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As what we can see today, either academic or business interests in corporate identity have increased significantly in recent years for the variety of their own reasons for the organization. Organizations have already realized that a strong identity can really help them align with the marketplace, attract investment, motivate employees to always perform the best in their work and serve as a means to differentiate their products and services to the public by their organization functions. Furthermore, many organizations are striving to develop a distinct and recognizable identity so that people will give a positive thought about the organization and it will increase their own reputation towards their public from all over the world.
Identity consists of a company's defining attributes, such as its vision and values, its people, products, and services. Normally, every organization has its own identity that they want to show and present to the world about their organization so that people will always set in their mind what is the actual identity of the organization that makes them stand by their own way which is by presenting their products or services. For example, all people from all over the world know that Coca-Cola is a very famous product in the world and the identity that the organization shows to the public is by make their product which is the can is red in colour and also with the white lettering no matter where is the products are display whether they are in London, Indonesia, Dubai, and also Malaysia as well. Organizations have realized that a strong identity will help them attract investment, align with the marketplace, and also serve as a means to differentiate their products and services. Furthermore, certain characteristics of an efficacious corporate identity include a reputation for high quality goods and services, a robust financial performance, a harmonious workplace environment, and a reputation for social and environment responsibility (Einwiller and Will, 2002).
2.0 Concept of corporate identity
Corporate identity is the reality of the corporation. It is the unique, individual personality of the company that differentiates it from other companies. Corporate identity is the reality and uniqueness of the organization and it may be broken down into its component parts that are corporate strategy, corporate culture, organizational design, and operations. Corporate identity could be interpreted as a strategic manifestation of corporate level vision and mission, underpinned by the strategies which a corporation employs in its operations or production (Melewar and Wooldridge, 2001). Balmer's research (1998) is useful in outlining some of the generally accepted features of corporate identity definitions. First, corporate identity is a multidisciplinary field. Second, it is a term used to identify the essence of what the firm is and thus incorporates many unique characteristics of the firm such as history, philosophy, culture, communication, and the industry the firm operates in. Third, it is inseparable from the corporate personality of the organization. Furthermore, Balmer and Soenen (1999) also provide some useful judgments that are also supported by Melewar and Jenkins (2002) who state that the term of corporate identity evolved from undertakings in the area of marketing, primarily in areas such as corporate visual identity systems, which are used to represent the organizational values and missions to the outside of the world. In addition, the term became associated with a wide range of functions including business strategy, philosophy of key executives, corporate culture, behavior and corporate design which are both interdependent and unique to each of the organization (Van Riel, 1997).
Melewar (1993) has been developed and categorized the corporate identity into seven main dimensions which are corporate communication, corporate design, corporate culture, corporate behavior, corporate structure, corporate strategy, and industry identity. Corporate communication more focuses on the marketing, management, and also the organization itself that have been handled by the company. Corporate design is more into the logo of the organization, location, the architecture of the building, how the website looks like and more to the external factors that the public can judge by looking through the image that the organization shows. Besides that, which is different with the corporate culture that has been developed by Melewar is based on the values of the organization and also the vision and mission itself. Besides, corporate behavior focuses on the company behavior, management behavior, and the employee behavior. Corporate structure has been categorized into brand structure and organization structure. Corporate strategy shows the identity positioning and the differentiation strategy that the organization makes to make the company well known by the people in the other environment. Lastly, industry identity is the identity by the certain industry to attract people from all over the world for always makes the country or the organization always be people's number one.
3.0 Corporate culture
Corporate culture has been an important theme in management and business research for the past few decades due to its potential to affect a range of organizationally and individually desired outcomes such as commitment, loyalty, turn over intent, and satisfaction (Chow, 2001). While corporate culture is not the only determinant of business success or failure, a positive culture that has been developed can be a significant competitive advantage over organizations with which a firm competes. There is also a consensus that corporate culture is a management philosophy and a way of managing organizations to improve their overall effectiveness and performance (Kotter and Heskett, 1992). Furthermore, research has confirmed that corporate culture is able to influence the thoughts, feelings, interactions, and organizational performance (Yusof and Ali, 2000 ; Saeed and Hassan, 2000). Corporate culture based on the research that has been done by Melewar is being divided into three components which are value, mission, and vision.
Value statements are grounded in values and define how people want to behave with each other in the organization. They are statements about how the organization will value customers, suppliers, and the internal community which are the most important person for their organization. Value statements describe actions which are the living of the performance of the fundamental values held by most individuals within the organization.
