Consumer Culture

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Describing The Contribution Of Consumer Culture In Developing Marketing Strategies

Abstract:

It aims at establishing the contribution of the Consumer Culture in developing the marketing strategies. It will look at how much consumer's behavior is important as a culture for development of the marketing strategies. Until and unless, culture of the consumer is known to the marketer, how a marketer can develop a marketing strategy for the final consumer. The main objective is to clarify the involvement of the consumer Culture theory in developing the strategies for the market and at which level in the marketing strategies' sector, the consumer theory comes. Consumer Culture (CC) theory is all about what a marketer should deal with before going into the marketing strategies. Culture has a great impact on international marketing.

Key words:

Consumer, Consumer culture, Marketing strategies

Describing the Contribution of Consumer Culture (CC) in Developing Marketing Strategies

1-Consumer Culture and Marketing Strategies:

A marketer must study the local culture in-depth before offering a product to them. Because of every marketing promotion has done to promote the product i.e.; communicating product feature to the customers and influence customers to buy it (Howorth and Ali, 2001). Thought must be yours own but you must have to transform it into local cultural heritage. Never make any comments it is right or wrong or mine is the best in international marketing. It just copes with the culture to develop where the marketer is offering the product. Know in-depth of local history and culture and offer them accordingly to have their attention. Whatever the culture think face the fact about it and just cope with the local thinking up to the permitted level. That means be French when a marketer is in France.

CC is not a pooled, grand theory, nor does it aim to such similar claims. However, it refers to a family of theoretical perspectives that address the dynamic relationships between consumer actions, the marketplace, and cultural meanings (Hofstede, 1984). However, CC is linked out with the marketing strategy that according to the variation in the consumer's culture the marketing strategy will vary.

Over the years, many indefinable description characterizing the research tradition have come into play (i.e., relativist, post positivist, interpretive, humanistic, naturalistic, postmodern), all more were making confusing rather than clarifying (Barach and Ganitsky, 1995). Each fails to signify the theoretical commonalities and linkages within the research tradition of consumer culture. They either place too much emphasis on methodological distinctions or they invoke and increasingly irrelevant contrasts to a supposed dominant consumer research paradigm. A more appropriate and compelling academic brand would focus on the core theoretical interests and questions that define the research tradition. Accordingly, it was offered as the term “consumer culture” (CC).

While representing a plurality of distinct theoretical approaches and research goals, CC researchers nonetheless share a common theoretical orientation toward the study of cultural complexity that programmatically links their respective research efforts (Fiegener, Brown, Prince and File, 1996). Rather than viewing culture as a fairly homogenous system of collectively shared meanings, ways of life, and unifying values shared by a member of society (e.g., Americans share this kind of culture; Japanese share that kind of culture), CC explores the heterogeneous distribution of meanings and the multiplicity of overlapping cultural groupings that exist within the broader socio historic frame of globalization and market capitalism. Thus, consumer culture denotes a social arrangement in which the relations between lived culture and social resources and between meaningful ways of life and the symbolic and material resources, on which they depend, are intervened through markets. A marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered on the key concept that customer satisfaction is the main goal (Laermer & Simmons, 2007). Marketing strategies may differ depending on the unique situation of the individual business. However there are a number of ways of categorizing some generic strategies. A brief description of the most common categorizing schemes of marketing strategies are presented below: (Baker, 2008)

A-Strategies based on market dominance: In this scheme, firms are classified based on their market share or dominance of an industry. Typically there are three types of market dominance strategies: 1-Leader 2-Challenger 3-Follower

B-Porter generic strategies: strategy on the dimensions of strategic scope and strategic strength. Strategic scope refers to the market penetration while strategic strength refers to the firm's sustainable competitive advantage. Two major types of the Michael Porter's strategy are: 1-Product differentiation 2-Market segmentation

C-Innovation strategies: this deals with the firm's rate of the new product development and business model innovation. It asks whether the company is on the cutting edge of technology and business innovation. There are three types: 1-Pioneers 2-Close followers 3-Late followers. After defining consumer culture and different marketing strategies that exists in the literature, it is obvious now that before applying any marketing strategy in any market of the world we firstly need to define that consumer culture accurately and then according to that consumer culture a marketer will struggle heavily to plan its marketing strategy and have to study that consumer culture in detail, that what exact culture lies in that targeted market of the consumers. In the next section different thoughts about the consumer culture & variation in the marketing strategies are there and the relationship among the marketing strategy and consumer culture is publicized.

