Critical approach to human resource management

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Human Resource Management (HRM), implicate planning, executing and effectively supervising recruitment, also selection, career training and development of business communities to initiate within the organization. The aim of an HRM is to increase the demand of productivity and improving the efficiency of the employees while encouraging the work life of employees and bringing a gratifying association together by treating them with valuable resources. Human resources word created formally in 1960 by keeping in mind about the welfare of the organization as to channelize potential workers with strong bond. Accordingly, HRM comprehend to attempt a development in personal and satisfaction towards the employee, Abidance with workers related script to the respect of law and culture, to gain a balanced statistics between employee to employers ambitions and requirements, HRM administration concentrate on three common activities or functions; preparation, execution and assessment. The designing aspect of the course is to develop human resources rules, regulations and policies. Human Resource administrators endeavour to ascertain future HRM projects with careful effectuation of HRM routine to assist members of the companies to understand their achievements and goals and boost them to connect with it.

Four essential functions to carry out the HRM projects and plan: attainment, improvement, defence mechanism and sustainment. Attainment imply to the section of hiring workers for the importance given to the company's to reach its goals. Improvement deals with the educating employers to put plans in to actions with the strategies keeping in my mind to attain the task of the company. This process will help understand the employee's skills and potential to commute or control the employee activities via feedback, analysis, inducement and training. Defence Mechanism is an act of defrayal to employees for their complete services. Sustainment is essential to make a communication process towards labour association as it helps to structure the company's strategy for a powerful management and organized employees assuring compliance along with union and nations employment laws. In the end, the evaluation affair allows the assessment of an organization HRM procedure, law, policies to define if they are effective and efficient.

Since the origin of modern management concept, Nomenclature used to describe the characteristics and activities of employees has developed from industrial, personnel, employee, relations and human resources. When all these terms still be mentioned in every aspect, human resources is strictly comprises the understanding of employees by synchronous manner for management strategy: as essential resources encouraged in the equal manner as any other resources which is represented by the human resource management authors. Organization depend on three primary resources: Material resources such as equipments and economic resources such as credit, cash and debit; Employees or human resources in its liberal nature has to advert to the management of all determination within an organization to connect with people. Hence, HRM is a key component that is to surrogate development to be carried out for each individual, to abide by government policies and authorisation. Increasingly organizations basic fundamentals of HRM section and its principle are to make company's ambitions sustainable and encourage in every possible way and of course with the help of potential employees. (Jackson, 1995)


Roles of HRM in organization:

HRM division responsibilities, apart from legal relations and duties in clerical, can also be by individual, career domain and organizational. Individual administration imply on assisting employees to distinguish their weakness and strengths towards work. Rectify their deficiency and to make the best by showing involvement towards organization. These roles are followed through several of activities such as reviews on performances basis, training and examining. Improvement in organization is focused upon nurturing a promising system that increases employers and other resources. This is essential when duties are included on creativity and sustainability on modified features of program that helps the organization to receive the influences internally by not neglecting external development. The third role of career process which includes connecting those individual with their eligible jobs towards career prosper. Emplacement in HRM departments is derived as an ideal manner close to the theoretical association centre. With utmost access to all sections and levels of management, In higher level of organization, HRM might be functioned by a vice-president, on the other hand smaller abstract of people will be handled by a centre-level manager as chief of HRM, besides the HRM department is qualified by managing the productivity and progress of employees at every levels. The head of HRM manager familiarised with the access to, the affirmative tool as decision maker, it is stated that HRM department should be built in a way where there is a horizontal access which helps to converse effectively with all sections within an organization. Horizontal access helps HRM team to incorporate, cultivate, prepare and train the team that will alleviate changes to bring positive indirect or direct influence towards other section of the institution. The complex of HRM department distinguish according to the level and size of the organization that they are associated, Many high level organization such as institutions, government, manufacturing companies, organization for services coordinate HRM workers development operation around different constellation- they arrange recruiting, supervising and various other responsibilities taken in central area. Different working department groups together for each division that is essential for the development of expertise areas for the employees, as in engineering, executive institutions, marketing and sales. Counterpoint to that, some HRM division is reasonably opposite to that as it is more independent and purely depends on function which is organized. The training division is equal, for instance, assists all department of the organization

