Coordination as a Component of Organisational Culture

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  1. Impact of Coordination as a component of Organizational Culture on teamwork

Coordination always involves a Coordinating of Project Actions and principles for doing the job well in an organization. Flick (2006) sometimes it also involves a Coordinating of Project People in a design team if you are a supervisor, or a team member who is serving as an unofficial leader. A basic coordinating of design-actions is similar for your own actions or a team's actions; Coordinating the design-actions of your team members can be done by direct decisions (if you decide what they should do and when) and indirect delegation (if you give them responsibility for some of their own action-decisions), in whatever balance you think will be most effective, when all things are considered,Babbie (2003).As described above, you use the two parts of a Teaching Strategy, appropriately adapted for the context of your project and people, by encouraging your team members to develop & use their own Strategies for Learning-and-Performance, for delegated responsibilities and by developing & using your own Supervising Strategies.

Producing Teamwork: When a group works on a design project, especially the leaders, official and unofficial — should consider the social aspects of the process. They should design strategies for optimizing their use of resources in a way that helps individuals enjoy their work and gain satisfaction from it, while building an “us” feeling in the group with good attitudes toward each other, as co-workers and as people. Doing this well requires skillful cognition plus aware “external met cognition” in the social context of their working environment. Those being supervised also play valuable roles by doing their jobs with skill, and being good team members.Overcoming Challenges:

A group may have to cope with the pressures of a difficult project when their work is constrained by the limitations of time deadlines and resource budgets. There might be interpersonal tensions between some people, or institutional structures that hinder teamwork. Hess (2001) any of these factors, and others, can put a strain on individuals, their relationships, and the teamwork; in addition to the harmful personal effects for the people involved, the practical effects for a business can be a decrease in the effectiveness of a design process and the quality of a resulting solution. Supervisors and other leaders, as part of their official or unofficial responsibilities, can try to develop strategies for achieving the best possible process-of-design and results-of-design, in ways that are also personally beneficial for the people on their team. Information and communication technology enables accomplishment of work to become independent of time and place. People now work at various locations and participate in the work of one or more organizations. Organizational forms are increasingly based on distributed working practices and localized decision-making.

This offers many advantages for both the workers and the organizations but induces considerable coordination costs. At the same time, traditional coordination mechanisms based on predefined organizational constructs such as formal structures, procedures, methods and plans, are no longer satisfactory in a business environment of globalization and rapid change. New mechanisms are needed and a large number of organizations adopt various forms of flexible and decentralized work management All coordination intensive organizations are characterized by local control over job allocation and day-to-day work planning and control. Examples of organizational forms of this type are All fieldwork at the customer service teams of a majorUK telecommunications company is coordinated by their in-house operational support system (OSS).

The OSS is based on a combination of large monolithic applications, including a personnel database. The system processes the requests for work for the next day to produce a work schedule for the field engineer repair teams. A task is dispatched to a worker by sending a message to his or her hand-held terminal. Salas et al (2009). The basic assumption of dependency lends cohesion to the group by means of supporting the assumption that nourishment, protection, knowledge, and life can come only from the wisdom of a leader who is omnipotent and omniscient, akin to a magician. The basic assumption of fight/flight brings individuals together around the violent, excitation-saturated feeling that the salvation of the group and its individual members depends on the fact that their leader will enable them to identify, and then successfully fight or flee, a specific enemy either within or outside the group. The basic assumption of pairing enables the group to come together as such through the members' sharing of an implicit, mysterious hope, sparked by the assumption that a couple will give birth to a messiah, a new guide, a new idea, or a new theory or ideology.

Hersey (2007) narrates that team work is essential in corporate for better output and a better bonding among employees. No organization runs for charity. Targets must be met and revenues have to be generated. Tasks must not be kept pending for a long time and ought to be completed within the desired timeframe. A single brain can’t always come with solutions or take decisions alone. He needs someone with whom he can discuss his ideas. In a team, every team member has an equal contribution and each team member comes out with a solution best suited to the problem. All the alternatives can be explored to come out with the best possible solution. Higgs (1996) expresses that thoughts can be discussed among the team members and the pros and cons can be evaluated. Tasks are accomplished at a faster pace when it is done by a team rather than an individual. An individual will definitely take more time to perform if he is single handedly responsible for everything. When employees work together, they start helping each other and responsibilities are shared and thus it reduces the work load and work pressure.

Every team member is assigned one or the other responsibility according to his specialization, level of interest and thus the output is much more efficient and faster. Work never suffers or takes a backseat in a team. Mike was taking care of an important client and was the only one coordinating with them. Mike took a long leave and there was no one else who could handle the client in his absence. When he joined back after a long vacation, the organization had already lost the client. Had Mike worked in a team, others could have taken the charge when he was not there. In a team, the other team members can perform and manage the work in the absence of any member and hence work is not affected much.

