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Need Analysis is the process of identifying and evaluating needs (see sample definitions below) in a community or other defined population of people. The identification of needs is a process of describing "problems" of a target population and possible solutions to these problems. A need has been described as:
A gap between "what is" and "what should be." (Witkin et al., 1995)
"A gap between real and ideal that is both acknowledged by community values and potentially amenable to change." (Reviere, 1996, p. 5)
May be different from such related concepts as wants ("something people are willing to pay for") or demands ("something people are willing to march for"). (McKillip, 1987)
Need analysis focuses on the future, or what should be done, rather than on what was done as is the focus of most program evaluations. Some people use the related term "needs assessment"
Change Management /Implementation
Managing the change
Preparation for change
Set out the strengths and weaknesses of the organisation
Identify the change required
Determine the major issues
Identify and assess the key stakeholders
Win the support of key individuals
Identify the obstacles
Determine the degree of risk and the cost of change
Understand why change is resisted
Recognize the need for change, identify current position, devise a suitable method
Building the vision
Develop a clear vision
Make it people clear about what a change involves and how they are involved in it
What is involved
What is the proposed change
Why should we do it
What the major effects will be
How we can manage the change
Plan the change
Devise appropriate strategies to introduce change
Design the change
Identify the significant steps in the change process
Discuss the need for change and the full details of what is involved
Allow people to participate in planning change
Communicate the plan to all concerned
Produce a policy statement
Devise a sensible time scaleÂ
Produce action plans for monitoring the change
Allow people to participate in planning change
Get all parties involved in and committed to the change
Inspire confidence by forestalling problems and communicating regularly
Devise a sensible time scale for implementation of change
Anticipate the problems of implementation
Understand why change is resisted
Implementing the change
Check on and record progress
Make sure that change is permanent
Evaluate the change
Improve on any weak areas
InvolveÂ all personnel affected
Keep everyone informed
Devise an appropriate reward system
Be willing to compromise on detail
Ensure that strategies are adaptable
Select people to champion change
Provide support and training
Monitor and review
Two types of change
(1) Step change
Dramatic or radical change in one fell swoop
Radical alternation in the organisation
Gets it over with quickly
May require some coercion
(2) Incremental change
Ongoing piecemeal change which takes place as part of an organisation's evolution and development
Tends to more inclusive
Step v incremental change
Techniques to help implement change
Teams building across units
Change agents or champions of change
And a certain amount of compulsion manipulation and coercion
Managers should be able to act as change agents:
To identify need for change
Be open to goods ideas for change
To able to successfully implement change
Advantages of using a change agent:
Forces trough change
Becomes the personification of the process
Responsibility for change is delegated thus freeing up senior managers to focus on future strategy
Helping people to accept change
Consider how they will be affected
Involve them in the change
Consult and inform frequently
Be firm but flexible
Make controversial change as gradually as possible
Monitor the change
Develop a change philosophy
Six ways of overcoming resistance to change
(1) Education and communicationÂ - if people understand the needs for change and what is involved they are more likely to co-operate.
(2) Participation and involvementÂ - to encourage people to feel ownership of the change.
(3) Facilitation and supportÂ - listening to the real concerns of people affected.
(4) Negotiation and agreementÂ - agreement and compromise if necessary.
(5) ManipulationÂ - e.g. "buying off" leaders of resistance.
(6) Explicit and implicit coercionÂ - threats where necessary but this is a high risk strategy.
(source: Kotter and Schlesinger In HBR 1979)
Monitor and review
Adapt as necessary
Recording and monitor the changes
Measure progress against targets
Have the desired results been achieved?
Has the process been successful?
How do those affected feel about the new situation?
What might have been done differently?
How can those not responding well to the change be helped?
