Example Essays On Cultural Management And Management Policy

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Differences between people within any given nation or culture are much greater than differences between groups. Education, social standing, religion, personality, belief structure, past experience, affection shown in the home, and a myriad of other factors will affect human behaviour and culture. Culture is a set of beliefs that a group of people share. And as such it is important where ever a number of people get together. And the business environment is no exception. In order to ensure that people work together efficiently and together towards your business objectives in a positive and motivating environment, managers need to be aware of the existence and importance of both a corporate culture and international culture.

Corporate Culture

The corporate culture develops subconsciously and often owners or senior managers are not even aware about them. Company's employees adjust to a certain way of working and new staff is being taught to adjust to this culture. This doesn't necessarily having knowingly, but by watching colleagues or noticing their reaction on certain actions, a new member of the team quickly learns what is acceptable and what is not. If you are aware of it or not, every company has a corporate culture. And to understand it, is quite important.


At economic level, globalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems; it is the rise of global economy. Many international organizations, governmental institutions and the whole academic world discuss the consequences of this political and economic restructuring on local economies, human welfare and environment. It is one of the most important features of present world.

At a business level, the process of globalization is when companies decide to take part in the emerging global economy and establish themselves in foreign markets. They adapt their products or services to the linguistic and cultural requirements of different nations. Then, they might take advantage of the Internet revolution and establish a virtual presence on the international marketplace. More and more companies do their business online. E-commerce has changed traditional business practices by providing direct international access to information and products.

Some economists agree that globalization has also cultural and ecological connotations, and that it is not only political or economic phenomenon. It means that countries all over the world become interdependent in many possible ways. There is probably no area of human activities left that is not affected by globalization. We listen to the same music, eat the same food, wear the same clothes, and decide ecological and war and peace issues together.

But I think that the core sense of globalization is economic. In recent years more and more economic activity in the world seems to be taking place between people who live in different countries (rather than in the same country). It takes different forms, like international trade, growth of import and export, foreign investments, foreign loans and bonds, and many others. Economic globalization has different consequences on businesses all over the world and influences almost every other sphere of human life. Globalization has potential benefits on the one hand, and costs or risks on the other. Globalization increases economic development and reduces poverty. More essays on globalisation. Globalization makes us vulnerable to changes all over the world. For example the huge market or foreign goods in the United States creates jobs overseas and keeps foreign workers employed. Similarly, the health of the U.K. economy depends on how well British products sell in foreign countries.

Theories of Globalization

Waltz contends that we view globalization at interdependence, and that 'interdependence is again associated with peace and peace increasingly with democracy.' 'People, firms, markets matter more; states matter less,' because it is the economy that drives states to make decisions. As the world becomes more interdependent on one another, decisions are made as a collective whole in the economic field, not the independent political state.

In many ways, Waltz suggests that Globalism is really Americanism spread around the globe. As the Cold War ended, it become clearer that the ideology that won out, a capitalist democracy was the winner and dominant ideology. The theology behind it was that if a country is not transparent, with a flexible free market, then it will crumble.

To Waltz, globalization also means homogeneity: of prices, products, rates of interests, etc. But could this not also translate into a homogeny of culture? A strong economy under globalization requires transparency, but then that transparency might transfer ideologically to the social and political realms as well. Waltz argues that this is exemplified in that 'latecomers imitate the practices and adopt the institution of the countries that have shown the way.'

The term globalization implies two processes: capitalist production and trade replacing protectionist economies through specialization and globalization of the process of production and an integrated market. [1] This has led to an integration of national economies, where uniformity results across borders, not just economically, but socially

as well. The rule of the economies is based in the US, along with Europe and other ruling elites.

Stiglitz on the globalize economy

According to stiglitz, Globalization is the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world that brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders.

