CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE VERSUS OTHER CULTURAL APPROACHES

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Introduction

This essay has three main aims: to understand the idea of cultural intelligence, to study the cultural management theory and to examine cultural advancements in tourism industry and how relevant his cultural dimensions are to hospitality and tourism managers in 2011. The term "culture intelligence", there are several classifications of culture intelligence. According to Kreitner, R and Kinicki,A(2010),"Cultural intelligence(CQ) is the ability to correctly understand ambiguous cross-cultural state, and is an imperative skill in today's varied workplace". Liver.D.(2010) claims that, "Cultural intelligence(CQ) is a meta-framework entrenched in rigorous, academic study ".In other words, culture intelligence is the capability which allows people to cope efficiently and resourcefully with varied cultural aspects of environment. Moreover, culture intelligence enables us to appreciate cultural difference through facts and mindfulness and give us the skills to interact correctly across cultures.

Cultural Intelligence is the ability to link and to take advantage from the cultural complexity of populace with different nations, work areas, family backgrounds, personalities and organizational cultures. As a global manager recent days must have skill to cope with people who are from diverse backgrounds. In other words, being flexible and trained enough to adapt the culture circumstances and learn how to deal with others from various cultures. Furthermore, there are three essentials of culture intelligence; each constituent is related with the other. First, the global hospitality and tourism manager must have Knowledge of culture, it means knowing what culture is, what culture difference is? And how it affects one's behavior, it's the first stage of developing cultural intelligence, by understanding other cultures we can make some similarities and comparisons with our culture. Secondly, the global hospitality and tourism manager must put into practice mindfulness, in cross culture connections, mindfulness means simultaneously. It's the mediating step that helps us understanding knowledge to skills. It means being aware of cross cultural state of affairs and using empathy. Third, the global manager must develop behavioral skills. It means behavior selected from suitable ways to come across national, international and multinational business. The following piece of work will look at the other cultural approaches.

Analysis cross cultural complexities for national, international and multinational business

Cross - cultural management can be explained "as the global management, which studies the behavior of people in organizations around the world and trains people to work in organizations with employee and client populations from several cultures.(Burke,1983)".

Analysis of problems and limitations of multinational trade has shown that the first important factor is culture. It takes more for a company to be successful overseas to successfully market a quality product and maintaining high marketing standards. As we know, there is a human factor that must be considered. Indeed, everyone is a culture product of his or her cultural background. Culture influences our dealings and effects the way that we look at things. According to Ted,T (2007), founder of Prime Opus Partners and former head and COO of Wyndham International, looking at things in a different way is the first and most significant step to take. Teng states, "If you can approach cross cultural businesses that way it will help you to be much more open than if you just judge things based on what you know from the past. By looking at things being different, it will allow you to listen a lot better."Moreover, Sherman et al. (1995)clams that "culture is an integrated phenomenon and by recognizing and accommodating taboos, rituals, attitudes toward time, social stratification, kinship systems and many other components, modern hospitality and tourism managers will pave the way toward greater harmony and achievement in the country in which an multinational trade operates."The development in cross-cultural encounters boosts the opportunities for intercultural acceptance. Hospitality and tourism managers and researchers have emphasized on the importance of culture in organization environment. Therefore, we discuss about what are the cross culture complexities in encounter with national, international and multinational tradees?

Hofstede (1980) points the measure of cultural values is one of the most widely practiced among global administration.

This study examines the validity and dependability of Hofstede's cultural measure from an ethnically varied sample in a trade context. Hofstede found that the nationwide culture could clarify more of the differences. Hofstede (1980) found that, "managers and employees vary on four primary dimensions: individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity" signifies the measure of cross cultural complexities in a business management perspective.

Hofstede's Dimensions:

Power/Distance Index (PDI) extent to which power is distributed unevenly amongst people in the country's society.

Individualism/collectivism spotlights on the degree of individualism which comes across after them as individuals; collectivism is like a strong grouping or extended families.

