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The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship of website's security and privacy, consumers' perceived information quality, website quality, consumers' perceived ease of use with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing.
Design / Methodology / Approaches -
The nature of this research is hypotheses testing where four hypotheses had been stated and data will be collected to test the hypotheses. 100 questionnaires paper had been distributed to our sample in order to collect the data.
The result of thos research shows that there is relationship between four independent variables ( security and privacy, perceived information quality, website quality and perceived ease of use ) with dependent variable ( consumer's purchase decision in internet marketing )
Research limitation -
The scope of this study was not wide and the result might not accurate due to the time constraint.
Technology has been changed from time to time especially internet where it has been used wisely nowadays. This has bring the chances and opportunities to people to start up their business on internet. People nowadays get used with internet to search information, e-banking and online shopping. Therefore, there is a huge potential market for internet shop business as it bring convenience to consumers in term of time and cost.
Internet market is a potential market for all the marketers where it start to overtake the traditional commercial business as the expansion of internet market this few years. Consumers tend to buy goods and services from internet market because it is more easy and save time compared to buying from shopping center. As the develop of the internet market recently, internet shops faced tough competition in the market. Therefore, internet marketing strategies play an important role in the success of internet business.
Internet marketing has become the trend where many people start to invest on online business such as online boutique. This is because online marketing business is easy to enter where every people can easily start up their business through internet ( for example social website or blog ). This shows that there are many competitors for in the market and consumers also have many choices for them to choose the best online shop. To be able to compete with those competitors, they need to consider many factors to attract more customers in order to increse their sales. In fact, consumers will look at many factors as they purchasing from internet shops just like the safety of purchasing online.
Many internet shops has create a attractive website to grab consumers' attention to visit their shop and purchase from them. There are many features that consumers will look for as cheking on the website such as information provided on the website. All these features will influence consumers' pruchase decision at that point of time. Therefore, a successful internet business should know what are the features of factors that will greatly affect consumers' decision. As a conclusion, internet marketing being important and we able to find out relationship of some of the factors with consumers' purchase decision throughout this research.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Internet are used everywhere today. This has bring a great opportunity to all internet marketers to start business on internet. Internet business starts to take over the traditionl commercial business as internet being important from day to day. People start to buy goods and services on internet shop rather than buy from market. It take less time as people just need to online, choose the product, make payment and their product will be deliver to them. It become a trend in the world where everybody change to online shopping as its convenience.
Many company also has start to create their own website in order to provide information on internet for consumers. Companies used to create an attractive website to get consumers' attention from competitors. Internet marketing strategy create competitive advantage for companies as it is easy to provide information in term of price. Besides that, it enable consumers to give their feedback on internet where it enhance companies' service quality.
However, there are some critism on internet marketing strategy whereby consumers concern with their safety and privacy issues. In fact, there was some cases that consumers' private information being use by another party ( for example, credit card number ). Therefore, safety and private issues is an important factor where it might affects consumers' purchase decision on internet market. This issue have a significant impact on the decision of consumes to buy goods and services. There are some other issues that might have impact on the purchase decision of consumers on internet such as perceived ease of use, website quality and consumers' perceived information quality.
There were some others previous research that investigate the relationship of others factor with consumers' involvement on internet marketing and consumers' behavior. Those factors that had been investigate in previous research are personal characteristic, lifestyle, perception needs and situations. Therefore, we decide to conduct this research to explore the relationship of others factor such as security and privacy with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
There was others previous research done on investigated the factors that influence consumers' involvement on internet marketing and consumers behavior. Therefore, we had came out with a problem statement which stated that “What are the relationship of security and privacy, percieved information quality, perceive ease of use and website quality with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing?” Research had been conducted to investigate more knowledge about these relationship on internet marketing.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
There are some research questions that we had stated for this research to explore knowledge about the relation of those factors with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing. Those research questions are as below:
1. What are the factors that will significantly affect consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing?
2. What are the relationship of security and privacy, percieved information quality, perceive ease of use and website quality with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing?
3. Which factor have strongest relation with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing?
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
There are several objectives that we would like to find out throughout this research. The research objectives are as below:
1. To investigate the factors that have significant influence on consumers' purchasing decision on internet marketing.
2. To investigate the relationship of security and privacy, percieved information quality, perceive ease of use and website quality with consumers' purchase decision on internet marketing.
3. To determine the factor that have strongest relation with consumers' purchasing decision on internet marketing.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
There are some research had been done on the similar topic to explore the factors that affects the success of e-commerce, ( Flavian, Gurrea and Orus, 2009 ), internet marketing and consumer behavior ( Wu, 2002 ). We had identified some of the factors that might be related to the consumer's purchasing behavior on internet marketing.
2.1 WEBSITE QUALITY
According to Chen and Lee ( 2005 ), “ There are many people using internet every single day where the number of internet user are getting more and more from 160 million in year 1998 to 600 million in year 2002 ” ( p. 1 ). This has create a chance for companies to use internet as their marketing strategy where they use internet to create their own website to connected with consumers. Consumers able to enjoy many services that provided by the website of the company such as information of company and commodity information. Website information able to grab consumers' attention where it will attract their interest and inluence purchase desire of the consumers and finally consumers take action to purchase. Companies expected to shorten the time of getting consumers to buy their products through internet to save cost.