2. Origins of Culture:

The origins; elements and consequences of culture can be shown in the following figure at a glance showing variation in the management style & consumption decisions and behaviors:

The origin of the culture affects the consumer attitude, behavior, beliefs, values, attitudes and every aspect of the consumer which automatically enforce the marketer to develop and plan the marketing strategy accordingly.

3. consumer Cultural Analysis:

3.1. defining Cultural Analysis:

As the word Consumer Cultural analysis is quite obvious which means to analyze the consumers' culture before going into the business in that region. The analysis of cultural differences is necessary for the formulation of marketing strategy. Conceptually, cultural analysis may be based on any of the following three approaches: ethnocentrism, assimilation and primacy-of-host-country viewpoint. The ethnocentrism approach assumes, “We are the best.” Many U.S. companies assume that what is good at home will work in foreign markets as well. The assimilation approach is somewhat similar, assuming that since the U.S. is a cultural melting pot, the cultural traits demonstrated in U.S. society are relevant anywhere (Thompson and Maura, 2002). The other viewpoint, the primacy of- host-country approach, bases decisions on the cultural traits of the host country. This approach considers domestic information inappropriate to successful operation in markets outside the U.S. An assessment of a country's culture for marketing's sake involves analyzing the people's attitudes, motivations, perceptions, and learning processes (Lansberg, 1988).

However the following type of cultural analysis is needed before developing a marketing strategy for a specific geographical area:

1. Determine relevant motivations in the culture. What needs are fulfilled with this product in the minds of members of the culture? How these needs are presently fulfilled? Do members of this culture readily recognize these needs?

2. Determine characteristic behavior patterns. What patterns are characteristic of purchasing behavior? What forms of division of labor exist within the family structure? How frequently are products of this type purchased? What size packages are normally purchased? Do any of this characteristic behavior conflict with behavior expected for this product?

How strongly ingrained are the behavior patterns that conflict with those needed for distribution of this product?

3. Determine what broad cultural values are relevant to this product. Are there strong values about work, morality, religion, family relations, and so on that relate to this product? Does this product connote attributes that are in conflict with these cultural values? Can conflicts with values be avoided by changing the product? Are there positive values in this culture with which the product might be identified?

4. Determine characteristic forms of decision-making. Do members of the culture display a studied approach to decisions concerning innovations or an impulsive approach? What is the form of the decision process? Upon what information sources do members of the culture rely? Do members of the culture tend to be rigid or flexible in the acceptance of new ideas? What criteria do they use in evaluating alternatives?

5. Evaluate promotion methods appropriate to the culture. What role does advertising occupy in the culture? What themes, words, or illustrations are taboos? What language problems exist in present markets that cannot be translated into this culture? What types of salespeople do members of the culture accept? Are such salespeople available?

6. Determine appropriate institutions for this product in the minds of consumers. What types of retailers and intermediary institutions are available? What services do these institutions offer that are expected by the consumer? What alternatives are available for obtaining services needed for the product but not offered by existing institutions? How do consumers regard various types of retailers? Will challenges in the distribution structure be readily accepted? For example, simply knowing about the religion or morality of a culture is not enough. What must be analyzed is whether or not the product was slated to be introduced into the country has any direct or indirect connotations that conflict with the cultural patterns of the society. Similarly, an examination of advertising, themes, phrases, words, or expressions should confirm viability of promotional decisions (Lansberg, 1988).