He also divided the globalization in to following dimension





Stiglitz also refers to 'Trickle Down' economics. This he describes as the notion that economic growth will eventually reach the poor, as the rich spend their increased income. Instead, wealth trickled up to members of narrow interests. Stiglitz describes how Boris Yeltsin created a powerful class of oligarchs and businessmen. The IMF loaned billions to Russia, while political elites benefited from special tax privileges and looted public coffers. Local government officials squeezed private firms so hard that they had no incentive to invest.

The priorities that the Stiglitz favours are public policies aimed towards maintaining employment, rather than preventing inflation. He also prefers debt restructuring and financial reorganization to liquidation . He disdains fiscal austerity and bailouts, but

Instead wants fiscal policy to stimulate the economy through broad based subsidies. He also favours capital controls and some protective tariffs.

Roubini on the Globalize Economy

According to Roubini, typically there are more firm closures in recessions than in periods of growth, but the difference is very small. We saw firm closures in boom periods as well, for several reasons. Two of the larger factors are:

Competition between firms in periods of growth: During a period of high economic growth, some firms still perform better than others. Those high performing ones can often squeeze weaker performing ones out of the marketplace, causing firm closures.

Structural changes: High economic growth is often caused by technological improvements. More powerful and useful computers can drive economic growth, but they also spell disaster for companies that manufacture or sell typewriters.

Globalization can be considered a structural change just as technological growth is. As such, the resulting job losses and wage reductions fall into the structural category of unemployment that we saw in Would 0% Unemployment Be a Good Thing?:

Cyclical Unemployment is defined as occuring "when the unemployment rate moves in the opposite direction as the GDP growth rate. So when GDP growth is small (or negative) unemployment is high." When the economy goes into recession and workers are laid off, we have cyclical unemployment.

Frictional Unemployment: The Economics Glossary defines frictional unemployment as "unemployment that comes from people moving between jobs, careers, and locations." If a person quits his job as an economics researcher to try and find a job in the music industry, we would consider this to be frictional unemployment.

Structural Unemployment: The glossary defines structural unemployment as "unemployment that comes from there being an absence of demand for the workers that are available". Structural unemployment is often due to technological change. If the introduction of DVD players cause the sales of VCRs to plummet, many of the people who manufacture VCRs will suddenly be out of work.

Overall, He believes the rules aren't changing. We've always had structural unemployment, whether it be from technological change or from plants moving to other locales (such as a chemical factory moving from New Jersey to Mexico, or a car plant moving from Detroit to South Carolina). Overall the net effect of technological growth or increased globalization tends to be positive, but it does create winners and losers, something we must always remain aware of.

Hofstede Cultural Dimension and Understating


Gerard Hendrik Hofstede (born 3 October 1928, Haarlem) is an influential Dutch organizational sociologist, who studied the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures. He is also an author of several books including Culture's Consequences and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind, co-authored with his son Gert Jan Hofstede. Hofstede's study demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and that these are persistent across time.

There are five dimensions by Hostede that are as following:-

!) PDI- Power Distance Index

!) IDV- Individualism

!) MAS- Masculinity

!) UAI- Uncertainty Avoidance Index

!) LTO- Long-Term Orientation

1) That is the so far to which the less powerful members of organizations are able to accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. It also represents difference, but it can be defined from below, not from above. It indicates that a society's level of inequality is supported by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others'.

2) On the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree to which individuals are inte-grated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word 'collectivism' in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world.

3) Versus its opposite, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values; (b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest, caring pole 'feminine'. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values.

4) Deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy.

5) Versus short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars It can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage.

Report Part - 2


Type:- Public


Jack Cohen founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London. The Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about after Jack Cohen bought a shipment of tea from T.E. Stockwell. He made new labels using the first three letters of the supplier's name (TES), and the first two letters of his surname (CO), forming the word TESCO. The first Tesco store was opened in 1929 in Burnt Oak, Edgware, Middlesex. Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores (Holdings) Limited. The first self-service store opened in St Albans in 1951 (still operational in 2009 as a Metro), and the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956.