According to Kotler ( 2003 ), “ Consumers normally convert their impression and attitute into their action where it will affects consumers' purchasing behavior as well ”. People behavior usually will influenced by their attiute and their thinking. Therefore, first impression that given by the company's website is very important as it will affects consumers' purchase decision. The website image will greatly influence consumers' behavior toward buying the products and website represents a internet store for a company. The website help companies to take order from consumers, provide consumers variety of information and receive feedback from consumers. Hence, image of the website play an important role in influencing consumers' behavior. According to Chen and Lee ( 2005 ), “ Website image refers to the perception of consumers on the functionality of the website and the design of the website ”.
Website image has a closely relation with website quality where a attractive web image increase website quality as it able to attract more consumers. There are many features that will influence a website's quality such as background colour. There are some factors that will affect the browser page and browser time of consumers just like size of picture, audio presentation, colour of the page and recommendation”. Those factor have signifacant impact on website's quality where it will affects period time that consumers stay at the web page and interested to browse the website.
It is important that an organization to create its own website in order to connect with consumers. The website of the company should compatible with its objective. According to Adams et al. ( 2002 ), “ An effective website should effectively sell its products and services on the website where the layout of the website should able to do that.” The design of the website showing directly to consumers with company's image where consumers able to judge the company based on the website of the company and this will affects their purchasing decision. The ease of use on the website is very signifacant to consumers as the more easy to enter the company's website, the more chance that the company will get consumers to buy its products or services.
Structure of website play an important role in attracting consumers to browse the web page. There are many features that need to be include in a website such as navigation bars, search option and main menu. There are some strategies in designing website layout where it will become a competitive advantage to the company in getting consumers to purchase its products. Search engine is an important feature in the website where it enable conusmers to search on the information that they want. It will direct influence consumers' interest on browse the website. Rowley ( 2000 ) stated that “ Consumers' approaches to product searching on website are a key factor in success e-business and that any approaches that can enhance product visibility and ease of location are key in defining and maintaining competitive advantage ”.
Website of a company should meets with the expectations of consumers where it should satisfy their needs. The content of website should be able to explain to the consumers about the information of company's products and services and any other information that consumers want ot know. Content of the website should organize in a proper way in order to bring convenience to consumers when the browsing the website. Besides, website pages have to be carefully design to make it friendly to use for consumers. These strategies will enhance the website quality and thus influence consumers' decision in purchasing goods and services on internet marketing.
According to Taylor ( 2006 ), “ A website can be designed simply by representing the structure of a company in term of what products/services they provide. However, by ranking and grouping website content it is possible to arrange website content into group appropriate to the need of the consumer, and provide an efficient navigational structure for the website from a consumer perspective ”. By grouping the approriate content together in the design of a website, it is more easy for consumers to “use” the website and this improves the website's quality as well. As a result, it able to attract more consumers to purchase on internet marketing.
Company will get more chances that consumers buying products and services from the company if the website of the company is easier to be access and the approriate design of layout of the website. An interesting and attractive website has a significant influence on consumers' decision as it able to grab the consumers' attention thus influence their purchase behavior. Therefore, easy to be access with the website and attractive website could improve the website's quality anf thus attracting consumers to access to the website.
According to Constantinides ( 2002 ), “ Online marketers can influence the decision making process of the virtual customers by engaging traditional, physical marketing tools but mainly by creating and delivering thr proper online experience, the Web experience: a combination of online functionality, information, emotion, cues, stimuli and products/services, in other words a complex mix of elements going beyond the 4Ps of the traditional marketing mix. The prime medium of delivering the Web experience id the corporate Website, the interfacing platform between the firms and its online clients ”. A web experience will greatly influence a consumer's interest toward purchase from the company. Therefore, the functionality and design structure of the website are very important in order to provide a great web experience to consumers.
Web experience can be define as the consumers' feeling and impression after purchased from internet marketing via company's website. There are several elements that consumers will look for when using internet to purchase. Those elements are browsing the website, searching tools on the website and others elements. These elements contribute on website qualityand it will influence online user's behavior where it might attract their attention and interest. When consumers have great experience with the company's website at the very first time, they will prefer to purchase again next time with the same company on internet.
The web experience include the connection of the company with consumers, whether company is willing to answer all the enquiry of consumers when consumers using its website to connect with company. This will greatly determine web experience by consumers and thus it direct affects the interest of consumers on browsing again the website. Web experience will become a threat for company if they does not fully utilized the website well and does not design the website attractive and functional. Consumers will move their attention if they find that the website is not interesting and not functionality. This will greatly influence the website quality and consumers' behavior in pruchasing from internet.
NielsenNet Rating ( 2003 ) found that “ Compared to average internet users, customers visiting well designed Web sites like J. Crew's and Bloogmingdale's are ten times more likely to visit the brick-and-mortal stores; visitors of NiemanMarcus.com are 18 times more likely to visit a Nieman Marcus physical store than the average net user while for Coach shop this figures goes up to 27 times ”. Consumers are emphasize on the design of structure of the company's website where they prefer a good designed website than a non structure website. Website design has closely relation with website quality where a attractive design website improve the website quality. Website's design influencing consumers' behavior in purchasing products and services of company on internet.