Masculinity/femininity focuses on the level to which the materialistic people are more interested in things than concerning towards relationships with people, others and the quality of life.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on broadmindedness for uncertainty and vagueness within the society.

Thus, Hofstede's (1980,1990) study covers global corporations but wasn't worried in the relation among society and performance. Therefore; study of nationwide businesses in this major area will be notable. It is also interesting how international firms can spread their managerial culture to diverse nations & how it influences their performance?

Critical analysis of Hofstede's cultural dimensions

Nationwide culture according to the study of Geert Hofstede is described. These ideas were initially supported by an outsized research plan into national culture differences across of an international company (IBM) in 64 countries. Consecutive further studies covered student in 23 countries, pilots in 23 countries, posh customers in 15 countries, & governmental managers in 14 countries. Together this research accepted and legitimated 4 independent dimensions of national cultural variations with the 5th dimension added later. 

Initially, Hofstede uncovered four dimensions:

Power Distance Index (PDI), 

Individualism (IDV), 

Masculinity (MAS), and 

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI). 

Freshly, he added a 5th dimension, Long-Term Orientation (LTO).Moreover, a fifth dimension clarification is trailed by a chart created with raw statistics from Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions.

LTO means the extent to which the society supports traditional values. High/low dimensions influences countries to defy or recognize change. High LTO - In high LTO place of work, the society is ingrained in customs, which means that long time commitments and hard effort work as a plan for future rewards, overshadowed the need for swift change. Low LTO - In a low LTO place of work, means the society has a short-range Orientation, symbolizes "value for tradition, fulfilling social obligations a society modification can occur sooner since long-term traditions don't obstruct them."

 

The drawbacks of applying the Hofstede Model

Hofstede's representation of Cultural Dimensions can be useful while analyzing a country's culture. On the other hand, it does have few drawbacks:

First of all, there is populace of various cultures living in different countries. Average of a nation is not built up around individuals of the country they residing in. Yet this representation of cultural dimensions has proved accurate when applied to the inhabitants as a whole, one should be aware that not all of the persons can fit into the general population.

Secondly, how correct is the statistics? The information this model works upon is collected using questionnaires which have their own restrictions and therefore the information can't be considered correct. In group-oriented societies persons tend to answer questions like they are addressed to the cluster they belong to. But in U.S., which is an idiosyncratic society, the response is likely to be answered plus professed through the eyes of that individual.

Finally, is that how one can come to conclusions until the information used is the latest? How much do the customs of a nation change over time, being influenced both internally and externally? Culture sometime modifies due to certain influences. Due to this, it can't be made sure that the data is the current or not.

The contributions of the Hofstede Model

Hofstede is one of the most considerable contributors towards the familiarization of culture and workplace dissimilarities. At IBM, Hofstede's work to do examine and analyze how culture affects the work place.  He had access to a large data base of staff from more than seventy countries. He started investigating the forty major countries plus revealed four dimensions that differentiate between cultures.  Later, the range expanded to fifty countries plus 3 regions.  In 2001, he took data from other investigators & combined together to broaden the reach to a full 74 countries.

Relevancy of Hofstede's cultural dimension to hospitality and tourism managers

Hofstede's (1980, 2001) 5 cultural dimensions is applied and checked how relevant it is to the hospitality and tourism managers in 2011. The evaluation of culture is the focus of this study. Hofstede's (1980, 2001) 5 cross-cultural dimensions are generally applied in the writing as key variables in hospitality & tourism. (Crotts and Pizam 2003; Litvin, Crotts, and Hefner 2004; Kozak, Crotts, andLaw 2007; Reisinger and Mavondo 2006; Funk and Bruun2007). These particular studies/reviews are intended towards the understanding of how culture is important and bring changes in tourists' choices and behavior, and the result provides help to hospitality and tourism managers facing the problem of whether it's suitable to regulate or modify the hospitality or tourism product and the companies promotional mix (You et al. 2000). According to Girlando, Anderson, and Zerillo (2004), "Sound inquiry demands we strive to comprehend, test, and analyze Hofstede's paradigm. Either blind acceptance or premature dismissal of his work would serve no lasting purpose".

