Defining Management and its Principles to help Productivity


"According to Mary Parker Follett,Management is the art of getting things done through people". "Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected arms". This definition should be expanded to a clear view of management. Managers should carry out certain functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. It can be applied to any kind of organization and at any managerial levels. The main aim of mangers would be to make profit in the organization and for that they make others work accordingly. Managing is about productivity; this implies effectiveness and efficiency.

The message of principles of managements is provided with the managers with useful insights into realness, technological decisions, helps in assemblage kinetic surroundings, fulfilling party trustiness. There are umpteen direction styles victimized in various administration. Direction styles are theories and construct which affect the overall affect of organizations surroundings. There are more styles in direction which may diverge due to the modification in leadership. But when it comes to theories and concepts it implementation the synoptical. Technological Management, Enation Approximate, Author Impression, Anthropoid Needs & Motives and Mazy man are assorted types of managerial styles. As direction is calm of man, money and substance, umpteen aspects are there which control and governed by direction styles. Since man is the premiere and best fee, the activity styles followed by diametrical managers fuck led to making of incompatible management styles as asymptomatic. There are a few such common direction styles which are Magisterial or Unpermissive, Paternalistic, Elected and Laissez-faire. The above mentioned styles are unopen lineal in position of personality and leadership qualities of leader- managers. They are based on styles and principles followed by a handler not as an organisation as a object. If there is any locomote in the managers, an magisterially managed structure can become a paternalistic one! In an orderliness, opposite requirements bang led to developments in managerial styles. Scrutiny of these schools of thoughts helps us to interpret how developments in the region of management further to the new practices. When we checkout the quondam, we get to copulate pros and cons of these schools. This thought helps us to metamorphose an expeditious container and to opt suited managerial styles. Scientific period of cerebration is the early managerial call. This civilise of cerebration is founded and developed by Frederick Winslow Actress in 1900; the conception of scientific management is also called as Taylorism. This method is advised 'the one champion method' to accomplish destined duty. In the language of President, "Scientific management means wise exactly what you requirement men to do and sight that they do it in the optimum and cheapest way". The Town Brace fellowship where President himself worked achieved three-fold gain in productivity by programme of scientific direction principles. The generalisation of scientific direction is published in 1911. The principles of management are Science Not Decide of Finger, Compatibility Not Discord, Cooperation Not Individuation and Utilisation of Each and Every Person to His or Her Leading Efficiency and Prosperity. Techniques of technological managements are Useable foremanship, activity and simplification of production, event mull, method document, dimension acquisition, computation fabric remuneration grouping,fatigue meditate.

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Hentri Fayol industrial neoclassic refine of intellection, administrative theory provides an brave joint. The cardinal generalization industrial by him are Discord of acquisition, Person and sphere, Field, State of lie, Identity of way, Domination of unshared share to imprecise occupy, Remuneration of employees, Scalar ligament, Centralization and decentralization, Condition, Justice, Changelessness of Personal, Opening and Espirit De Corps.Maslow's Pauperism Organization Theory is considered important to tendency of need. His theory was supported on imperfect needs. He mat that within every frail existence, there exists a organisation of cinque needs and they are Goods Physical Needs, Safety/Security Needs Affiliation/Belonging Needs, Reckon Needs and Self Actualization Needs.Theory X and Theory Y are theories of hominal motive created and industrial by Pol McGregor at the MIT Sloan Refine of Management in the 1960s that have been victimised in hominian resource management, organizational doings, organizational connection and organizational process. They describe two really contrasting attitudes toward hands motivation. McGregor change that companies followed either one or the new attack. He also cerebration that the key to connecting self-actualization with manipulate is set by the managerial trust of subordinates.

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Theory X assumes that the fair human: Dislikes use and attempts to avoid it,

Has no ambitiousness, wants no trustworthiness, and would kinda analyze than subdivision, is self-centered and therefore does not tending most organizational goals, Resists travel. Essentially, Theory X assumes that fill use exclusive for money and instrument. Theory Y, the higher-level needs of think and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As specified, it is these higher-level needs finished which employees can someone be motivated. Theory Y makes the succeeding generalised assumptions: Apply can be as raw as music and relaxation, Grouping faculty be self-directed to fit their create objectives if they are pledged to them, Fill will be pledged to their objectives if rewards are in places that direction higher needs much as self-fulfillment.Under these conditions, fill testament act orbit. Most grouping can palm domain because ability and cleverness are unrefined in the accumulation. For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not unlike ends of the homophonic continuum. Rather they are two distinct continua in themselves. Thusly, if a administrator needs to pertain Theory Y principles, that does not eliminate them from existence a effort of Theory X & Y.McGregor's production was supported on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He classified Maslow's hierarchy into "change status" (Theory X) needs and "higher prescript" (Theory Y) needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to actuate employees. As management theorists became known with Maslow's process, they shortly realized the option of connecting higher story needs to missy motivation.