Website must be able to persuade consumers to purchase the goods and services. A high quality website should not only act as an internet tools to market company's product yet it should include detail of company such as culture of company. Besides, online customer service also should be provide by company on its website. It will let consumers know that the company take its consumers as priority in term of providing the best quality of goods and services to consumers and by provide customer service to them. Therefore, a good quality website should not just include the details of products but also customers service feature in order to persuade consumers' behavior to purchase company's products.
Internet marketer should understand that it is not easy to attract and retain consumers on their website. Internet marketers should know better those elements that will influence consumers' web experience when start to design their website. Internet marketers should consider such factors when creating the website just like the layout / structure of website, searching tool, customer service features, background colour and others factor.
According to Nah and Davis ( 2002 ), “ Web usability is the ability to find one's way around the Web, to locate desired information, to know what to do next, and, very importantly, to do so with minimal effort. Central to this idea of usability are the important concepts of ease of navigation and search” ( p. 99 ). The usability of a website very important in a company's website as it represent the main purpose of the website where it should be able to use by consumers. Elements in the website should make the website usable to every one in order to attract consumers. An usability website bring convenience to consumers in browsing the web page and purchasing from company. A good quality website not only requires a good design of the website but also a user friendly website where it is easy to use by consumers. Usability of the website help consumers to get the information that they want and hence this will increase their interest and purchase behavior.
The main thing of the usability of website is convenience where consumers prefer a website that is convenient to use in term of getting information or order from the website. Consumers will stop to connect with the website when they found that the website is not convenient to use. Therefore, convenience is the prior characteristic that need to be consider for internet marketer when they create the website. Another important component is the facilities that provide by the website such as search tool and site navigation. Consumers expect to get a quick and trusty information to help them getting the information. Besides, consumers also expect the site navigation in the website is easy to access when browsing the website. There are other components that have to be considered when creating / designing website just like the site accessbility and ordering process. These components have a impact on the website quality and thus influencing consumers' behavior as well.
Interactivity is another important element because it allow consumers to interact with internet marketer through the website. Interactivity enable consumers to interact directly with online vendor where it improve consumers' web experience. Consumers expect company to provide customer service or extra service after they purchased the products. Therefore, company should be able to connect with consumers not only during consumers' pruchasing process but also after they purchased the products in order to provide a great web experience to consumers.
The marketing mix also has a contribution on the web experience where it direct influence consumers satisfaction when browsing the web page. Those marketing mix that will influence consumers' web experience are communication, price, promotion and others. A good web experience should include a great communication between consumers and internet marketers in order to influencing consumers' behavior. Price and promotion affect consumers' experience with the website where a reasonable price and promotion able to provide a good web experience to consumers thus increase consumers' interest to buy from the same website.
The website of a company should be customer-centered where the website's design and layout should put consumers as its main concerns. This will effectively attractive consumers and help to establish a good relation between consumers with internet marketers. There are four categories that take into account in the website quality which are information or details, friendliness, responsiveness and trusty of the website. A good quality website is friendly to use , provide sufficient information, reliable and internet marketer able to response with the request of consumers. Besides, web site adoption studies, on the other hand, are interested in issues related to how customers accept/adopt/transact with online business. ( Aladwani, 2006 ). This is about how the website adoption influencing consumers to buy goods and services. It related to the system quality and user experience at the previous transaction on online shopping. When consumers has a great experience at the previous transaction on internet, it will influence them to purchase again through internet market next time. Hence, it also closely related with the services that provide by the company's website in order to offer a great online shopping experience.
According to Aladwani ( 2006 ), “ Using web technologies, an organization can now reach out to all potential customers all the time and provide them with not only general information about its products or services but also the opportunity of performing interactive business transactions ”. High techology can be utilize in designing the website in term of security and website facilities such as search tools. Therefore, website quality can be improve by utilize technology into the creation of website and when quality of website improve, it able to influence the purchase behavior of consumers. It is important that the website's information have to be sufficient and high quality which refer to the accuracy of information and reliablility of information. These elements will greatly improve website's quality.
Appearance quality of the website is another significant factor in determining the website's quality. There are some elements that take into account of the appearance quality which are the attractiveness of the website, background colour, font size and also the multimedia dimension. These factor should be design well in order to attract consumers and thus influence their purchase behavior. Internet marketers should aware that an unfriendly web page and not attractive website is difficult to retain consumers' attention. Hence, the appearance of the website is an important factor to be considered by internet marketers to improve the quality of the website.
The customization of the website help consumers to get the useful and reliable information that they want where it help consumers in filtering the information to the information that they want. Besides, to improve the quality of website and influence consumers' behavior, company or internet marketers could provide alternative / extra channel to consumers such as the e-mail and contact number. This is to give consumers an alternative way to contact with company. Internet marketer also are advice to implement membership strategy on website to let consumers feel that it is safe to browsing their website. Moreover, internet marketer also able to get the personal information of consumers that allow them to follow up the purchasing progress of consumers.
A good quality website should be able to provide introduction to first time user on the website to let the first time website user know how to get information and order from the website. This enhance the web page quality where it will attract more people to browse the web page as its friendliness. The website also should display the products that sell by company to let the consumers have a preview on the products. A good quality website also should highlight the main or popular product of company to give a clear illustration to consumers. This enable consumers to know the main product that sell by the company through the website. Internet marketers also should state the term and condition clearly to avoid confusion of consumers. A clear and concise purchase conditions will enhance the website quality and thus give a positive impact on consumers' behavior.