During the 1950s and the 1960s Tesco grew organically, and also through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 stores. The company purchased 70 Williamsons stores (1957), 200 Harrow Stores outlets (1959), 212 Irwins stores (1960, beating Express Dairies Premier Supermarkets to the deal), 97 Charles Phillips stores (1964) and the Victor Value chain (1968) (sold to Bejam in 1986).

Originally specialising in food and drink, it has diversified into areas such as clothing, electronics, financial services, telecoms, home, health, car and dental insurance, retailing and renting DVDs, CDs, music downloads, Internet services and software.


"Creating value for customers, to earn their lifetime loyalty."

Cultural understanding of the company

There are many different parts of the company like extra, super stores, express, metro, one stop and home plus. They all are very sensitive and aggressive about understanding of the term culture, and also they have to be because United Kingdom is multicultural country. Their way of corresponding with different ethics is difference but the idea and think are the same "satisfying the customer".

American Eagle

Industry: - Retail


American Eagle Outfitters is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1977 by Mark and Jerry Silverman as a subsidiary of Retail Ventures, Inc., a company which also owned and operated Silverman's Menswear. The Silverman's sold their ownership interests in 1991. Recently, American Eagle Outfitters opened its first store outside of North America at Mirdif City Centre in the United Arab Emirates.

American Eagle (also stylized as Am. Eagle, A. Eagle, A.E.O, Amer. Eagle, A.E., æ, and A.E. Outfitters) targets teens and young adults. Some of the best selling products of American Eagle Outfitters are low-rise jeans, polo shirts, graphic T-shirts (with the AE logo and year established), boxers and briefs, and swimwea.


"To create truly personalized, targeted, and leading-edge marketing, sales, and self-service applications that fosters a dynamic and meaningful rapport with our customers"

Cultural understanding:-

This fashion department at next reflects on fashion as a cultural phenomenon and identifies features of fashion that may be engaged by legal regulation. The aim is to distil the features they have discussed above under the rubric of the zeitgeist theory, which points us to two conditions that exist simultaneously and in relation to one another. They call them "differentiation" and "flocking."

Through fashion, people communicate and express themselves. Fashionable individuals' personal style is often described as "unique" or "inimitable."If consumers use fashion to express themselves as distinctive individuals, then it is valuable to have available a large range of different identifiers. Fashion goods provide a vocabulary. What consumers might value in fashion then is the availability of a variety of goods to choose from, a proliferation of the number of meanings that can be made. The availability of a variety of different goods enlarges the vocabulary and the meanings that can be communicated.



Formed in 1917 as Schlup & Co., Rado initially produced watch movements only. In 1957 the company launched its first collection of watches under the Rado brand. In 1962 the Rado Diastar, the world's first scratch-proof watch, was launched. It has been in production ever since, now sold as DiaStar The Original.

In 1983 Rado became part of the SMH group which was renamed in 1998 as the Swatch Group.


Our aim is to become a globally recognised fashion supplier to some of the world's leading companies by offering the highest standard of service, top quality products and cutting edge style at competitive prices.

Cultural understanding:-

Rado is very keen in managing these requirements by its excellent strategies and also with its fashion Excellency in today's fashionable world that able suits all the culture. Everyone wears clothing and inevitably participates in fashion to some degree. Fashion is also a subject of periodically rediscovered fascination in virtually all the social sciences and the humanities. Primark has provided economic thought with a canonical example in theorizing about consumption and conformity. Primark's Social thinkers have long treated fashion as a window upon social class and social change.