From a investigation of visitors from 8 countries who completed Hofstede's original tools, the outcome indicates minute dissimilarities between Hofstede's 2001 nationwide cultural measures with the current study's facts & figures. This research offers strong support to Hofstede's dimensions as an evaluation of vital tendencies of visitors from different nations. Second, graphically distinct respondents' values along the 5 cultural dimensions, discloses that the between-nation dissimilarities are comparatively undersized when evaluated to the nation's internal variability, demonstrating the existence of subcultures. This study also identified international regions that are clustered collectively, indicating that national cultural dissimilarities don't end at national limits.

Table 2. Evaluations of Eight Countries on Hofstede's (2001) Five Value Dimensions

Country

Power distance

Uncertainty

Avoidance

Individualism

Collectivism

Masculinity

Femininity

Long-Term

Orientation

Australia

3.35 (3.33)

3.37 (3.23)

3.66 (3.68)

3.83 (3.68)

2.06 (2.07)

Greece

3.36 (3.35)

3.43 (3.29)

3.67 (3.72)

4.00 (3.81)

2.15 (2.15)

United Kingdom

3.40 (3.41)

3.20 (3.09)

3.86 (3.91)

3.90 (3.76)

2.20 (2.19)

United States

3.36 (3.36)

3.59 (3.39)

3.71 (3.72)

3.72 (3.59)

2.12 (2.12)

China

3.61 (3.57)

3.58 (3.40)

3.67 (3.64)

3.64 (3.51)

2.85 (2.80)

Indonesia

3.75 (3.70)

3.31 (3.28)

3.75 (3.69)

3.76 (3.69)

3.15 (3.05)

Malaysia

3.60 (3.67)

3.52 (3.40)

3.69 (3.65)

3.81 (3.70)

2.79 (2.79)

Singapore

3.59 (3.59)

3.45 (3.37)

3.65 (3.65)

3.85 (3.86)

2.50 (2.44)

Analyzing impact in management practices

Global change & worldwide connections have been part of history of the present society, cross-culture communication is crucial for opening up of new upbringing, and permit us to look for unknown geographical locations & cultures. And now it's so simple to converse with people distantly as talking in person, cross-cultural communication is the rapidly growing form in which we live today. Hence, cultural differences are everywhere, which can be complicated, even though being aware of how to communicate efficiently with persons who speak different languages. The culture among the West and the East is totally dissimilar by quite large scale. It means not only the thinking ways are different, but how people act in everyday life is also quite different. The reason behind cultural dissimilarities and distinctive example to enlighten the cultural dissimilarity b/w east & west, and lastly, ways to become accustomed to different cultures are discussed.

Leadership

Leadership is a practice by which an individual influence others to achieve an objective & directs the group in such a way that makes it more consistent and coherent. This explanation is similar to Northouse's (2007, p3) explanation - "Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal."

Leaders carry out this practice by relating their leadership knowledge & abilities. This is known as Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). On the other hand, we are aware that we have qualities that can persuade our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), it was once believed that leaders are born than made. These 2 leadership styles are shown in the chart below (Northouse, 2007, p5):

In many ways, Middle Eastern leadership style is different from those in the U.S. Table below shows a comparison of 6 major uniqueness which are derived from researches conducted by M. K. Badawy, which merge Middle Eastern, and U.S. assumptions and approaches.

Management Dimension

Middle Eastern Management

Western Management

Leadership

Highly authoritarian tone, rigid instructions. Too many management directives.

Less emphasis on leader's personality, considerable weight on leader's style and performance.

Organizational structures

Highly bureaucratic, over centralized, with power and authority at the top. Vague relationships. Ambiguous and unpredictable organization environments.

Less bureaucratic, more delegation of authority. Relatively decentralized structure.