Website quality can be measure in term of its design of layout of the website, facilities or features that provide on the website, accuracy and sufficient information provide on the website. These are the most important factors where it will greatly influence a website quality and thus affect consumers' behavior in purchasing products. According to Bevan ( 2001 ); Huizingh ( 2000 ); Nielsen ( 2003 ), “ There are two mainstream researching website quality, namely content richness and ease of use ”. High quality website should be contain sufficient content and friendly to use it when consumers browse the website. A successful website will have a good looking web page and also able to function well as a website to attract new consumers and retain the current consumers.
The functionality of website refer to the usefulness of services that provide by the particular website. This is an important elements where the website should be able to function in order to help consumers in getting information or ordering from the website. This element have a significant influence on the website quality which will affects on consumers' behavior also. The functions that need to be have in a high quality website just like the ability to search other information, ability to taking order from consumers and ability to respond to the requiry of consumers. These function bring convenience to consumers where consumers able to browse on the website and getting information needed and purchase from the website.
Flavian, Gurrea and Orus ( 2009 ) had conducted a research on the factors that determine the success of internet business website. The successful of an internet business website closely related with the design of the web page where it could help internet marketers build competitive advantage among the competitors in this field. An interesting website will effectively convince the consumers to browse the website as it able to get the attention of consumers. This enable internet marketers to compete with others internet marketer in term of their website since there are getting more and more company using internet as their marketing strategy or even start up new business on internet. Hence, design or layout of the website plays an important role in enhancing internet marketers' compatitive advantage.
According to Cato ( 2001, p. 3 ), designing is ‘‘the process of creating an artefact with structure of form which is planned, artistic, coherent, purposeful, and useful''. Internet marketers need to consider many factors when creating a website where they need to consider the background of the website, image or picture, layout or structural of the website, facilities or features of the website and appearance of the website. Design a website is not easy because the website should be attractive enough, easy to be access, have useful function and sufficient information. With all these factors inside a website, it can be say that the quality of the website is high where it able to meet with the consumes' needs and able to fulfill consumers' satisfaction.
The layout of a website should be organize in a proper way which let consumers easy to access on the website. The layout of the website have to be clear where it enable consumers to search on the function or elements on the website. This is important because consumers will easily move from this website to another when they find that the website is not friendly to use and difficult to search the information. The content of the website also should be group properly for the purpose of improve website quality. Consumers will find that it is easy to search information when the similar content has been group in together. For example, the price, details and display of product should be group together where it give convenience to consumers in cheking out the products and the proce at the same time.
Company should able to respond to the enquiry and requiry of consumers through the company's website. Internet marketers should an important features when create the website which is customer service feature. This give the confidence to the consumers where consumers know the company is willing to respond to their feedback or provide them an extra services. This make consumers feel confident and trust on the website and thus it influence their purchase behavior. A high quality website should have provide another medium that enable consumers to contact with th company such as e-mail address or phone number. This is another way in interact with consumers. This make consumers feel safe as they know there are other medium that enable them to contact with the company.
“ With reference to the design factors of a website, a good design must provide not only beauty and appeal, but also high levels of usability, since it influences the affective states of the user” ( Desmet and Hekkert, 2007 ). A high quality website should not only have great appearance on the design of the website, but also have to be usable where it provide several functions to consumers such as ordering, seraching information and customer service. A high quality website should have both, good appearance and multi function on the website. By having high quality website, consumers will be interested on browsing the website and thus the posibility being influence to purchase the products also has been increase.
There are many factors that are closely related to the quality of a website. Those factors will greatly influence the website quality and thus the consumers' behavior toward purchasing on internet. These factors include the design of the website, the content of the website in term of functionality and and usability, the accessable of the website and the speed in browsing the website. An attractive website able to grab consumers' attention and hence convincing them in purchasing decision. Meanwhile, the usability of website also important where it will affects consumers' interest in browsing the website when consumers find that the website is friendly to use. Functions of the website also have to be provide by the website where it should include the search tools and customer services features to make the website useful to consumers. Therefore, research had been conducted to test the relation of website quality with the consumer's purchase decision on internet marketing.
2.2 PERCEIVED EASE OF USE
Consumers tend to carefully weigh and evaluate the use of products they identified. Due to cost and time saving internet has become popular in buying process. Furthermore, in making the decision to purchase via internet has made the internet marketers design the study to understand their behavior. This refer to the degree of free of effort is needed when using a particular system of technology. As research by Karjaluoto et al, (2003) found that many customers felt that branch banking took too much time and effort for consumer to get the service. This reflected the time and cost saving and freedom from where have been stated that the prior reason underlying the e-commerce acceptance (Polatoglu and Ekin, 2001; Black et al, 2002; Howcroft et al 2002).
The ease of use means freedom from difficulties or brings the great effort to users. Perceived ease of use refers to the easiness and effortless in enjoying the service provided by the internet marketer. Therefore, an application perceived for using the internet and online transaction should be easier and practical to be used so that users can accept and guide towards the decision process. The internet is the information system that when user perceive as easy to use and less complex to understand will increase the possibility of its adoption and usage (Teo et al, 1999). Indeed, this affect the purchase decision of the consumer in their purchase decision process when involve in the internet transaction like online banking, online payment and ticketing for example.