As, now it is quite obvious that what kind of the consumer cultural analysis is needed before stating marketing strategy for any nation and how this cultural analysis should be done is discussed in the next sub-head.

3.2. How Cultural analysis is done?

Two ways to conduct cultural analysis is done:

One way:

The cultural values of a nation may be studied through either 1-Observation or 2-Fieldwork.

1-Observation requires living in a culture over a long period in order to become deeply involved in its pattern of living. 2-Fieldwork, on the other hand, involves gathering information on a set of variables relative to the culture. The study of culture in the area of international marketing must be based on fieldwork (Davis, Pitts and Cormier, 2000).

Second way:

The Other way to conduct the cultural analysis of a country for the purpose of making marketing decision is to answer the specific marketing-related questions. A different way of understanding foreign cultures is recommended by Edward T. Hall. His framework, which he calls a map of culture, is a two-dimensional matrix containing different human activities, which he calls primary message systems. These activities are interaction, association, subsistence, bisexuality, territoriality, temporality, learning, play, defense, and exploitation. A person interested in learning about a culture need not study all 10 aspects, but by examining any one of them fully can gain an adequate understanding of the culture. (Cabrera, 2005)

Primary Message System of Edward Hall's Map of Culture:

1. Interaction: The interaction with the environment through different modes such as speech and writing. 2. Association: The structure and organization of society and its various components. 3. Subsistence: The perspective of activities of individuals and groups that deal with livelihood and living.4. Bisexuality: The differentiation of roles and functions along sex lines. 5. Territoriality: the possession, use, and defense of land and territory. 6. Temporality: The division and allocation of time and its use for various activities. 7. Learning: The patterns of transmitting knowledge. 8. Play: The process of enjoyment through relaxation and recreation. 9. Defense: The protection against natural and human forces in the environment. 10. Exploitation: The application of skills and technology to turn natural resources to people's needs. A person interested in learning about a culture need not study all 10 aspects, but by examining any one of them fully can gain an adequate understanding of the culture. (Cabrera, 2005)

Concluding, the above described approach provides an overall perspective on the culture through analysis of one or two primary message systems. In relation to the needs of business, this system works well, because the time and expense for a comprehensive cultural perspective are not required. Only the particular element of the culture directly related to a particular international market decision needs to be analyzed.

4. Consumer Culture in the Marketing Context:

At that time, consumer researchers most typically defined managerial relevance in terms of a rational choice paradigm and its corresponding focus on purchase behavior. However, subsequent developments, such as customer relation management, lifestyle and multicultural marketing, and the creation of so-called identity brands, have brought consumer meanings to the center of managerial concerns and consequently ethnographic methods have become commonplace in applied market research. In observation, even during the disciplinary confusion of the 1980s, it would have been possible to argue that an understanding of consumer symbolism and lifestyle orientations is essential to successful marketing strategies (Fiske, 1989) and to have expected many of Wells's (Well, 1993) discovery oriented proposals for enhancing the relevance of consumer research.

5-DIFFERENT THOUGHTS ABOUT CONSUMER CULTURE & THEIR MARKETING STRATEGIES & THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM:

Culture is a wide topic its elements include everything of a nations' day to day living. Major elements of consumer culture and marketing Strategies for each manner of a culture are as follows:

A. Language (Spoken/Written Language):

Same language can provide difference meaning in different culture. One particular language can have several regional formats. For example, in Bangladesh & West Bengal we are speaking Bangla but it has a clear distinction. Not only that, inside Bangladesh the people of Chittagong, Sylhet and North Bangle all speaks Bangla but in different tone and with different special words.

A marketer must have to know the local language and tone to do marketing well. Otherwise he will fail to communicate his product or service to the local communities. Translator can be used in this purpose but it's costly and may not be such effective.