Decision making

Ad hoc planning, decisions made at the highest level of management. Unwillingness to take high risk inherent in decision making.

Sophisticated planning techniques, modern tools of decision making, elaborate management information systems.

Performance evaluation and control

Informal control mechanisms, routine checks on performance. Lack of vigorous performance evaluation systems.

Fairly advanced control systems focusing on cost reduction and organizational effectiveness.

Personnel policies

Heavy reliance on personal contacts and getting individuals from the "right social origin" to fill major positions.

Sound personnel management policies. Candidates' qualifications are usually the basis for selection decisions.

Communication

The tone depends on the communicants. Social position, power, and family influence are ever-present factors. Chain of command must be followed rigidly. People relate to each other tightly and specifically. Friendships are intense and binding.

Stress usually on equality and a minimization of difference. People relate to each other loosely and generally. Friendships not intense and binding.

Motivation

Motivation is a mental process through which unfulfilled wants or needs lead to actions that are focused on goals and incentives. (Lutans and Doh,2008) People vary in desires or wants. The theory of motivation, aspire to give details on the reason behind these desires and wants. The majority of theories are based on the wants of the individual and the thought that satisfies this want is significant before the individual can spotlight on other wants (Borgatti, 2001).There are a many theories, such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Theory X & Theory Y, Hertzberg's Motivation & Hygiene Theory, and Expectancy & Contingency Theories. Here we focus on The Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors, it is specified that the idea is culturally precise; it offers an important way to be relevantly work motivationally on international basis. Furthermore, Herzberg's conclusions revealed that particular distinctiveness of work are constantly connected to job satisfaction, while diverse factors are linked with job dissatisfaction. They are:

Factors for Satisfaction

Factors for Dissatisfaction

Accomplishment

business Policies

Recognition

Supervision

Work fulfillment

Connection with managers and colleagues

Responsibility

Work conditions

Progression

Wages

Growth

Position

 

Security

The conclusion reached by him is that satisfaction of job and dissatisfaction of the same is not opposite to each other.

The opposite of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction.

The opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction.

The connection between satisfaction of job and motivation is not difficult to understand. The difficulty is that many companies focus on the hygiene issues as ways to inspire when required, beyond very little time, they do very less to inspire.

Possibly hospitality and tourism managers like using this advance as they believe individuals are monetarily more motivated or try less to increase pay than it do to reconsider company policies for utmost satisfaction. When looking towards motivating people, firstly get free of things that annoy them about the corporation and the place of work. Be sure they're taken care of fairly & respectfully, no matter where they are from.

Cross cultural Negotiator

Culture and negotiation approach can be taken as identifiable and reasonable approaches. To evaluate dissimilarity or accepting a latest style of business atmosphere is to know that the earth is a dynamic place, with every continent holding its own civilities & business practices according to its culture complications. For e.g., Time Orientation. Two dissimilar orientations exist transversely in world: monochronic & polychronic. Mediators from monochronic cultures are inclined to focus on one thing at a time. Mediators of polychronic cultures are inclined toward various things at a time & the participation of a lot of individuals. The time taken to complete dealings is more flexible, more essential than any plan. This situation is most common in France, Greece, and Italy, and some African cultures.

Conclusion

Culture is a social instrument that forms and directs people's opinions, values & thinking and eventually controls their actions. It is 'the joint programming of the intelligence which differentiates the associates of one individual group from the other, the interactive cumulating of widespread individuality that influence a person group's reaction to the surroundings. (Hofstede 1980).  Various studies specified in different trades in the tourism industry (Cross Cultural Hospitality Management 1997) shows that when it comes to people's performance in organizations, culture counts. Thus when trying to bring in administrative practices such as leadership styles, negotiation patterns and motivation techniques from one nation to another, difficulties arise. As a global hospitality and tourism managers in business will always encounter cross cultures difference for national, international and multinational trade. Therefore, how to interact effectively across cultures might be an important issue and a requirement in today's global environment.

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