The most vital prospect of HRM is evaluating HRM choices of act and appraising its results. Surprisingly sometimes the utmost plans and implementation that is calculated carefully can fallout and end up being meaningless without some way before throwing any judgement to the efficiency or amount of credibility. Techniques in HRM methods which is evaluated should involve both external and internal functions. Internal functions compliments on the price and the profits of HTM methods, on the other hand external functions deals with overall profits of HRM methods in accomplishing company goals. Larger resources in the departments familiarise themselves with details, expertise in data collection and analysis of statistical techniques to examine the progress of their initiatives. The structures of these results might be taken in to action to adjust HRM supplies or to make organizational changes. (Kandula, 2007)

Functions of HRM in cultural changes of organization:

The initial tool is new technologies-especially information technology that introduced decentralization of human activities by communicating and reorganise existing prototype of human interactions and hypothesis of organization. Communication through satellites, network systems and computers, fax machines and other helpful devices that alleviating changes. Hence, a technology of these kinds helps dim the lines between professional and personal time by helping employees to work at home, HRM professionals started to acquire management by objective by having access to human resources rather in a conventional management by vision approach.

The second essential impact in the changes of HRM was in the basis of new organizational statistics that started to appear during the 1980 and prolonged till 1990. Since many companies encouraged expanding their functions and radiating their services and products, the primal decision making system that is unsuccessful to react promptly to managers concerns and requirements. Henceforth, organisations have been more priority to the decentralized management systems which are quite transparent in comparison to the hierarchical structure which has been followed conventionally. There has been a significant development in improving efficiency in order to reach corporate ideas and goals. Thus, team work is very important. And as HRM professionals, the effort derived were quite productive in regard to the increase in the number of part-time employees or contract work. However, there should be a good balance of approach in deploying human resource techniques between the part-time and full-time employees.

The third essential element was intensifying product globalization and profit of sales which can increase competition and reflect with brighter performance from employees, frequently at belittled level of rectification. To contend abroad, organization were looking to their HRM members to enlarge initiatives in regard to productivity, innovation, sales, quality and control over the scale. Others elements changing in HRM includes: strengthen the rate of modification and ferment which results in increasing workers turnover and the requirement for more reactions, broadminded employees, changing demographics and profit among equality as for the demand of highly educated employees increase regardless at the expense of lower income employees.

The management/ employee relations, safety, health and maintenance are considered to be an important area of interest of the HRM field. Occupational health and safety Act of 1970 falls under the main regulations of HRM practices, which accomplished the Occupational health and safety Administration act that designed to drive employers to supply healthy and safety working atmosphere and also bring organizations apt for employers safety. Indiscriminate act has inflated to permit thousands of regulations that comes under criminal or civil penalties, Additional jail period and amercement laws which needs employers attention for paying provision for work affiliated injuries and thrust HRM managers to prepare safety procedures related to documents and to reduce company's financial obligation and programs that is included in the act towards the organization.

Strategies and Approaches:

Organizational cultural changes in HRM is quite sensitive to the concept based on the skills which is involved among workers as it has both positive and negative attributes to deal with itself depends on the situations. It has shaped in the period of time with communication among members in the organization. Once people show involvement the value and understand the primary force of changes which is essential to the community then everything feels more alive and active. In spite of that the recent organizational culture suits the condition and trend to the founder of the company. As culture repeatedly dominate the style of management. Managers hiring interests prevails towards people like themselves. New members bring more potential and skills to reward in organizational culture.

Organizational culture in HRM has its own time to improve according to the development shown among the team members. Working groups is completely satisfied with the settled organizational culture and doesn't seek for changes as conflict arise among them for different reasons and changes will be on the table when there is an occasion created to show the reasons for the next step as one among few is coquetry with bankruptcy, deprivation in sales, production or customers or downhill with financial stability, these few reasons might get peoples influence over it. Though it is predictable to understand the organization culture is the perpetrator and should take required action to change it. Members associated with the organization understand and familiarize with the latest organizational cultural requirement to alter that supports organization's advancement, it is essential to follow the technological aspect of life when it improves then even an organizational cultures has necessity to bring something new to the company. At the same we cannot guarantee that changes can bring the company to prosper or progress and it is difficult to facilitate in the first place unless there is a statistical plan for further improvement.