B. Nonverbal communication:

Not only verbally but sometimes people used nonverbal body language or other means of communications like, Proxemics, Postures, Orientations, Oculesics' Chronemics' Haptics' Kinesics' Paralinguistic Appearances, Olfaction's. One particular body sign may carry different opposite meaning to the people of different language. For example we can say that, show thumb to somebody means he is neglecting any effect or actions of the person to home it is shown on the person who show in Bangladeshi rural culture. Showing thumb is a negative sign according to Bangladeshi rural culture. But in the Western society it means all right.

A marketer must have to know the local meaning of body language or postures and gestures that being used by the general people of that community. Otherwise serious mistake can be done and all market promotions may be worthless.

C. Low versus High Context Cultures:

Low-Context cultures: What is said is precisely what is meant.

High-Context cultures: the context of the message — the message source, his or her standing in society or in the negotiating group, level of expertise, tone of voice, and body language—are all meaningful.

A marketer must have to know the local meaning of body language or postures and gestures that being used by the general people of that community. Otherwise serious mistake can be done and all market promotions may be worthless.

D. Religion and Its Impact on Strategic Marketing:

Religion is another powerful element of culture having most powerful impact on consumer behavior which controls buying process & product choice resultant on major impact on marketing as well as international marketing.

For example we can say that beef & pork both is protein provider. But consumers are not same only for religious effect. Muslim cannot select pork in his menu & a Hindu cannot select beef in his menu. A marketer must have to think about the religion on the local community before offering a product to them. View points of different religions are as follows: (Ward, 2000)

i. Protestant Religion - stresses hard work and frugality.

ii. Judaism - stresses education and development.

iii. Islam - focus on rules for social interaction. (Ward 2000).

iv. Hinduism - encourages family orientation and dictates strict dietary constraints.

v. Buddhism - stresses sufferance and avoidance of worldly desires.

vi. Business days - Business day of a community also be selected based on their religious believes. For example most Muslim country celebrate Friday as a holiday because of Jumma prayer on the other hand Christians prefer Sunday as weekly holiday (Ward 2000).

vii. Gender roles - Role of male female in the family, society as well as in the economy also be selected by following their religious instructions. For example according to the Islamic law “Men will lead the family women are followers” it is well practiced in the Muslim society on the other hand there are some tribal people their religious trends to offer female leadership. Women are family leader as well as wealth holders. In a men leadership society usually male choice is valuable in case of product selection & vice versa. (Davis, Pitts, and Cormier 2000)

viii. Gift giving - Giving gift to anybody is a very responsive action of culture. But choice of selecting gift item also determine by the local peoples practiced religion. Religious impact on human action should not be neglected. Because it plays a vital role in every aspect.

ix. Marketing practices - marketing pattern of a community also regulated by the religion. For example most of the devoted Muslim family used not to go in the market. Though this trend in reducing with the modernization but till now it is a vital fact in many localities.

E. Cultural Values:

(1) Enduring beliefs about a specific mode of conduct or desirable end state.

(2) Guide the selection or evaluation of behavior

(3) Are ordered by importance in relation to one another to form a system of value priorities

(4) Enculturation: Process by which individuals learn the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one's own culture

(5) Acculturation: Learning a new culture.

(6)Assimilation: Maintenance of the new culture, and resistance to new cultures and to one's old culture

F. Cultural Norms:

Norms are derived from values and defined as rules that dictate what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable.

(A) Imperative: What an outsider must or must not do.

(B) Exclusive: What locals may do but an outsider cannot.

(C) Adiaphorous: What an outsider may or may not do.

G. National/Regional Character:

i. Time Orientation: The people of different region of the world are habituate to do their jobs according to different times. Time orientation can be divided in two times. M-time & P-time people. Monochromic time or (M-time) people think only one thing at a time. But Polychromic people used to think about a lot of work at a time they are P-time people.

ii. Business Hours - business hour of different community differs based on their native culture. For example, business hour in Indian subcontinent is ten am to five pm. But it is eight am to two pm at most of the western countries.

iii. Socializing - we human being is socialized animal. Our social ethics or actions are regulated by our culture. Culture reflects our individualism or collectivism nature of the society. Most of the western society used to practice individualism thinking rather than collective one. But we in Indian sub-continent used to think about family life, social role in a word collective achievement.