There is always a healthy competition among the team members. Competition is always good for the employee as well as the organization as every individual feels motivated to perform better than his other team member and in a way contributing to his team and the organization. Team work is also important to improve the relations among the employees. Individuals work in close coordination with each other and thus come to know each other better. Team work also reduces the chances of unnecessary conflicts among the employees and every individual tries his level best to support his team member. The level of bonding increases as a result of team work. Team members can also gain from each other. Every individual is different and has some qualities. One can always benefit something or the other from his team members which would help him in the long run. Everyone is hungry for recognitions and praises. One feels motivated to work hard in a team and to live up to the expectations of the other members. Each member is a critic of the other and can correct him whenever the other person is wrong. One always has someone to fall back on at the time of crisis. Team and team work must be encouraged at workplace as it strengthens the bond among the employees and the targets can be met at a faster pace. Workload is shared and individuals feel motivated to perform better than his team members.

2.3 Impact of individual job satisfaction as a concept of team performance

Teamwork theorists believe that if teams work well, have a common goal, are autonomous in their decision-making, and have responsibility and support, teamwork becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. Working in a team empowers people and helps them develop autonomy, which is a source of profound job satisfaction and reduces stress(Hayes 2005).The relationship between the nature of work, working conditions and satisfaction is explained most often by the cited theory of ‘satisfactory’ and ‘dissatisfactors’ drawn up by Herzberg (Herzberg et al, 1957). According to this model, three classes of factors influence job satisfaction. The first class of factors leading to job satisfaction corresponds to the salary appraisal. The second category of factors relates to promotions and the third relate to working conditions. All these classes or categories can be denoted as satisfactors/motivators or as dissatisfactors. The latter types of factors tend to be described as ‘hygienic factors’ in relation to the working environment.The promotion and increment of salary do not ensure that all of the employees are satisfied in an organization. The other major factors are the staff appraisal process and the dealing of the managers with individual staff. In some cases the managers fail to adopt a professional appraisal process and respond positively to it.

Beyond that, the managers cannot change their pre-occupied attitude or behaviour. Thus, they fail to take a fair appraisal process or fail to respond properly to the need of the employees. As the managers possess the authority to set the rules of the games, sometimes they are highly deviated or prejudiced for or against certain employees. Whatever, the result of the survey or appraisal say they take the decision on their own way. Sometimes the managers want to establish a power relationship to govern the organization and knowingly or unknowingly they use some trustee's information’s for or against some employee. The trustees may not necessarily provide the right information as expected. Thomas (2008)

2.3.1Impact of salary as a component of job satisfaction on team


Pay refers to the amount of financial compensation that an individual receives as well as the extent to which such compensation is perceived to be equitable. According to Luthans (1998), salaries not only assist people to attain their basic needs, but are also instrumental in satisfying the higher level needs of people. Previous researches (Ojokuku and Sajuyigbe, 2009; Sajuyigbe, Olaoye and Adeyemi, 2013) discovered that pay is one of the most significant variables in explaining job performance and satisfaction. Frye (2004) also found that there is positive relationship between pay and performance. It was further concluded that pay plays vital role in human capital intensive firms to attract and retain expert workforce. In the research carried out by Sajuyigbe, Olaoye, and Adeyemi, (2013); Igalens and Roussel,(1999); Brudney and Coundry,(1993); and Tessema and Soeters, (2006) they found that pay has significant impact on job satisfaction and performance. Lambert, Hogan, Barton and Lubbock (2001) finding was in line with previous researchers who agreed that financial rewards have a significant impact on job satisfaction and performance.

They concluded that, the greater the financial reward, the less worry employees have concerning their financial state, thereby enhancing their impression of their self-worth to the organization. According to Robbins et al. (2003), employees seek pay systems that are perceived as just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. Instead of motivating a single individual there is need to focus on selecting team members, the attitude of them, how to train the members, a constant appreciation, provision of equal promotions, other incentives like car, laptop etc. Unfortunately there is a lack of knowledge about construction of a team and its collective effort. (Belbin, 2006).Pay must relate to the accomplishment of goals, the company mission and vision. Any system that offers an employee the "average" increase for their industry or length of service (usually 1-4 percent) is counter-productive to goal accomplishment. Even an above-average increase that differentiates one staff person from another can de-motivate.

Additionally, the pay system must help one create the work culture one desires. Paying an individual for his / her performance accomplishments alone, will not help them develop the team environment one wants. Thus, one must carefully define the work culture he/she wants to create, and aim their best salary increases at those contributing to the success of that culture. If you want your organization to change, define the change, and pay employees commensurate with their support of and contribution to the change. Finally, the salary strategy must align with one’s human resources goals and strategies. If the HR function is charged with developing a highly skilled, outstanding workforce, one must pay above industry or regional averages to attract the quality employees one seeks. Paying less than comparable firms will bring mediocre employees and fail to fulfill the desire to create an outstanding workforce. If, on the other hand, the HR strategy is to get cheap labor in the door quickly with little regard for turnover, one can pay people less salary. Yvonne (2012) this will in fact not act as a motivation to staff and hence even achieving teamwork in the place might be a big challenge.