The hypotheses of this study reported that there's relationship of the ease of use in consumer purchase decision. Because we learn that, consumer's involvement into the internet marketing will be reflected by the convenience and acceptance over the system application they experience. Here is the hypothesis statement:
HA4: Ease of use in internet marketing has significant relationship with consumer purchasing decision
The quality of internet usage pay more benefits in encouraging the behaviors of consumers especially the potential internet marketing customers. Literature has reviewed that perceived ease of use is importance for attracting and influencing the consumers in making the decision to purchase using internet marketing. People browse products information with the intent to buy (Dalgleish, 2000).
Because of the internet has become the medium and tool for marketers to attract buyers, marketers need to understand that trust is crucial in the online business. Moreover they should view the internet which is the marketing tools for this era as the provider of convenience for users or consumers to have search and perceive the online business as easy and understandable at time purchase. It started with the page of the search engine. Practicality, consumers will look out the attractiveness than the mode of usage they need to follow in making a purchase. The first approach will determine the next activity. So, marketers base this idea in providing the best approach to trigger the consumers visit over the website.
The web is known to be the most important criteria in web development and design for the internet marketers to offers goods and service using the internet. This shouldn't be neglected because it has become the aspects of most users assess when dealing with transaction via online. If lacking, the attention would drive the visitors who also known to be the potential buyers away from the site at the end.
Individuals form their self efficacy and confidence to use the information technology through the past interaction system they applied (Agurwal et al, 2000). In order to improve the consumers exposure over the internet marketing approach, marketers gone through strategies that accommodate potential buyers in purchase decision.
According to Mukherjee and Nath (2003), the perceived privacy is significant to shared value of giving the positive impact and trust over the internet marketing activities.
Corritore et al (2003) stated, in the online setting, users and consumers are expected to be of lack in understanding and knowledge or lack of ability over the expertise to obtain goods or services without the support by others.
Internet marketers are influenced to fulfill the satisfactory of the user's perceived ease of use whereby whenever users involve in the online transactions via the internet marketing activities. Based on research findings title of “ An investigation of online consumer purchasing” by Chanaka Jayawardhena, Len Tiu Wright and Rosalind Masterson (2003), the online financial service consumers have a significant high level of control in purchase process and are motivated by using the internet. Convenience are valued by both males and females consumers, Jayawardhena (2003).
The ongoing rise in the navigational searches has led marketers of internet marketing to learn how exactly the public use the search engine. People needs can transform into wants when marketers adapt into the users knowledge capacity of using the information provided. The fact is that consumers on average would spend less than a single minute on any page they browsed unless there is a compelling reason for them to stay longer. Meaning that, the website design also needs to be as easy to understand and at speed of possible in mind.
The optimization of the search engine page will determine the users perceived towards their intention in buying process. The buyer also the visitors wants benefits in experiencing the page they visited. The convenience will allow them to broaden in searching activities and take into the decision process. The internet marketing will be promoting the in-depth information on certain subject they look out. The more easy way to understand will influence the visitors to make up decision.
Constant attention over the time and cost saving will attract the users more and influence the behavior in purchase decision process. Marketers conducted analysis to identify and improve the visibility of the marketing over the internet to avoid traffic and drives away the visitors. By focusing to the consumers who use the internet as the medium to shop, the user experience need to be developed more consistent with time respond of feedback. This will encourage the buyer's convenience of using the internet and positively impact towards the internet marketing revolution to the marketers.
Factors that vigor to the online consumers will include to the speed of the service and promptness in delivery action whereas the quality of the services will encounter and the product will be delivered at the end. If any of this breakdown, time will be wasted, and result of the internet rage. Later the internet marketing will influence the bad effect towards the purchase decision in future. According to the Hardaker and Graham (2001), “the functionality and ease of use for the e-commerce transaction is essential to both purchase and post-purchase appraisal”.
The literature continues adapted with the study by Venkatesh (2000). He proposed that a significant body of research in the information system or in other means the technology of the internet has accumulated proof and evidence over the existence of ease of use on initial user acceptance and sustained the usage of system. It does effect and influence the system. Meaning that, perceived ease of use can be the indicator in determine the buying process and trigger the online purchase decision.
Referring to the other researcher, Davis et al., 1989; Al-Ghatani, 2001, noted that the perceived ease of use can be the extent of the person accepting the services with no additional cost used. Easy to use and understandable will guide the user to keep using the system and put them in the comfort zone of getting into the buying process. When consumers feel comfortable and trust using the system meaning that they had accept the condition and the last action would be to decide in purchase or not to purchase using the system offered. Therefore, internet marketing is designed with the understanding of consumer behavior through better segmentation and positioning the goods and services to be offered.