iv. Gender Roles - Gender role is mainly dominated by the culture. In male lead society father is the owner of wealth as a result he used to dominate in the family. On the other hand in some area mothers are the wealth owners, as a result they used to take major decisions of the family according their choice. Not only that, in male dominating culture males used to have more than one married on the other hand women used to have more than one married at a time in female dominated culture.

v. Other - for example, access (transportation by bicycle, personal automobile, public transportation

H. Cultural Variability:

a. Power Distance - Power distance means the distance between two people during mutual interaction. We the Muslims and Indian sub continental people used to be closer during interaction. On the other hand the western Christians used to hold a gap between two interactive people. Muslim thinks that westerns are not friendly and they think Muslims are pushy. But it is because of their culture power distance is barring here.

b. Uncertainty Avoidance - we are always try to avoid uncertainty and happy with that what can be found certainly. But on the other hand westerns are risk lover. They used to take challenges during any action.

c. Masculinity versus Femininity - Culture define the priority of decisions in the family, society and in the country. In some tribal community live in the northern region of India they are mother lead society, wealth owner and earning member is mother in the family. As a result women decide what ought to be, what have to do. On the other hand in male dominant society father is the owners of wealth and earning member of the family. As a result her father's decision is the final one. This masculinity and femininity has a great impact in case of product selection / brand choice and final purchasing decision. As a marketer he must have to know what types of society he is offering product. Who has to be highlighted in their promotional campaign and advertisements?

d. Individualism versus Collectivism - Maximum western country is suffering from their individualistic mentality. I have this, I have done it, I want it, etc. but in our sub continental culture we think collectively. We have this, we have done it and we need it. This individualistic and collective thinking has a great effect on their product choice as well as purchase of product.

I. Cultural Change & Marketing:

Marketers need to identify the symbolic elements that are important to a market segment and use them effectively in creating the marketing mix.

J. Obstacles to Cultural Understanding:

1. Ethnocentrism: A related belief that a particular culture is superior to another and that strategies that are used in the home country will work just as well abroad.

2. The Self-Reference Criterion: The unconscious reference to one's own value system.

K. Global Consumer Culture:

Shared consumption-related symbols and activities those are meaningful to segments. Often attributed to the diffusion of entertainment from the US to the rest of the world

L. Global Consumer Culture Trends:

Proliferation of transnational firms and the related globalize capitalism, Global brands, Globalize consumerism and the desire for material possessions. Homogenization of global consumption

M. Material Culture:

This includes technology and economic aspects of that country.

N. Social Institution:

This includes the consideration of social organization, education system, and political system of the foreign country. The belief and family system its kinds are also be considered. And the last but not the least, is the language of the foreign market. A firm desirous of entering international market must consider these factors and it should also evaluate the degree of influence and involvement of these factors, on the decision of international marketing policies. There is also a tendency, commonly present in all economies, to regard foreign goods as the things of social status. One more reason for the indication towards foreign products is the inferior nature of the domestic products; this feature is more common to the developing economies.

Thus for a successful international marketing, proper understanding of the culture is essential.

O. Material Life:

Material life refers to economics, that is, what people do to derive their livelihood. The tools, knowledge, techniques, methods, and processes that a culture utilizes to produce goods and services, as well as their distribution and consumption, are all part of material life. Thus, two essential parts of material life are knowledge and economics.

Material life refers the standard of living and degree of technological advancement. Suppose a large proportion of a hypothetical population is engaged in agriculture. Agricultural operations are mainly performed by manual labor; mechanization of agriculture is unknown. Modern techniques of farming such as use of fertilizers, pesticides, and quality seeds are unfamiliar. Opportunities for multinational business in a primitive environment will be limited. People live in urban centers and have such modern amenities as television, cars, VCRs, newspapers, and so on. Money is the medium of exchange. In such a culture, business across national boundaries would make sense. The material life of any given society will fall on a continuum between traditional and industrialized poles. For example, Brazil and Pakistan are both developing countries, but the study of material life in the two countries would show that Brazil is ahead of Pakistan, offering market opportunities for electrical appliances, stereos, and television sets. In Pakistan, which is still emerging from total dependence on farming, agricultural tools would be more important.