The values of each of the individuals in the organization, along with their experiences as well, will upbringing and join together to form the own corporate culture of the organization. The values of the senior leaders are especially important in the development of the culture in the organization. These leaders have a lot of power in the organization to set the course and environment and they have selected the staff for the organization in doing the good job and perform well.
Culture describes patterns of behaviour that form a durable template by which ideas and images can be transferred from one generation to another or from one group to another. Three aspects of this definition need further explanation. First, the transfer of behaviour does not take place through genetics but instead takes place through the social interaction between members of a group. Second, according to the culture pattern theory (e.g. Benedict, 1934) the various elements of a culture tend to form a relatively stable harmonious system and therefore any cultural template is durable and slow to change. Third, the ideas and images of culture provide a guide for the conduct of acceptable behaviour. As such, many aspects of the culture are embodied in rules of various sorts which is some are laws, for example, against stealing which are backed by official punishment for deviation and to the others are social norms, for example, about what clothes to wear which are backed by social disapproval and rejection of deviates.
In the organizational behavior literature, corporate culture has been defined in many ways by various authors and researchers. However, many researchers would agree that corporate culture can be referred to as a set of values, beliefs, and behavior patterns that form the key identity of organizations and that help in determining their employees' manners (Rashid et al., 2003; Lund, 2003; Pool, 2000; Schein, 1992). It defines what the firm's personnel believe is important and unimportant, and explains to a large degree why the organization behaves the way it does. In addition, corporate culture is not just any thoughts, values, and actions, but rather the unifying patterns that are shared, learned, aggregated at the group level, and internalized only by organizational members (Lawson and Shen, 1998).
Corporate culture can also be defined as a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration (Schein, 1992). Culture might be one of the strongest and most stable strength within the organizational context (Schein, 2004). The most widely used definition of organizational culture is provided by Schein (2004, 17) which is defined the corporate culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. This definition gives a reason why the culture is important in the success of the operations and activities of the organization.
From the definition of those researches, corporate culture can be defined as beliefs or practices whether it is in a formal way that the organization is already develop or it might be the staff on the organization that develop the culture among themselves. The culture which is the values is kind of habit that the people already make it as a ritual for them in getting them in the comfortable zone and not being look like a strangers by their own friends in the organization. Furthermore, corporate culture is the shared set of attitudes, beliefs and norms that is passed along among organizational members. In addition, organizational culture outlines the appropriate behavior for employees, thus, with a clearly defined culture, members of the organization know what is expected of them and what to expect from the organization. Culture conveys a sense of who the company is. This sense of identity is communicated to the employees, the company's customers, suppliers and the general public. All the company's stakeholders know who the company is as this culture is communicated.
Nowadays, people come from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and cultural heritages and they have their own identities and a variety of personalities that have been shaped by a diverse range of experience that they faced in their reality life. In addition, when people from different background are brought and combined together under one roof which is in a organization, they will be different cultures that they presented and it might be their own ritual for doing of that things as their own culture.
There are several functions of culture that grow in the organization. One of the functions is that culture gives employees a sense of identity with the company and provides an overall objective. In the easy meaning we can just imagine that culture is like glue that holds the organization together with the same mission, vision, and also culture they develop from the organization. For example, from what we can see that Hewlett-Packard's (HP) culture is characterized by an emphasis on quality. As what we can see that all of the organizations mostly focus on the quality of their products to make their customers always trust about their products and will be loyal for that products that will give the organization many benefits so do the customer that bought the product that will get the satisfaction. Culture provides a unifying theme for the organization. It gives focus and direction to the firm so everyone is pulling the proverbial cart in the same direction.
In addition, the culture can be weak or strong. A strong culture is deeply ingrained in the organization and in all the employees. It is very difficult to change and when it is changed, it can often take years to complete the change effort and the changes can take up to 15 years. A weak culture, which is often found in smaller or younger organizations are something that can be changed more easily since it is not so entrenched. Older organizations must especially bear this in mind when making changes that have their roots in the corporate culture. Employees tend to resist change more that is bound up in the culture of the organization. Culture is often formed in young organizations as a reflection of the founder's beliefs. What was important to the founder becomes important to the employees of the organization and becomes entwined as a part of the corporate culture. As the company grows, this culture reminds the company of how and why they were founded.