The positive impact over the ease of use will attach the potential users to keep using and visiting the application online they had experience. The internet marketer however needs to study the behavior at the first time users experiencing the application to get the knowledge over their perception of using the e-commerce. Because of the previous research had found that shopping convenience will play a significant role in predicting the consumer's intention to return to the web-based store (Koufaris, 2002). In further, according to Lee et al, (2003) found that the pleasure not only directly influence the behavioral intention but also indirectly influences it through attitude. Again, the researcher hold to the study by Koufaris, (2002) that shopping enjoyment will influence new Web shoppers to return to a site. More over, there are many forums and talk discussing upon the increase level of favorable attitude occurred whenever consumers are treated with pleasurable and easiness in their way of shopping activities.
We have study the buying process and how it would give impact to the purchase decision based on the perceived ease of use as one of the indicator. The degree of interactivity in the internet marketing known to be influenced the users' acceptance towards the online transaction. Research had noticed on how the easiness and comfortably as well as trust over the site drive consumers to experience the internet marketing as their choice of purchase medium.
Customers prefer to save time consuming and because of searching and evaluating need more time consuming, this channel of communication is preferable to customize information for them. They will find the search engine as to be practical in searching the information fast and quick. Another factor is the global outlook. The respondents also are among international people therefore we cannot avoid the possibility of the ease of use for their purpose of getting fast and quick information regarding global marketing. Research by Nguyen and Barret, (2006) believes that internet is utilized to obtain relevant information about markets would be free of effort as the perceived of use of the internet marketing over the context of internationalizing and global decision, party like international business and local people can link into the network with the means of effortless in the internet marketing benefits.
Customers may want products purchased to be delivered as soon as possible in safe and good condition. This also one of the ease of use over the online purchase benefits they required. Therefore, consumer behavior towards the confidence in purchase online will influence them to decide to purchase over the internet and support the internet marketing. To decide whether to purchase after utilizing the internet marketing, consumers has gone through the phase of experiencing the stage process and proceed with the decision phase which is deciding the decision at click. This means that, the study show the process how the internet browser or user transform to be the potential or even the real buyer because of the ease of use over the internet marketing effort. Research studied that internet marketers should facilitate consumer adoption behavior in influencing the decision process. The perceived ease of use can indicate the behavior as it means of getting the effortless and pleasure in experience the application especially via the internet which they rather feel uncomfortable letting out the information unknowingly where they go. However because of the advance technology knowledge has bloom nowadays people are perceived differently and according to Moon and Kim (2001), they refer to the perceived of fun and playfulness to direct users as perceived ease of use has already affect the acceptance of online activities especially in banking.
2.3 PERCEIVED INFORMATION QUALITY
Information is one of the crucial points that influence consumer's final decision whether to buy the product or not. In early days, people used to get their items in grocery shops. They would obtain information from the people selling and decide whether to buy or not. As the market grows, people start buying their items in supermarket/hypermarket. Here they could not obtain information from the seller personally, but through advertisements from different types of media such as newspaper, radio, magazines and television.
Now, in this era, with the rapid growth of internet marketing, more and more companies have created their website to sell the products online. It's a win-win situation for both seller and buyer - seller could reduce cost while buyer can conveniently get their items without all the hassle. People need not step out from the house to buy thing, almost everything could be bought with just a few click. Although internet marketing gives benefit to the consumer, however, not all consumers are convinced to purchase online due to the lack of direct interaction of information exchange between buyer and seller. Consumer could only get the information in wordings in the website as compared to the traditional information where the information is given in a closer approach to the buyer which is sound more convincing. Thus, information quality/contents on website are essential in attracting consumer and it will affect consumer purchasing decision.
The content of the website considered an asset for the company because the information in the website will determine whether consumer would like to buy their products or not. Providing quality information on website does not only meant on describing the goods and services, but also providing further information to enhance customer service as well as other relevant information that could help consumer obtain information to help solve their problems or enquiry. High quality information on website is information that is given to consumer before they requested about it and not after consumer enquired about it. “Information quality is included in an assessment of the effect of Web use, especially on searching products/services in e-shopping” (Shih, 2003).
Searching for products is an essential step for a consumer who have the intention to purchase online, thus information provided should be clear and able to fulfill consumer needs. In a website, a list of related feature or topic regarding the products should be listed for consumer to choose the one that they would like to know. Providing guidance information for consumer to search for more information of the products enhance the quality of website and thus consumer will feel more confident with the company ability to identify relevant information and on their ‘services' of providing search information. If the searching does not match with the website content, it should correctly relocate and suggest the searching to another relevant information rather than stating the search error or no match found. This is to show the company's effort and friendliness in helping consumer as much as possible although the company could not provide the information needed.
After searching for products, consumer will be looking for more detailed information on the products. Here is the next quality information that company should provide which is the products or services information. “Information quality refers to the amount, accuracy, and the form of information about the products and services offered on a web site.” (Nusair and Kandampully, 2008) Unlike products that sell on the shelf, consumer could not see and get a feel of the products selling online. Thus, it is hard for consumer to make judgement on quality of products and make decision to purchase something that they could not get hold of. Completeness of information of online products is important to convince consumer so that the effect is equally same as the products sell on the shelf. What they meant by information quality on goods and services are the “content includes prices, qualities, functions, and attributes of commodities.” (Guo, and Chen, 2008)
“Detailed and complete product information should be provided.” (Liu, 2008)
It is vital to have a detailed description about the product as well as stating the price of the product. The description given should be very much detailed which include more element compared to the traditional way. The few most important elements that should be stated in most of the products are weight, height, width. These three items are considered as compulsory and usually are of consumer's interest because through these measurement they could roughly know the size of the product and how heavy is the product. Without these basic information, consumer will not be interested to know the product at all because they will worried if the product does not suit their usage.