An organizations strategies and approaches is to improve the skills of response and accommodate quickly and act as flexible which offers increasing stability to change and adapt yourself in the midst of great supplement for a competitive role that has been played to achieve maintenance for positive outcome. This is just not about anticipation to follow the trends, changes is essential more than anything else as it should bring a potentiality to the company's efforts. Organizations force to jump from one tree to another. Human resources professionals are the main source for the essence of the year long initiatives. On the other hand it can be difficult by getting hooked with the flow of strategies improvement by head of executives, basic illustration of these hooks is followed by:

Shift of culture: This is like from guiding to volunteer the management ways, or from stratified to groups according to the administration and decision making

Shift of Structure: This is another form from centralized to decentralized functions to get once again, another from curtailment to hire again.

Shift of strategy in function: it is based on the improvement of the quality to the act of cutting cost or another form by focusing on the products to the focus on the customer. (Schular and Jackson, 2007)


Human resource management having a great level of importance in any organization, It is practical to make any expertise changes positively to gain all the benefits out of the work environment. It is a moving source of component that never fails to administer during the process of recruitment, selection and training period and for that very own reason it is feasible to give some examples of changing HRM in an organization and its responsibilities. Convincingly, the idea of HRM practices in organizations like Sainsbury's plays a vital role with the means of HRM techniques.

Case Study 1:

Sainsbury's Supermarket Ltd is a division of J Sainsbury plc, Being one of the country's leading retailer. J Sainsbury functions three different store firm and bank in the UK and supermarket represented in US. Over 450 stock nation-wide only last year made a gross sales over £18.4 billion that which is rendered. Sainsbury's Supermarket Ltd, is also a part of Sainsbury's group plc are the largest UK's retail organizations. Sainsbury's is one of the most popular supermarkets. Few of them not aware of the group Sainsbury's bank, international property which is situated in different locations across north America and Egypt.

Human resources plays a great part in developing this firm in many levels. It is planned under expertise work force that makes the changes which is essential for this organization. It is termed as the activity of management that will bring rather more focused attention towards coordinating on the recruitment that offers many levels of employees. A thought for human resources planning for this division is to bring potential employees for the development and improve the positive connection between HR and business plans. Also to assure about monetary value for members and amount of members employed effectively and efficiently. To offer valuable and equal working opportunity that makes members more easier to connect to the organization. Human resources is associated with the people's management and that operates all the department that exists in an organization. One of the roles that has general manager position which holds small firm or in different division like sainbury's which is largely populated. The main criteria for this function:

Training and Development:

This offers fresh employees at Sainsbury to get adapted easily: to assist employees improvement and dedication towards work in the organization. Training is essential for the employee's achievement and to approach customers for valuable services. That includes:

Customer Service:

This position assures customers to reach for help in regard to the Sainsbury's that offers the first place for good service. Employees will be completely trained to make sure about the work they have to do later such as cash handling. Another part of the job is to assist customers to choose the products and for packaging. One of the important skills to be supervised is communication level and contribution to help others.


Appraisal interviews are related to the feedback about individual's performance in the work and to prepare for the future. This is good for fresh managers or as an opportunity for existing manager's improvement who can take advantage of knowing the appraisal procedure. It is feasible for the staff's support that has workers accounts. It is also essential to boost employee's performance to improve the skills which encourages employee's personal goals to achieve. This function can bring mutual benefits towards Sainsbury's organization and to individual employees career prospects and offers customers satisfying services.

Recruitment and Selection:

Sainsbury's organizational prospective has to be strong and competitive so it has to assure the objectives is in complete status. Exploring new ideas and to hire qualified and potential employees plays a vital role for a development. Process of hiring and firing is the part where statistical data has been maintained to input and output the right choice of members for the team progress.


Sainsbury's HRM division has to be aware of the process to dismiss employees according to the work involvement that is offered by individual worker as per the law. The rule is to warn verbally, scripted admonition and to warn for the last time. It is the regulation to sign a contract that stated where employees cannot be dismissed without any proper reason. This is a mutual protection between the workers and employer at Sainsbury Employers should supply a written statement with particulars to new employees on the inside of eight weeks of work and assure that present employees have statement in details for employment.