Culture that slowly develop from the organization can categorized to so many things that includes the good and also the bad beliefs or norms toward the people in the organization. Culture is something about beliefs that everyone has their own perception of the culture that they see in their organization. For example, in the hospital, we can see that the doctors are wearing white coat with the stethoscope hanging on their neck while the nurses wear their own white uniform and we can see that every nurse will wear the same uniform and also the same colour with one another. That is what we called the culture that grows in the hospital that the people who are the doctors and the nurses that work in the hospital are wearing the same uniform and also same colour. It is because since few years back the dress code has been turn to make the people that work in the hospital should wear the same uniform and also the same colour. In addition, it will make the patient will know how to differentiate between the nurses and also with the visitors that come to visit their relatives. It is how the culture has been develop from time to time and it is mostly gives good significant and there must be a reason why the organization wants to make the culture be like that.
Besides, the way of the leadership also can be the culture of the organization. Some of the organization, the leaders is someone that did not bother about their workers and what he/she knows that the works that have been given will complete according to the due date given. This type of leader or we can called as manager is someone that selfish and from his/her attitudes, it will affect the workers for not working in a team work and it will cause trouble to the organization itself. The good manager should perform or show good attitudes to the workers so that it will show the good image of the organization with the team work and helping each other that can reduce the workload and the most important thing is the mission that has been highlighted will easily achieved with the good reputations of the organization. In addition, the manager of the organization should be an idol to the workers for that they will follow those good things and left behind those bad things that will not guarantee the successful will be achieved towards them.
Thought leadership is a strategy that can be planned and executed throughout an entire organization. The term was created to describe stand-out people ''after the fact'' (Kurtzman, 1997), but there is a little more to it than that, as this term alone comes across to me as quite arbitrary and subjective at times. People still speak and write about thought leadership without any specific criteria, which makes it hard to declare with confidence who is one and who is not. It is even harder to aspire to be one because how would you know if you reached the standard or not? To establish some clarity in all this confusion, the standard for thought leadership is already defined by four key attributes (REAL) which is stands for reach, engagement, authority, and longevity, and if achieved, it will give individuals and whole businesses a greater chance of being seen as a thought leader in their industry (Gibbins-Klein, 2009).
For example, Donald Trump is a very famous person that everyone knows about him. He handled his company very details and gives a good reputation to his workers and shape his workers opinion to think outside of the box in handling works in the organization. Furthermore, he is a very high expectation person and he always want the best and for those who has been work for him know that criteria that he highlight if someone want to work in his company. So that, we can see that the culture that Donald Trump develop is something that can gives a best result not only for him but for the company as well. The culture and value of always do the best might be stressful at the beginning but towards the end the works already completed, the satisfaction that will achieved is something that cannot be mention by our own words. The culture is good to train the workers to always perform the best and always think that he/she is the best among others.
Other example that we can see through the corporate culture which is being a culture in the organization is based on the timing that the workers should go back home and end their works. Normally, people that work in the organization will go to the office around 8 or 9 a.m. and will go back home around 5 p.m. Some of the companies will assume that the workers who go back at 5 p.m. is being labeled as a lazy workers and at least they should go back after 6 p.m and in that situation the workers is being labeled as a hardworking person. There is a culture that has been developed by the organization and it depend to the workers either they want to follow the rules or not because it will affect their job performance as well and they need to get along in that situation if that happened to them.
Other than that, the advantage of the strong corporate culture is by increasing the loyalty. The loyalty in the organization is a must so that people will always respect us in whatever things we do. By being loyal, replacing the workers will be avoided and it will not be a ritual culture for the workers to always change their job because of the negative attitude that it cannot be connected to the culture that already being developed by the new organization.
Besides, the motivation also will get increased and it will automatically increased the management control of the organization. From the culture that being developed by the organization that has the good and the positive sides will make the workers being motivated and the management control will be easily handled by the upper workers and it will get the good performance of works by the workers and the culture will be always being followed for the next generation because of the image that has been produced or showed by the organization especially to the workers.
3.1 Types of corporate culture
There are different types of culture just like there are different types of personality that we can see and researcher Jeffrey Sonnenfeld identified the following four types of corporate cultures that can be seen in the organization. The four types of corporate cultures are the academy culture, the club culture, the baseball team culture, and the fortress culture. The academy culture exposes employees to many different jobs so that they can move around within the organization. In addition, employees are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization, while working their way up the ranks. Furthermore, the organization provides a stable environment in which employees can development and exercises their skills. This type of culture makes employee be more relax and stay at the comfortable area which those facilities are provided and it makes the completeness of the works become easier without any stressful that occurred. For examples are universities, hospitals, large corporations, and others.
