
Anchoring: the tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on one trait or piece of information when making decisions
How a Manager can avoid them
-Ask yourself if you are working on the real problem.
-Look for implicit assumptions or unnecessary constraints in the way that you perceive your problem.
-To promote objective reasoning, avoid framing alternatives with value-laden terminology (e.g., labeling a proposed resource allocation as "fair").
-Try posing problems in a neutral way that combines gains and losses, adopts alternative reference points, or promotes objectivity.
-Look at the problem from other perspectives. For example, reverse the context. If you are the seller, how would you see things if you were the buyer?
-Choose a frame that captures all of what's important. For example, ask, "What's the total cost of ownership?" not "What's the price?"
-Watch out for leading questions-questions or phrasing designed to create a frame intended to elicit a particular response.
-Choose a high-level perspective for framing. For example, looking only at project-by-project risk may result in a portfolio of overly conservative projects.