P. Social Interactions:

Social Interactions Social interactions establish the roles that people play in a society and their authority/responsibility patterns. These roles and patterns are supported by society's institutional framework, which includes, for example, education and marriage.

Consider the traditional marriage of a Saudi woman. The woman's father chooses the husband-to-be. After agreeing on a small payment for the bride, the two men hold hands in front of a judge to finalize the marriage. The woman sees her husband for the first time when he comes to consummate the marriage. The social role assigned to women in the strict Islamic world is not one of the complete dependency on men however it also includes woman too, whose authority and command cannot be questioned. A woman's place is always in the home. Outside the home, if women are seen at all, they are veiled. Social roles are also established by culture. For example, a woman can be a wife, a mother, a community leader, and/or an employee.

Behavior also emerges from culture in the form of conventions, rituals and practices on different occasions such as festivals, marriages, informal get-togethers, and times of grief or religious celebrations. Likewise, the authority of the aged, the teacher, and the religious leader in many societies is derived from the culture.

The educational system, the social settings, and customs and traditions prescribe roles and patterns for individuals and groups. With reference to marketing, social interactions influence family decision-making and buying behavior and define the scope of personal influence and opinion. In Latin America and Asia the extended family is considered the most basic and stable unit of social organization. It is the canter for all economic, political, social, and religious life, providing companionship, protection, and a common set of values. In contrast, the nuclear family is the focus of social organization in the U.S.

Q. Material Life:

Material life refers to economics, that is, what people do to derive their livelihood. The tools, knowledge, techniques, methods, and processes that a culture utilizes to produce goods and services, as well as their distribution and consumption, are all part of material life. Thus, two essential parts of material life are knowledge and economics.

Material life refers the standard of living and degree of technological advancement. Suppose a large proportion of a hypothetical population is engaged in agriculture. Agricultural operations are mainly performed by manual labor; mechanization of agriculture is unknown. Modern techniques of farming such as use of fertilizers, pesticides, and quality seeds are unfamiliar. Opportunities for multinational business in a primitive environment will be limited.

People live in urban centers and have such modern amenities as television, cars, VCRs, newspapers, and so on. Money is the medium of exchange. In such a culture, business across national boundaries would make sense. The material life of any given society will fall on a continuum between traditional and industrialized poles. For example, Brazil and Pakistan are both developing countries, but the study of material life in the two countries would show that Brazil is ahead of Pakistan, offering market opportunities for electrical appliances, stereos, and television sets. In Pakistan, which is still emerging from total dependence on farming, agricultural tools would be more important.

R. Pride and Prejudice:

Even the culture most backward in the eyes of a westerner will foster a certain pride in its people about its traits and ways. (Fiegener, Brown, Prince and File, 1996). Indeed, developing countries sometimes evince more pride-and prejudice than developed countries. The Chinese are jealous of their cultural heritage, and they speak of it with great emotion. So do the Egyptians of their heritage. In contrast, many Americans express feelings of being deprived of cultural history in a country so young and diverse by nature.

Cultural pride and prejudice make many nations reject foreign ideas and imported products. But the reverse also occurs: a perception of greatness attributed to another culture may lead to the eager acceptance of things reflecting that culture. For example, the Japanese are proud of their culture and economic achievement and prefer to buy Japanese manufactures (Fiegener, Brown, Prince and File, 1996).

As from the above we can clearly view that a marketer need to change its marketing strategy & plan his marketing strategy according to the consumer culture because what norms, values, morals, ethics, ideals, standards, principles, philosophy, doctrine, canon, dogma a culture have will surely vary from the other's culture which will automatically effect the way of thinking, view point, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, notions, values and thinking of the consumer. So a marketer needs to plan and develops a marketing strategy accordingly. In the next section, the consumer cultural analysis is there to state marketing strategy accordingly.

