Defining the use of the need analysis

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Need Analysis is the process of identifying and evaluating needs (see sample definitions below) in a community or other defined population of people. The identification of needs is a process of describing "problems" of a target population and possible solutions to these problems. A need has been described as:

A gap between "what is" and "what should be." (Witkin et al., 1995)

"A gap between real and ideal that is both acknowledged by community values and potentially amenable to change." (Reviere, 1996, p. 5)

May be different from such related concepts as wants ("something people are willing to pay for") or demands ("something people are willing to march for"). (McKillip, 1987)

Need analysis focuses on the future, or what should be done, rather than on what was done as is the focus of most program evaluations. Some people use the related term "needs assessment"

Change Management /Implementation

Managing the change

Preparation for change

Environmental analysis.

Set out the strengths and weaknesses of the organisation

Identify the change required

Determine the major issues

Identify and assess the key stakeholders

Win the support of key individuals

Identify the obstacles

Determine the degree of risk and the cost of change

Understand why change is resisted

Recognize the need for change, identify current position, devise a suitable method

Building the vision

Develop a clear vision

Make it people clear about what a change involves and how they are involved in it

What is involved

What is the proposed change

Why should we do it

What the major effects will be

How we can manage the change

Plan the change

Devise appropriate strategies to introduce change

Design the change

Identify the significant steps in the change process

Discuss the need for change and the full details of what is involved

Allow people to participate in planning change

Communicate the plan to all concerned

Produce a policy statement

Devise a sensible time scale 

Produce action plans for monitoring the change

Allow people to participate in planning change

Get all parties involved in and committed to the change

Inspire confidence by forestalling problems and communicating regularly

Devise a sensible time scale for implementation of change

Anticipate the problems of implementation

Understand why change is resisted

Implementing the change

Check on and record progress

Make sure that change is permanent

Evaluate the change

Improve on any weak areas

Overcome resistance

Involve  all personnel affected

Keep everyone informed

Devise an appropriate reward system

Be willing to compromise on detail

Ensure that strategies are adaptable

Select people to champion change

Provide support and training

Monitor and review

Two types of change

(1) Step change

Dramatic or radical change in one fell swoop

Radical alternation in the organisation

Gets it over with quickly

May require some coercion

(2) Incremental change

Ongoing piecemeal change which takes place as part of an organisation's evolution and development

Tends to more inclusive

Step v incremental change


Techniques to help implement change

Teams building across units

Internal communication


Action planning

Change agents or champions of change

And a certain amount of compulsion manipulation and coercion

Change agents

Managers should be able to act as change agents:

To identify need for change

Be open to goods ideas for change

To able to successfully implement change

Advantages of using a change agent:

Forces trough change

Becomes the personification of the process

Responsibility for change is delegated thus freeing up senior managers to focus on future strategy

Helping people to accept change

Consider how they will be affected

Involve them in the change

Consult and inform frequently

Be firm but flexible

Make controversial change as gradually as possible

Monitor the change

Develop a change philosophy

Six ways of overcoming resistance to change

(1) Education and communication - if people understand the needs for change and what is involved they are more likely to co-operate.

(2) Participation and involvement - to encourage people to feel ownership of the change.

(3) Facilitation and support - listening to the real concerns of people affected.

(4) Negotiation and agreement - agreement and compromise if necessary.

(5) Manipulation - e.g. "buying off" leaders of resistance.

(6) Explicit and implicit coercion - threats where necessary but this is a high risk strategy.

(source: Kotter and Schlesinger In HBR 1979)

Monitor and review

Adapt as necessary

Recording and monitor the changes

Measure progress against targets

Have the desired results been achieved?

Has the process been successful?

How do those affected feel about the new situation?

What might have been done differently?

How can those not responding well to the change be helped?