Sustain the change.- prevent any back sliding
Change management failures
What not to do
Ways to increase resistance to change:
Managers can increase resistance by:
Failing to specific about a change
Failing to explain why change is needed
Keeping people in the dark
Creating excess work pressure
Expecting immediate results
Not dealing with fears and anxieties
Reasons why change can fail
Employees do not understand the purpose or even the need for change
Lack of planning and preparation
Employees lack the necessary skills and/ or there is insufficient training and development offered
Lack of necessary resources
Eight common reasons for failure of change management:
Allowing too much complexity
Failing to build a substantial coalition
Failing to understand the need for a clear vision
Failure to clearly communicate that vision
Permitting roadblocks against that vision
Not planning for short term results and not realising them
Declaring victory too soon
Failure to anchor changes in corporate culture
2005 Peter de Jager
Change Management (CM), involve their own problems of perception and suitability;
Problem Solving :-Â The task of managing change does indeed involve a large amount of problem solving, but CM is a very specific type of problem. CM is a category of problems with a unique set of patterns and solutions. If we dump change management into the larger bucket of problems, then it becomes more difficult to focus on, and benefit from, those unique patterns.
Leadership :-Â Great concept. Making change happen smoothly, quickly and with a minimum of pain, definitely requires leadership ability. Unfortunately the term "Leadership" suggests the need for abilities beyond the reach of the majority of employees. Most people don't consider themselves leaders, and placing CM into that category means that we place the responsibility for CM into the hands of "THEM"... Hardly the best approach when an organization is attempting to undergo large scale Change and requires active participation from all stake holders.
Innovation :-Â A good start, but Managing Change is more than just coming up with a new idea, it's mostly about preparing people for the Change brought about when we attempt to implement that new idea.
Making Progress/Process Improvement: -Â Also a great start. But not all Change involves "Making Progress" or "Improvement". A lot of CM is about getting used to a situation that is a step backward from what went before.
Implementation/Transition Management :-Â Like "Innovation" above, this is only part of the process. Implementation without preparation doesn't get the job done.Â
As mentioned at the start, the term "Change Management" has its own problems, at the very least it causes the eyes of most managers to glaze over. That said it is still the most common way to refer to the task of managing the change process from start to finish.Â
Data integrityÂ is data that has a complete or whole structure. All characteristics of the data includingÂ business rules, rules for how pieces of data relate, dates, definitions and lineage must be correct for data to be complete.
Per the discipline of data architecture, when functions are performed on the data the functions must ensure integrity. Examples of functions are transforming the data, storing the history, storing the definitions (Metadata) and storing the lineage of the data as it moves from one place to another. The most important aspect of data integrity per the data architecture discipline is to expose the data, the functions and the data's characteristics.
Data that has integrity is identically maintained during any operation (such as transfer, storage or retrieval). Put simply in business terms, data integrity is the assurance that data is consistent, certified and can be reconciled.
In terms of aÂ databaseÂ data integrity refers to the process of ensuring that a database remains an accurate reflection of the universe of discourse it is modelling or representing. In other words there is a close correspondence between the facts stored in the database and the real world it models
Automate Key Processes
Leverage workflow and internet-based processes to speed and optimize recruitment, hiring, budgeting, compensation, termination, performance, skills, collective agreements, and more. Perform rules-based HR budget control.
Get a Single Source of Truth
Maintain global HR data in a single instance for better availability and accuracy of information, with a global single repository of employee data
Manage Total Compensation
Attract and retain with the right combination of salary and benefits. Set limits and warnings. Control budgets by department, position, or role. Deploy absence and termination policies.
Locate and Manage Talent Globally
Manage recruitment, hiring, and deployment on a global basis and address local country requirements at the same time. Manage address information, currency, data formats, banking details, and payment methods for any country. Conduct competency profiling and management.
Integrate Intelligence with HR Management
Integrate intelligence with HR management to align your workforce with corporate objectives.
Witkin, B. R. and Altschuld, J. W. (1995). Planning and Conducting Needs Assessments: A
Practical Guide. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
McKillip, J. (1987). Need Analysis: Tools for the Human Service and Education. Applied Social
Research Methods Series, Volume 10. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Reviere, R., Berkowitz, S., Carter, C.C., Gergusan, C.G. (Eds) (1996). Needs Assessment: A
Creative and Practical Guide for Social Scientists. Taylor and Francis: Washington, DC.