Besides the three measurement, there are others elements (depends on the product) that consumer would love to know so that they could get the whole picture of the product. This includes producer, colour, material, model and many more. These characteristics are equally important so that consumer could imagine the product that are more or less has the same characteristic. Information of the products does not end in here. In the website, they could also include the usage/function of the product. Telling more about the usage of the product will let consumer know the goodness of the product and eventually convince them to buy the product.
Not forgetting in improving the quality of information of selling product online is displaying the picture of the products or services. Photos besides showing consumer the shape or look of the product, it also a meant of attracting consumer as people love images rather than words. However, photo can lead to disaster as well. Blurred image or dull colour of the product will ruin the image or quality of the product. Thus, image displayed have to be of high quality, preferable taken using digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) which give special effect to the product and give a better and fine image when the image is zoomed for a closer look. Or even better provide video for demo if the product involve any process. Image play an important role in attracting consumer interest to find more information about the product. Most of the time, peole are attracted to the image of the product rather than the description of the product. If a product is given a wonderful description but the image look not interesting, people would not want to have a further understanding on the product, thus any information provided will be useless to the company.
Displaying pricing is another information that is important that determine consumer purchasing decision. A good pricing that is competitive or cheaper than in the traditional market will attract consumer to purchase online if the product they are finding are more of less similar. Another important feature of information quality is the timeliness of information. Information on the website should be updated from time to time and for products/services that involve availability, latest information update should be available for consumer to refer so that the information is reliable and consumer will not get disappointed with inaccurate/outdated information which no longer valid.
To create extra value for consumers, providing information on products and services are not enough. It should provide “customer service information (which) is also a very important element to be included, as people need to know their rights if the service is not as good as expected, or if there is a problem with the product.” (Oppenheim and Ward, 2006) This information is equally important as the information on products because consumer could hardly contact or approach the seller as the company might not have a proper office shop. Thus, if consumer face any problem with the product, they could not get rectified. Information should be provided on the maintenance of the product, years of warranty, after-sale services, as well as providing a frequently-asked-questions (FAQs) column.
Information on maintenance tells consumer ways to maintain the product durability and also ways of usage that would harm people. These information help consumer to take necessary precaution before accident happens. So, it is important to keep these information clear and simple. Besides maintenance information, information about the years of warranty and after-sale service given to the product should be clearly state. Consumer should be given information on years of warranty so that they know how long their product are protected and warranty served as a guarantee to the product. Information should also be stated on after-sale service by letting consumer know the services available for them even after consumer bought the product. Consumers are typically concern over the services availability if the product they bought has spoilt and other services provided by the company.
Frequently-asked-questions column is very common in every organization. This column provide information on different problems or topic and given a solution or explanation which help consumer answer almost all the question that they would want to know. It will takes time if consumer were to ask questions first and the company reply the message. This information enhance customer satisfaction as the information given is somewhat solve consumer problem or even their curiousity on the product. If they face the same problem/enquiry as indicated in the section, they could use the solution/ information to resolve its issue.
Another information on customer service is that providing consumer information on the status of their product delivery. Consumer could track their product delivery status to see the location of the product at the moment and the amount of time it takes to reach consumer. This give a timely information for the consumer and help consumer to monitor their own product to make sure that it is delivered to them. If it does not reach at a specific time, consumet could trace back to see what had happen. On the other hand, seller could notify consumer if the product is delayed or the product had some problem during the delivery process. Thus, consumer need not worried over the late delivery of product because information is given to them. These information will enhance the company's credibility and ensure consumer's product safety.
Another good way to improve information quality in internet is including reviews from consumer. Apart from the company's side in providing information on the product characteristics, its services information, as well as the product benefits, it might sounds unfair and that could make the information inaccurate. To make it balance, consumer's view need to be included - through consumer's review. Consumer could see other consumers' comments on the product and from there they would make comparison between the consumer's review and company's description to see whether the information is accurate and reliable or not.
Naturally, consumer are more influenced by the review of other consumer, mainly because both are act as a consumer, thus the point of view should be the same. Review could give consumer information as well as solutions. To ensure a fair treatment to consumer, all reviews should be published without filtering the bad ones. All these information, regardless of good or bad reviews, is not only good for the consumer but also to the company so that they could improve their standard and attract more consumer to purchase online. “We define information quality in e-channels as the degree to which information in e-channels facilitates consumers' evaluation of products to complete the purchasing tasks.” (Lim, 2008) Hence, accuracy, completeness, timeliness, and availability of information are essential to company's profitability as well as affect consumer purchasing decision.
What matters in purchasing online is the payment instruction. Information on how to make payment should be given clear and simple. If the information is not given out clearly, consumer will confuse and do not know how the payment works, thus they will feeling uncomfortable to purchase item online. It should guide consumer step by step, from searching, choosing to purchasing. Using step by step instructions will give a clear view to the consumer on how purchasing can be done. Each steps should be easy to understand and no complicated instructions to get through each step. Once the step is comlicated, consumer will feel troublesome to get it done through internet. It has to let consumer feels that purchasing online is just as easy or much more easier than paying at the counter. Besides providing clear and simple instructions, company should also show a diagram that tells consumer the flow of the payment and their payment system. This is to let consumer understand the system that the company have instill proper safety during the payment.
