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The roots of the management come from thousands and thousands of years ago. It is known that only since 19th century the management has been considered as a formal discipline. We can say that the management tactics are as old as the human race but its theories and conceptual are of recent origin. As the time has passed, along the management achievements, a number of different management schools have emerged with each one discussing their different attributes and attitudes towards the advancing management operations, obstacles and goal achieving techniques. By studying different management schools it helps us to know what are the strengths and weaknesses with the current managerial practice and finally enable us to choose the appropriate management style .The two schools about which I am going to discuss later on emphasis on how the management theories and conceptual should be used to organize the framework of an organization, how the theories should be kept into practice while obtaining the organizational goals by taking all the benefits from the human workforce available to an organization and how to keep the employees motivated while getting all the jobs done by them with the highest possible output.
The two schools about which I am going to discuss now are Scientific School of Thought and Behaviorial School of Thought.
Scientific School of Thought was founded by Frederick Winslow Taylor, he is known as the father of scientific management. He was backed in his efforts with the help of Henry Grantt, Frank & Lillian Gilberth and Harrington Emerson. The Scientific School of Thought comes under the CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY. Classical management theory consists of similar ideas of managing an oraganisation that were used in the late 19th century and in the early 5th century. Among the managers the Classical Management Theory is known as the traditional management theory as its ideas are almost similar to those of in the early times. The modifications of the classical theory were as a result of the industrial revolution due to the growth of large organizations and the handicraft system that used to exist. Scientific School of thought is one of the three branches of Classical Management Theory and the other two are administrative principles and bureaucratic organization. The main feature of all the three is the emphasis on the economic rationality of management and organization. This means that the workers are motivated by greater economic incentives and they make choices that give higher monetary benefits and so to get workers motivated and to work hard the managers should understand workers monetary desires. These desires are basic human nature which is true to some extent. The Classical theory also says that human emotions can be controlled by the way their job and working conditions are structured.
Both the Taylors management theory with revolutionized management thinking became very famous. All the principles and practices that were drawn out of the Taylor's visualization and work with the help of his followers and the concern for efficiency and the systematization in management were know as Scientific management. Four main parts of ideas developed by Taylor are:-
Each person's job should be broken into elements and a scientific way to perform all the elements should be determined.
Workers should be scientifically selected and trained to do the work in the designed and trained manner.
There should be good co-operation between the management and worker so that the task can be performed in the designed manner.
There should be division of labour between managers and workers. Managers should take the responsibility of supervising the work, setting up instructions and designing the work, and the workers should be free to perform the work himself.
Taylor's Scientific School of Management thoughts give us a logical framework for the diagnosis of problem within the organization. The diagnosis basically consists of defining the problem, gathering information about the problem, analyzing information about the problem, drawing alternatives to diagnose the problem and selecting the most suitable alternative to diagnose the problem. Using this scientific method Taylor believed that it would provide a way to determine the most efficient way to perform the task. Instead of using the normal procedure of working, the management would study all the broken elements of an operation and carefully set a logical and rational standard to carry out the task. Taylor insisted that the management should take on the time consuming process of logical study and scientific research to develop a solution to a problem rather than relying on the basic guessing attitude or the trial and error process. He deeply believed that the scientific method of his will benefit both the employee and the employer and generate more and higher income for the organization. Taylor believed that the manager and the worker share the same interest of increasing productivity so he worked on this interest with his scientific method and proved by showing a demonstration that his scientific theory increases both the productivity and the income.
Henry L Gantt was an associate to Taylor and he implemented the psychology of worker and the morale in production. He believed that sincere intentions to use the correct methods are as important as knowing the methods and having skills. He realized the importance of human workforce and so introduced the process of motivation of the workers. He introduced a wage-payment system and developed a control chart that shows the schedules for the production, which later on modernized and now known as CPM and PERT. Frank and Lillian Gilberth produced a study on time and motion to develop more efficient ways of undertaking the tasks. This study analyses jobs to make the best movements for performing the tasks. And finally Harrington Emerson has produced principles which indicate that a manager should carefully and clearly define the objectives, implement the use of scientific method of analysis, develop and use standardized procedures and reward employees for good work output.