A big part of the management profession is creating and enforcing policies and procedures. These resources help you do both of these better. Management policy includes following:-

· Technology strategy, collaboration and competition

· Technology transfer and innovation support organizations

· Corporate sustainability, reinvention and renewal

· Process and product innovation and diffusion

· Research management and commercialization

· Cross-cultural management and innovation

· Team building and team management

· Managing creativity and creative teams

· Government innovation policy and regulation for innovation

· Managing and commercializing intellectual property

· Managing virtual teams and environments for innovation

· Managing organizational learning, knowledge and change

Recruitment and selection policy

The recruitment and selection decision is of prime importance as the vehicle for obtaining the best possible person-to-job fit which will, when aggregated, contribute significantly towards the Company's effectiveness. It is also becoming increasingly important, as the Company evolves and changes, that new recruits show a willingness to learn, adaptability and ability to work as part of a team. The Recruitment & Selection procedure should help managers to ensure that these criteria are addressed.

The Company Recruitment and Selection Policy at TESCO will:

be fair and consistent;

be non-discriminatory on the grounds of sex, race, age, religion or disability;

Conform to statutory regulations and agreed best practice.

Corporate and Social Responsibility Policy

Our (TESCO) Core Purpose and Values define the way we do business, how we treat our customers, our people, each other and our suppliers. They help to define our responsibilities to the communities where our business operates and create the culture and environment in which our business strategy continues to deliver strong results. Our philosophy of "Every Little Helps" underpins these wide-ranging responsibilities.

Our Corporate Social Responsibility policy objective is to earn the trust of our customers by acting responsibly in the communities we serve. We recognise our impact on society at all levels and work to maximise the benefits we bring.

Customers are at the heart of everything we do. CSR is good for our business and good for the communities where we operate. By building goodwill and trust with our customers, we can earn their lifetime loyalty, which is our core purpose.

Corporate Social Responsibility reflects our Values:

No one tries harder for customers

Understand customers better than anyone

Be energetic, be innovative and be first for customers

Use our strengths to deliver unbeatable value to our customers

Look after our people so they can look after our customers

Treat people how we like to be treated

All retailers, there's one team … The Tesco Team

Trust and respect each other

Strive to do our very best

Give support to each other and praise more than criticise

Ask more than tell, and share knowledge so that it can be used

Enjoy work, celebrate success and learn from experience

Renumeration policy:-

The chief executive of Tesco, Britain's biggest grocer, pocketed a 15 per cent rise in his total pay packet last year, despite a 25 per cent slide in the company's share price.

The chief executive of Tesco, Britain's biggest grocer, pocketed a 15 per cent rise in his total pay packet last year, despite a 25 per cent slide in the company's share price.

Sir Terry Leahy saw his total salary and bonus-related perks increase to £2.83m from £2.46m the previous year. This came on top of a 53 per cent rise in his remuneration package one year earlier.

News of the rise, which is revealed today in Tesco's annual report, is certain to fuel the antipathy towards corporate largesse in Britain's boardrooms. Shareholders are aiming to force them to scale down exuberant pay awards made amid one of the worst bear markets for decades.

Political contribution policy

Tesco does not wish to discourage the participation of employees in political and related activities. However you may not make political contributions on Tesco's behalf, either directly or indirectly, without the prior written approval of Tesco's executive management.

Health and safety policy:-

Tesco's foremost concern is protection of the health and safety of all employees.

We have adopted policies and procedures that are aimed at ensuring that Tesco meets or exceed all applicable health and safety laws and regulations as well as prevailing industry standards. They strive to fully implement all safety policies and procedures.

Complete compliances with safety policies and procedures require the cooperation and commitment of every employee. Be aware of how the company's health and safety policies apply to you and conduct duties and responsibilities in compliances with these policies.


Introduction:-A strategic partnership is a formal alliance between two commercial enterprises, usually formalized by one or more business contracts but falls short of forming a legal partnership or, agency, or corporate affiliate relationship. A strategic partnership is a long-term, win-win commitment between two organizations for the purpose of achieving specific business objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participant's resources.

This relationship is based upon integrity, trust, dedication to common goals, and an understanding of each other's individual expectations and values. Expected benefits include improved efficiency and cost effectiveness, increased opportunity for innovation, collaboration, and the continuous improvement of quality and services.