Recent quarterly data the labour force survey appraisal shows that 148,000 Birmingham residents are in employment and that of which male employees 84,000 and female employees of 64,000. Sainsbury has to take actions to change the recruitment policies to bring more female employees to the organization. Economic Activity rates are the tool to attract anyone who is aware interested in labour market statistics. Statistics from Labour Force Survey (LFS) shows the latest economic activity rate. The table given below shows the particulars of working population in different cities in UK like Birmingham and Britain but Wales has an average rating of quite below to the comparison of other town cities which has highest actively working population. Anon (Report on Sainsbury's Resource Management, 2010)

Below is the labour force chart for working population in Sainsbury

Economic Activity Rate of Resident Population from labour force survey

Working Population




All Residents of Working Age




Males Resident of Working Age




Female Resident of Working Age




Table source: (Report on Sainsbury's Resource Management, 2010)

Recent studies have shown that UK labour market is effecting the credit crisis g hazards to the chain reaction and unemployment began to increase from May to August 2008 as given below. It has risen to 164,000 which is largely increased since 1990 and the unemployment rate was 5.8% in the three months till September 2008. From this it is said to decrease disposable income in families have now curbed their spending. It is not understandable whether the ratings of the statistics has said that failure in employment of organization which is deciding to get skilled workers is rare or it is unfortunate for the people to understand the strategy of working atmosphere.

Economic Growth

Figure source: (UK economy, 2009)

Working and Unemployment rating till 2010

Figure Source :( Economy Help, 2009)

Case Study 2:

Technology is moving forwards to facilitate and build a trend in an organization. It is important to bring a connection between workers to make things easier for ideal profit and for that very reason human resources management software is in charge for many companies' profits and for a practical solutions to heat up the essential assets in an organization. This is one of the changes in human resources organization that helps to communication and collaborates to the extent of gaining an understanding in the community. HRM software is termed for the skilled management to assist business in saving time and to bring efficient and effective HR management. Though there is innovation in the process of creating new HRM software in the community. The most easy and updated version of OrangeHRM has many advantages that brings solution to the process of creative management to the organization.

OrangeHRM is a free and open source human resource management business solution for the Small and Medium sized Enterprise(SME). This modular HRM system automates HR processes.  It is developed from PHP, MySQL and Apache HTTP Server. The software can be used on both Microsoft Windows and Linux operating system. For more insight I delved into the features of OrangeHRM.

OrangeHRM includes 7modules lets how each of them function

OrangeHRM is a essential for open source human resource management and its free to use for business solution for the small and medium sized company. This model of HRM system operates HR processing more easy to collaborate. It is developed from PHP, MySQL and Apache HTTP Server. This Software is available to use both in Microsoft Windows and Linux operating system which makes it the best for any users.

The seven quick functions which is provided in this software:

Administrative Module:

This is the chief of all HRM system that can access the entire administrative task in the system. This is carried out by HRM manager or any other hired personnel. This section involves skills such as defining company plans and structure, pay grades and other information which is essential for the rest of it.

Recruitment Module

This mode is associated with the relation of recruitment process, The flexible recruitment tools that is comprehended to make it simple and easy to access. New features is updated to this module like showing the database of job vacancies, including pay grade and employment status, selection process for managers to hire people.

Personal Information Manager Module (PIM)

Every employee's database is safely secured in this module. It list out the information of employees such as personal details, qualification and work experience so on. It also helps to omit data redundancy by providing employees data to be operated by other modules.

Employee Self Service Module

Company's employees can get access to view their personal information with the help of tool, they need to update their personal information with the web enabled PC. This will eliminate the extra work for HR staff.

Reports Module

OrangeHRM is a key to produce constructed reports with the requirement of user's convenience. The reports are showed accordingly to the level of searching criteria and report fields.

Leave module

It also generate different leave types briefly available onscreen for all employees and helps to manage an application and approval process. Almost all the process of leave is administered.

Time and Attendance Module:

It also supervises the attendance and time requirement, It collects the labour data and reduces the error to imposition of company's attendance policies and other areas


The basic features of this open source software is that it gives profound collaboration and stability to increase transparency that will bring a better communication among user which is the important part to use OrangeHRM.


HRM software is designed in such a way to give benefits. It also increase the performance of production and quality detains in the appraisal module that can evaluate quality productions. (Partho , 2009)


Quality of this topic is that HRM plays a vital roles to the initial stage to the end of any organization for success and failure process. Changes of an organization is a part of common areas that has to be corrected with the help of human resources community. It can give a wide range of exploration and understanding people relation towards the work and involvement. Human resources management is all about people in terms of hiring till firing process that has to take place in positive atmosphere to convey the right message. Human resources management develops accordingly like techonology has its hands to improve the generation of changes that has to be a part in any organization. Human resources in a changing organization will be reliable and will sustain through out the years to come as it is the main aspect of any organization.