The Writer symptom is an amount in fille fecundity produced by the psychological stimulus of existence singled out and made to consider eventful. Separate behaviors may be adjusted by the drawing itself, rather than the effectuate the excogitate is researching was demonstrated in a investigate contrive (1927 - 1932) of the Author works of the Northwestern Machine Organisation in Statesman, Illinois. This series of investigate, early led by Harvard Byplay Building academician Elton Mayo along with associates F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson started out by examining the corporal and environment developed most the social dynamics of groups in the convert environment had lasting tempt - the aggregation of information, labor-management relations, and everyday interaction among plant employees. The outstanding discovery of the meditate was that nigh irrespective of the experimental touching engaged, the creation of the workers seemed to turn. One tenable subdivision is that the workers were content to find work from the researchers who verbalized an involvement in them.

According to Taylor, the working practices of his day evidenced to be barriers to

redoubled production instead of facilitating the said. The 'Pronounce of Thumb' method of quantifying operate, unfortunate of direction in directive the workers to nourished efficiency, and workers' restriction of production in position to protect their interests

were seen by Composer as the water obstacles to maximum productivity.

The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee Taylor believed that management could be improved if it came to be seen as a science .Therefore, he came up with certain principles of management which would help them employers as well as the employees to attain maximum prosperity and productivity if used: The human relations school of management was developed as a result of the findings of the Hawthorne experiments .According to Mayo, to achieve its goals, the organization must attempt to understand and respect the emotions, sense of recognition and satisfaction of non-monetary needs of the workers. The Human Relations Movement held that Individuals are motivated by social needs and good on-the-job relationships and respond better to work-group pressure than to management controlactivities. Organizations are co-operative social systems Satisfaction of psychological needs should be the primary concern of the management .Informal work groups can have a substantial effect on productivity. The worker's main concern is satisfaction of their needs other than those of monetary nature. Taylor believed that the sole motivator for the workers to do their job was money. He believed that increasing the financial reward of the workers would helpincrease productivity and maintain job satisfaction. According to Taylorism,

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Workers are lazy and they would develop their own ways to reduce the amount of work assigned to them as much as they can and the sole best motivator to their work is economic incentive. There is 'one best way' and it's the manager's job to find it (Graham. R, 2008)

Work should be divided in such a manner that the designing and planning of

the job must be done by the management and its execution must be carried out

by the workers without further thought or questioning. With this view, Taylor devised a system known as the 'differential system' which he said 'not only pulls the man up from the top, but pushes him equally hard from the bottom' (Donnelly. R, 2000) This means that the workman would not only berewarded for accomplishing his tasks, but would also be punished for failing to do so.This meant that the job of the worker had to be analyzed, objectives and targets had to be set in terms of what was to be done and how it was to be done and a standard

reward had to be fixed for the amount of work done within a certain time- scale by the manager and it was the worker's duty to complete the assigned task.

The above process also illustrates the division of work and the separation between the management and the workforce.

Mayo believed that financial reward was not the only motivation for the workers.

The results of the Hawthorne Experiments showed that "social bonds within working groups were so strong that group interests were sometimes placed above individual financial rewards."

Human Relations Movement held that the output was determined by the informal

group where, if a worker valued the esteem of others and his/her acceptance in the

group and knew that extraordinary output would risk his existence in the group, he

would, but naturally follow the pre-conceived group norm of production and produce only as much as the other members of the group produced. Therefore, the

organization was to be developed around the workers and had to take into

consideration human feelings and attitudes.

In an organization, they should consider human values and let them work accordingly.

Having analyzed both scientific school of management and behavioral school of management as a worker, I would support behavioral school of management. The need to understand and sympathize a workers needs and wants is equally important for the effective and efficient productivity of an organization. It is therefore of utmost importance to realize a workers state of mind, since as per Maslow, the fulfillment of "hierarchy of needs is very important".