Virtual teams:-

Teams aren't what they used to be.

The nature of teams has changed significantly because of changes in organizations and the nature of the work they do. Organizations have become more distributed across geography and across industries. Relationships between people inside an organization and those previously considered outside (customers, suppliers, managers of collaborating organizations, other stakeholders) are becoming more important. Organizations have discovered the value of collaborative work. There is a new emphasis on knowledge management - harvesting the learning of the experience of members of the organization so that it is available to the whole organization.

A virtual team at TESCO will typically be one that is decentralized in a spatial way. It will have employees, customers, and even managers who may be dispersed over a wide region. Some of these organizations may be dispersed for only short periods of time, but when they are dispersed, this occurs within multiple time zones. Virtual teams are also heavily tied to technology, and it is the most cutting edge technology which has led to the advent of groups which are interconnected globally. Virtual management gives employees the option of travelling to their place of work if they wish, or working



fixed team membership

shifting team membership

all team members drawn from within the organization

team members can include people from outside the organization (clients, collaborators)

team members are dedicated 100% to the team

most people are members of multiple teams

team members are co-located organizationally and geographically

team members are distributed organizationally and geographically

teams have a fixed starting and ending point

teams form and reform continuously

teams are managed by a single manager

teams have multiple reporting relationships with different parts of the organization at different times

Relationship with suppliers:-

We have received comments, not only from suppliers of Tesco, but also from our people who work directly with our suppliers.

One supplier commented that they view Tesco as a partner whereby their business can benefit by having Tesco as a customer and Tesco recognise the benefit of their business too. They find Tesco to be very fair. They also commented that our customer insight data was valuable to their business. This was recently highlighted in a report by The Food Chain Centre which noted that suppliers benefited because:

The information gave them a much better understanding of their market and their customers

It helped identify the different types (segments) of customers in their markets

They were able to tailor their marketing to meet customer needs

They tailored their business or marketing plan to improve their appeal to new customers, be it retailer, wholesaler, merchant or consumer.

Robert Wiseman Dairies explained the positive nature of their relationship with supermarkets in their submission to the Competition Commission:

"A key ingredient in the growth and success of our Company has been the relationships that have been developed with our key supermarket customers, such as Tesco and Sainsbury's....Our experience has been that the positive working relationship with these customers has provided us with the confidence to develop our business."

Strategic Alliances in Europe

The success of the Tesco shows how far the branding and effective service delivery can come in moving beyond splashing one's logo on a billboard. It had fostered powerful identities by making their retiling concept into a virus and spending it out into the culture via a variety of channels: cultural sponsorship, political controversy, consumer experience and brand extensions.

In a rapidly changing business environment with a high competitors' pressure Tesco have to adopt new expansion strategies or diversified the existing in order to sustain its leading market position in an already established retailing market. The company must constantly adapt to the fast changing circumstances. Strategy formulation should therefore be regarded as a process of continuous learning, which includes learning about the goals, the effect of possible actions towards these goals and how to implement and execute these actions. The quality of a formulated strategy and the speed of its implementation will therefore directly depend on the quality of Tesco's cognitive and behavioural learning processes.

In large organizations as Tesco strategy should be analysed and implemented at various levels within the hierarchy. These different levels of strategy should be related and mutually supporting. Tesco's strategy at a corporate level defines the businesses in which Tesco will compete, in a way that focuses resources to convert distinctive competence into competitive advantage.

Relationship with costumer:-

They are passionate about delivering superior quality, service and choice to our clients and customers: their reputation and the loyalty of our clients and customers depend upon it.

The quality and safety of the food and services we provide, and that of our products and processes, is paramount and must never be compromised.

They aim to provide a high level of client and customer service at all times. All feedback on their service is recorded and given prompt consideration.

All customer and client information is treated as confidential.

They never deliberately give inadequate or misleading descriptions of our products or services.