After all, we all know that there is no such element in this world that might just produce positivity only, in the same way Scientific School of Thought also has negative impact on the organization as well as the worker. People believe that a man's behavior is not changed by financial needs, it is also affected by the social, security and esteem needs. This means that a worker is not motivated by financial needs only, there are many other needs revolving around the worker. There is no one way to satisfy a job and hence the time and motion theory may not be entirely scientific. The updation of technology and machines may cause un-employment for few workers within the organization.
The second school is the Behaviorist School of Thought which is the modernized part of human relations school, Elton Mayo with the help of other two researchers F.J. Roethlisberger and William J Dickinson established the school. Elton Mayo is known as the father of human relations school. They believed that there are other needs also except the financial needs of a worker that might increase the productivity of an organisation. Human relation school deeply emphasized on the work groups, better communication between the workers and the managers, they forced upon the equal rights of workers in decision making. They all conducted an experiment which proved to be a success known as Hawthorne experiments and so behaviourial school came into consideration due to increasing interests in the theory.
The main behaviourist scientists behind the upbringing of the Behaviorist School of thought are Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Chris Argris, Fredrick Herzberg, Rensis Likert, Kurt Lewin, Chester Bernard, Mar Parker Follett, George Homans and Warren Bennis . This school is situated under NEO-CLASSICAL THEORY. NEO-CLASSICAL THEORY states everything against the CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY, whereas here the theory is more favourable towards the human attitude i.e it is much more human-oriented, emphasis of useful time consumption and puts behavioural and human attitudes into consideration. Behaviorist School of Thought is one of the two school under Neo-classical theory and the other is Human Relations School.
The behaviorist school of thought looks forward to consider the fulfillment of the emotional needs as well as the psychological needs, as the key path to achieve the economic goals. These theories are much similar to and can be counted under organizational behavior school which was previously known as human relations school, as they both share the same point of view but the behaviourist school focuses more on to fulfillment to emotional needs.
The behaviourist scientists considered the classical management theory as highly mechanistic, which degrades the human esteem and doesn't fulfill the human needs. They were against the scientific theory of management, which states that the employee should be capable of doing the job it has been professionally and highly trained, where the employees have no authority to make decisions. Instead the behavioural theory believes in flexible organizational structures which means they tend to create jobs based on average employee capabilities.
However behaviourial school of thought also has its bad effects, which show that the theory mostly focuses on human needs as its main focus and ignoring other aspects. Every organization has its own trend of work in which they excel better rather than using this theory which means it is no compatible to all firms and may have harm their productivity. The thought of changing a firm into a happy and caring environment is not mostly possible in the real-life. Few decisions are meant to be secret as the firm has to make them in their critical and sudden situations where each individual's participation may not satisfy the reasons for the decision. As the times are changing it also shows that the workers now enjoy enthusiastic and challenging jobs rather than having jobs created according to their capabilities.
Both scientific and behavioural school of thought had same views, those are motivating the workers, increasing the productivity of the firm and generation higher income for the organization but they both had their different attitudes in obtaining these targets. Scientific school believed that the workers are mainly concerned about their monetary needs and by fulfilling these needs they can motivate the workers, where as the behavioural school believed that there are other needs also that are meant to be fulfilled in order to motivate the workers i.e. that their emotional needs are also supposed to be kept under consideration. Scientific school stated that each problem should be diagnosed by the lengthy and time consuming process, where as behavioural school insisted that the jobs that should be designed and created according to the average worker's capability. Scientific school believed that the managers only make the decisions and give direct orders to the workers and workers have to follow them, where as the behavioural school insists that the workers should also take part in the decision making process.
I personally agree that both the theories exist In reality and they both should glow a positive affect if used efficiently. They both should be considered by the firms in correspondence to achieve their main targets, because both of them have a positive effect as well as negative effect and if both of them used in proper proportion then the firm can have better and greater chances of sustaining ways to motivate their workers, profit maximization and greater productivity.