Sustain the change.- prevent any back sliding

Change management failures

What not to do

Ways to increase resistance to change:

Managers can increase resistance by:

Failing to specific about a change

Failing to explain why change is needed

Not consulting

Keeping people in the dark

Creating excess work pressure

Expecting immediate results

Not dealing with fears and anxieties

Ignoring resistance

Reasons why change can fail

Employees do not understand the purpose or even the need for change

Lack of planning and preparation

Poor communication

Employees lack the necessary skills and/ or there is insufficient training and development offered

Lack of necessary resources

Inadequate/inappropriate rewards

Eight common reasons for failure of change management:

Allowing too much complexity

Failing to build a substantial coalition

Failing to understand the need for a clear vision

Failure to clearly communicate that vision

Permitting roadblocks against that vision

Not planning for short term results and not realising them

Declaring victory too soon

Failure to anchor changes in corporate culture

2005 Peter de Jager

Change Management (CM), involve their own problems of perception and suitability;

Problem Solving :- The task of managing change does indeed involve a large amount of problem solving, but CM is a very specific type of problem. CM is a category of problems with a unique set of patterns and solutions. If we dump change management into the larger bucket of problems, then it becomes more difficult to focus on, and benefit from, those unique patterns.

Leadership :- Great concept. Making change happen smoothly, quickly and with a minimum of pain, definitely requires leadership ability. Unfortunately the term "Leadership" suggests the need for abilities beyond the reach of the majority of employees. Most people don't consider themselves leaders, and placing CM into that category means that we place the responsibility for CM into the hands of "THEM"... Hardly the best approach when an organization is attempting to undergo large scale Change and requires active participation from all stake holders.

Innovation :- A good start, but Managing Change is more than just coming up with a new idea, it's mostly about preparing people for the Change brought about when we attempt to implement that new idea.

Making Progress/Process Improvement: - Also a great start. But not all Change involves "Making Progress" or "Improvement". A lot of CM is about getting used to a situation that is a step backward from what went before.

Implementation/Transition Management :- Like "Innovation" above, this is only part of the process. Implementation without preparation doesn't get the job done. 

As mentioned at the start, the term "Change Management" has its own problems, at the very least it causes the eyes of most managers to glaze over. That said it is still the most common way to refer to the task of managing the change process from start to finish. 

Data integrity 

Data integrity is data that has a complete or whole structure. All characteristics of the data including business rules, rules for how pieces of data relate, dates, definitions and lineage must be correct for data to be complete.

Per the discipline of data architecture, when functions are performed on the data the functions must ensure integrity. Examples of functions are transforming the data, storing the history, storing the definitions (Metadata) and storing the lineage of the data as it moves from one place to another. The most important aspect of data integrity per the data architecture discipline is to expose the data, the functions and the data's characteristics.

Data that has integrity is identically maintained during any operation (such as transfer, storage or retrieval). Put simply in business terms, data integrity is the assurance that data is consistent, certified and can be reconciled.

In terms of a database data integrity refers to the process of ensuring that a database remains an accurate reflection of the universe of discourse it is modelling or representing. In other words there is a close correspondence between the facts stored in the database and the real world it models


Automate Key Processes

Leverage workflow and internet-based processes to speed and optimize recruitment, hiring, budgeting, compensation, termination, performance, skills, collective agreements, and more. Perform rules-based HR budget control.

Get a Single Source of Truth

Maintain global HR data in a single instance for better availability and accuracy of information, with a global single repository of employee data

Manage Total Compensation

Attract and retain with the right combination of salary and benefits. Set limits and warnings. Control budgets by department, position, or role. Deploy absence and termination policies.

Locate and Manage Talent Globally

Manage recruitment, hiring, and deployment on a global basis and address local country requirements at the same time. Manage address information, currency, data formats, banking details, and payment methods for any country. Conduct competency profiling and management.

Integrate Intelligence with HR Management

Integrate intelligence with HR management to align your workforce with corporate objectives.


References Books

Witkin, B. R. and Altschuld, J. W. (1995). Planning and Conducting Needs Assessments: A

Practical Guide. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

McKillip, J. (1987). Need Analysis: Tools for the Human Service and Education. Applied Social

Research Methods Series, Volume 10. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Reviere, R., Berkowitz, S., Carter, C.C., Gergusan, C.G. (Eds) (1996). Needs Assessment: A

Creative and Practical Guide for Social Scientists. Taylor and Francis: Washington, DC.