No employee may offer or receive - or influence others to offer or receive - any money or material gift that could be construed as a bribe

TESCO relationship with HP:-

This relation was made jointly by Tesco and HP at the 2009 PMA Trade Show. The goal as they say, is to provide affordable, convenient photo publishing solutions to customers.

Earlier in 2008, Tesco had launched HP Photostations in select stores on a trial basis. This pilot was hugely successful and hence the decision to expand it to all Tesco Extra stores across the United Kingdom.

The press release states that the solution that will be implemented is HP Photo Center 4.0, which incorporates HP's Microlab, Minilab and Photosmart Studio systems. It largely offers in-store photo printing and gives customers the freedom of a whole array of customized stationery such as photo books, calendars, greeting cards and posters.

"HP is helping Tesco seize new growth opportunities and tap into the vast publishing marketplace that exists today," said Rohit de Souza, vice president and general manager, Retail Publishing Solutions business, Imaging and Printing Group, HP.

"HP offers Tesco and its customers an unparalleled choice of printable assets. Not only can customers quickly and easily create customized photo projects, but small and micro businesses can create dynamic, professional-quality, low-cost collateral at retail."

Both partners predict that the age of publishing through retail chains will flourish over the coming years, and this venture would help them to capture the space efficiently. In all reality, customers would like to see choices that they can browse at their own behest, and the best solution for it would definitely be retail publishing. Currently, most retail chains offer regular prints and anything more than this, will attract customers to spend more on personal publishings. On the downside, consumers purchasing printers could go down if the latter picks up.

Tesco Charity of the Year partnership

The British Red Cross' Charity of the Year partnership with Tesco in 2007 raised over £4.6 million for British Red Cross services in the UK - the largest amount raised through a single corporate partnership for a charity in just one year, and Tesco's most successful Charity of the Year partnership ever.


What is a virtual Organization?

In my words virtual organization is a network of continually evolving independent organizations that share skills, costs, and access to one another's markets. "This is where the people that you work with are" or "that this is where you find the information you need as well as the means to process it"- in summary where your office is.

A dispersed network o skills and capabilities- The structure of a Virtual Organization is distributed among multiple location resulting in the capacity of bringing in a wider pool of skills and capabilities

Mark & Spencer

Marks & Spencer creates 'virtual patchwork quilt' for Copenhagen Climate Summit drive.

The campaign invites customers, employees, investors, suppliers and anyone concerned for the wellbeing of future generations to create an individual patchwork which includes a personal image and a message to those taking part in the Copenhagen negotiations. 

The first person to 'patch' was Marks & Spencer Executive Chairman Sir Stuart Rose.  In his message he said: 'Copenhagen is a unique opportunity to do the right thing. Doing nothing is not an option.'

Other high profile 'patchers' that have already shown their support are Zac Goldsmith, Twiggy, Myleene Klass, Laura Bailey, Noemie Lenoir, Philip Glenister, and Erin O'Connor.    

Ed Miliband, Secretary of the State for Energy and the Environment, is also supporting the campaign. He said: "I am happy to see M&S supporting its customers in taking action. That is important because we will need all the popular pressure we can get to strike a deal that is ambitious, effective and fair.

"The world cannot tackle climate change if we leave it to politicians alone. We also need people, companies, charities and every other group in society to act together."

The final quilt and a physical representation will be presented to the Government in advance of the summit, which starts on 7th December.

Richard Gillies, Director of Plan A, said: 'Our ambition is to reach out to a mainstream audience and demonstrate to those involved in the COP15 event that the M&S family is engaged in the climate change debate. Climate change is no longer a fringe debate, UK high street shoppers care and are demanding action so it's vital that we communicate this."

The campaign was created by Digit.


GlaxoSmithKline has completed a project with InforSense enabling virtual drug discovery through virtual outsourcing of data, it has been reported.

The project, sponsored by the European Commission-funded programme Simdat, used secure Grid technology to demonstrate virtual data outsourcing, Inference said.