To attract consumer purchasing online, convenient is the key point to success. This convenient concept can be achieved by providing relevant information for each different category. In the internet, information is the only source consumer could gather to make decision, unlike the traditional way information could be gather from various sources such as mouth to mouth, media. Information is of good quality when the consumer finds that the information is easy to get and understand and useful for them, thus they will find it is very convenient for them to get things done over the internet. A good information website help consumer reduce their time in finding information. For example, a person wants to find an information about an electrical item. At the same time, he could conveniently click for other similar products that have the same function. This is much more easier and saves time compared searching for catalogue and gathering information from one sources to another.
Online information gives a systematic way of gathering information which company should adapt and hence, consumer will purchase online.
Information should be arranged in such a way that it is inter-link with each related topic. Sometimes consumer might not realize the additional information available in the website that is useful for them to make purchasing decision. Thus, these information should be link with each other so that when customer wants to find information about a particular product, any related to the product will be suggested to the consumer either for more information or products that goes well with the chosen product. This will reduce consumer energy and time to search again the related information. For example, consumer is finding information for a evening dress on a particular website, after finding the suitable one, the website will suggest accessories that match with the dress which the company is also selling. This help seller to promote their other products and help consumer to solve problem of finding suitable accessories to match with the dress. Sometimes consumer might not even noticed the company has other products if the information is not linked with each other. This is much more convenient rather than opening two page where one with the dress pictuer with another page with all the accessories and consumer has to look at these two pages to find accessories to match. Consumer might get into confusion before the accessories could be chose. By just looking at the suggestion given, consumer has smaller scope and much more convenient to choose in a same page. If the information is not well organized and scattered in the website, consumer will get more confused and feel it's hard to understand compare listening to people explaining on the information product or reading the information in brochure.
Information convenient must not only exist within the information that the company has but also providing external link for consumer under related topic. This give an all rounded information that consumer would like to know. In most situation, finding an information for an event will lead to finding other related information because in our daily life, things are get related. For example, a person is planning to go for a vacation. One things she has to do is to get a flight ticket, next booking a hotel, or even finding tour agency for ground arrangements. It is such a convenient place for consumer to gather information when one webpage is link with another related webpage. From the webpage of booking flight ticket, the webpage will suggest the hotels available in consumer destination and link the page where consumer can choose the hotel she wants to stay without consumer purposely searching for the hotels available again in a search engine. Providing such information/link from one webpage to another help reduce consumer's time to find each and every event. Giving such information to consumer is an advantage for online companies because it could hardly be done in commercial market. In a traditional way, consumer has to go to airline company to book for ticket, then go to tour agency to book for the tour where consumer might not have a choice i choosing the hotel that she wish to stay.
Consumers are concern with the information quality as the information given by internet marketers shoulb be accurate and complete. Accuracy of the information refers to the reliability of the information where it will affects consumer's confidence toward the products of company/ internet marketers. When the information provide by company or internet marketers are accurate, it will gain trust and confident of consumers and thus influence them in their purchasing decision. The information given by company should be real and true to enhancing the information quality. When consumers perceive the information of the company are high quality and reliable, they willing to deal with the company because they feel confident and trust on the company.
Company should avoid to give inaccurate or not real information because it will affects company's image and its brand name as well. When company's image start to drop, consumers will not purchase from the company as they do not have confidence toward company. The information given by company / internet marketer should not contain any cheating elements whereby it will cause the company's image drop down. For example, the display of the products should be match with the real products to avoid cheating issue happen. As this will have a significant impact on the company's image and thus influence consumers purchasing behavior, company should take it serious and provide reliable and accurate information to all consumers to gain their trust and confidence.
Besides, the time line of the information refers to the time that the information has been send out. This related to the appropriateness of time when sending out the information. Company should give / send their products information at the right time to convincing consumers to purchase their products. For example, company should respond quicky by provide or send its product information when consumers enquiry on it. This will increase consumers' interest to wsrd buying the products of the company. Therefore, timeliness being important in enhancing information quality and thus influencing consumers' purchase descision in internet marketing.
The completeness of information also important in influencing consumers' decision whereby a complete information will increase consumers' interest to purchase the products of the company. It closely related with the quality of information where the information considered as high quality if the information is complete. Besides that, the availability of information also plays a important role in determining the quality of information. Internet marketers should make sure that the information about products are always available on internet. This is because consumers cannot simply know the product's function and apperance by online shopping. Hence, the availability of information very important in order to give consumers a clear picture or image of the products. As a result, it will influence consumers' behavior in purchsing online.
2.4 SECURITY AND PRIVACY
One of the most important factors that will determine consumer purchasing decision in internet marketing is the security and privacy of consumers. Many are still doubt with the privacy and security measures taken by company regarding payment system. Most companies do not explain or make it transparent for consumers to know more about the payment system used in the company that cause consumer to take a step back in purchasing online. They are some company that take good measure but at the same time there are company who does not practice good security measure or some even use it for personal purpose. These inconsistent of security and priv