The club culture is very concerned with how people will fit in to the organization. The most important requirement for employees in this culture is to fit into the group and usually employee's starts at the bottom and stay with the organization. The organization promotes from within and highly values seniority. The requirements will make only certain employees that will be able stay in the organization and the seniority will make those works will having some difficulties because there are no freedom that show in this culture. For examples are the military, some law firms, and others.
The baseball team culture consists of talented people or "stars" that are rewarded heavily for their accomplishments but who will readily leave the organization when a better opportunity comes along. Employees are like free agents who have highly prized skills. Furthermore, they are in high demand and can rather easily get jobs elsewhere. It is because they are wll talented and there are many offers that waiting for them that will make them have a very bright future no matter where they will be able to stand. This type of culture exists in fast-paced and high-risk organizations such as investment banking, advertising, and others.
The fortress culture is an organization that is concerned mainly with survival. Employees do not know if they will be laid off or not by the organization. In addition, these organizations often undergo massive reorganization and there are many opportunities for those with timely, specialized skills. It has to be aware and alert of what the employee do to avoid any negative things happen. Furthermore, it is also gives benefits to the people who got extra skills and it will have many of credits towards this culture. For examples are savings and loans, large car companies, and others.
4.0 Mission in corporate culture
Beside values in corporate culture, the mission of the organization is also one of the corporate cultures for the organization that they developed to aim the goals that they have been set in the early of the organization has been run. Mission is a precise description of what an organization does that has been set and try to achieve it in perform a good work. Furthermore, it should describes the business of the organization is in and deal with. In addition, it is a definition of "why" the organization exists currently. Each member of an organization should be able to verbally express this mission and work together to achieve the same mission with the culture that they develop from time to time.
Additionally, each person in this world needs a mission for his or her life to make his or her life be more systematic and well managed. The alignment of the life mission and with the organization's mission is one of the key factors in whether people are happy with their work and the organization itself. If they are contrasting, it means he or she is likely dissatisfied with his or her work choice and they need to do something and motivate themselves in always perform the good job and try to show the best among the best.
4.1 Examples of mission statement
"FedEx is committed to our People-Service-Profit Philosophy. We will produce outstanding financial returns by providing totally reliable, competitively superior, global, air-ground transportation of high-priority goods and documents that require rapid, time-certain delivery." FedEx is a very popular organization and everybody knows that FedEx has performed well in their services. From the example, we can see that the company gives the guarantee for their services and the mission that they try to do is they want their customers always satisfied with the services that they provided. In addition, to make the mission will try to deliver to the public or their customers, the company should have the philosophy and try to make the mindset of the workers to get achieve of the mission that has been highlighted by the company and the most important thing is by making the work followed by the positive culture that all if the workers will work together to achieve the one's mission that has been set.
"In order to realize our vision, our mission must be to exceed the expectations of our customers, whom we define as guests, partners, and fellow employees. We will accomplish this by committing to our shared values and by achieving the highest levels of customer satisfaction, with extraordinary emphasis on the creation of value. In this way we will ensure that our profit, quality and growth goals are met." The example of this mission is from Westin Hotels and Resorts and from the mission we can see that Westin focus on their customer's satisfaction to make sure that their company's profit goals will achieve too and it will make their services well-known by the people all over the world.
Every organization has their own mission that they want to achieve by the teamwork of the workers in the organization. It is a culture of working in a one big group and help each other to make the mission will successful will be achieve and if the mission has been achieved, it will represent the organization of the good reputation and the image of the organization will get the positive feedback. The achievement of the mission will increase the profit of the company and it is not only give the benefits to the organization but it is also gives benefits to the workers as well.
Therefore, corporate identity is the presentation of an organization to every stakeholder. It is what makes an organization unique and it incorporates the organization's communication, design, culture, behaviour, structure, industry identity and strategy. It is thus intrinsically related to both the corporate personality and image. As what we can see, corporate culture has been developed by the organization or the workers itself that will affect the structure of the organization whether it will perform well or not based on their acceptance of the culture through their own perspectives.
Culture in the organization is the beliefs of the people whether he or she needs to follow or not and it is depends to them as long as they know the right and wrong in the culture of the organization. People will have different think of culture because people in the organization come from the different background and it is normal to have the different thought that might be influenced to other people in the organization. In addition, as a new worker in the organization, he or she needs to survey the culture of the organization so that he or she will adapt in that new environment without feels any awkward and be like a stranger in the company.