Simdat allowed GlaxoSmithKline to test the components necessary for the support of virtual outsourcing of data analysis in a secure environment, the company's head of Biology Domain Architecture Rob Gill said in a statement.

He added: "Pharmaceutical companies are moving away from the fortress mentality, which has been prevalent for many years, towards an ecosystem of companies working together without geographical or technical boundaries."

InforSense's director of research Moustafa Ghanem added companies like GlaxoSmithKline are considering outsourcing different parts of their business.

Also this week, GlaxoSmithKline announced its acquisition of the Egyptian mature product business of Bristol Myers Squibb. The deal is worth $210 million (125 million pounds), the buyer said.

Identify and develop suitable areas which management on furniture works need to look into when setting up a virtual organization.

Productivity and quality are two key points of any organization. These two are depends on the furniture works. There continues to be growing demand for top technology talent, especially information technology leadership with strong general management skill and select IT specialists.



"Any act by which one person gives to or receives from person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes."

Success of any business lies in effective communication. The more effective the communication is, the better the results are. Communication is effective when it produces desired action in the reader or audience. Effective communication is essential for the survival and progress of a business concern.

The ability to communicate effectively is an essential quality of a businessman. A person may be intelligent but he may not be able to get his message across to others. Ideas are generally common but the ability to convey then to others is rare.

A successful communicator exercises a good effect on the minds of his readers, employees, supervisors, customers, suppliers, investors and business associates. They form a good impression of the company and the communicator. He builds the goodwill of the company he represents. Goodwill of a person or company attracts customers and wins friends.



To: - The board of directors


Subject: - Aspect of effective direct and online communication available organization

What is communication?

Communication as an academic discipline relates to all the ways we communicate, so it embraces a large body of study and knowledge. The communication discipline includes both verbal and nonverbal messages. A body of scholarship all about communication is

presented and explained in textbooks, electronic publications, and academic journals. In the journals, researchers report the results of studies that are the basis for an ever expanding understanding of how we all communicate.

Importance of communication:-

Communication is essential for life in general but in business settings, it is critical. Communication is more than just a matter of speaking and hearing, especially within a business setting. Good communication, on the other hand, means that your message will be sent and that the people or organizations understand the message in its entirety. Further, they are much more likely to respond in a positive manner if the message was communicated effectively. A poorly communicated message will likely result in an unfavourable response.

Importance of communication for manager and employee relations:

Effective communication of information and decision is an essential component for management-employee relations. The manager cannot get the work done from employees unless they are communicated effectively of what he wants to be done? He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can be expected from that communication. Most of management problems arise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be minimized with proper communication system.

For motivation and employee morale:

Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve morale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faulty communication among employees or between manager and his subordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work. Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, how well are they doing and what can be done for better performance to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives and integrating the interest of the two.

For increase productivity:

With effective communication, you can maintain a good human relation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestions from employees or workers and implementing them whenever possible, you can also increase production at low cost.

For employees:

It is through the communication that employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony among all the concerned people and departments.

Classification of emoticons and how they affect online communication

I tend to think of emoticons as the "visual" aspect of online communication that gives us emotional cues. There are two broad categories of emotional messages that an emoticon can carry: positive or negative.

The foremost target of internet has always been the communication. And internet has excelled beyond the expectations .Still; innovations are going on to make it faster, more reliable. By the advent of computer's Internet, our earth has reduced and has attained the form of a global village.

Now we can communicate in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting in the other part of the world. Today for better communication, we can avail the facilities of e-mail; we can chat for hours with our loved ones. There are plenty messenger services in offering. With help of such services, it has become very easy to establish a kind of global friendship where you can share your thoughts, can explore other cultures of different ethnicity.

Many of my explanation are based on subjective analysis and experience and have no backing by objective research. But with experience, I am sure many forum users will agree that emoticons are definitely an important aspect of online communication.