6- CONSUMR CULTURE & MARKETING STRATEGIES- IN PAKISTANI CONTEXT:

Pakistani culture can be described as collectivist, highly power distant and masculine. A collectivist culture is one where there is a ‘preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals can expect their relatives, clan, or other in-groups to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty' (Hofstede, 1984). Collectivism applies in Pakistan because the primary social organization in the country is a web of kinship networks or biradiri as it is called in the local language. The concept of biradiri (kinship) extends beyond the immediate family of an individual to include one's own cousins and those of the parents as well. According to Stanley Kochanek (1983) individual in Pakistan is tightly knit into a well-structured kinship network which determines his status, mobility, and success'. Cross-cousin marriages within the biradiri not only strengthen family ties but also reinforce the financial foundations ‘by retaining land and property within the family' (Kochanek, 1983). Another important factor that strengthens and unifies the biradiri is a sense of loyalty and respect for the norms of that group. ‘One such norm is the need for providing for the economic well-being of members of the biradiri. In practice, therefore, many of those hired are members of a family' (Ansari and Bell, 1991). Members of the biradari are mutually obligated to support each other in feuds and conflicts regardless of the justice of the issues involved, and those in position of authority are expected to favor those who are not (Kochanek, 1983). Due to the devotion of these norms, a high level of trust or bharosa exists between the biradari members, which create further solidarity. Power distance refers to the ‘extent to which inequality (hierarchy) is seen as an irreducible fact of life' (Hoecklin, 1996).

Whether a culture is low power distant or high power distant depends on the level of inequality and empowerment that exists in relationships. Pakistani culture is characterized by high power distance because the structure of organizations is hierarchical and power is typically centralized. Families, too, support a structure of hierarchy with the father being the head of the family and the eldest son having more say in decision making than the younger ones. Children are expected to respect and obey their parents and refrain from questioning their authority. The elders of the families, or buzurg, such as paternal or maternal grandparents or great grandparents are also considered wise and experienced and are to be treated with respect and reverence. Sibling rivalry is discouraged and siblings are instructed to respect each other from an early age. The older brother is referred to as bhai in Urdu which literally means brother. This ‘is not a symbol of equality but a mark of respect for family hierarchy' (Ansari and Bell, 1991). Masculinity ‘stands for a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material success' (Hofstede, 1984). A masculine society can be described as one in which there is maximum difference between the social roles of the sexes. ‘The norm is then that men are given the more outgoing, assertive roles and women the caring, nurturing roles' (Hofstede, 1984). The polarity of roles assigned to or expected of the majority of men and women in Pakistan indicates that the indigenous culture is essentially masculine. The sons of the family are expected to act responsibly and to assume leadership when the time arrives, and the daughters are expected to be married off and honorably start a new life in a new home. Men are regarded as the bread- winners of the family and women are expected to nurture the home and the children. The kinship and hierarchical nature of the society inculcates status-consciousness in the minds of the people. Status is closely tied to the concept of izzat which can be translated as honour, prestige and privilege (Kochanek, 1983). The maintenance of a family or biradari's izzat is considered extremely important. It takes precedence over all other matters and cannot be compromised. Based on the literature we propose that kinship and family culture influence the division of family business equity, and thereby the disintegration of the family business into several businesses during the succession phase. However consumers in Pakistan are more related to Islamic symbols. These people are more attracted towards Islamic norms, values, slung, etc, so their attitude as a consumer is also more towards ISLAM.

However such kind of consumers forces marketers to be more focused towards suck kind of strategies which attract Pakistani Islamic nation as a whole. For developing the marketing strategies for Pakistani nation, a marketer needs to understand the Islamic culture as a consumers' culture that exists in this geographical area. As the above details show very clearly about it. However, in order to succeed in international market, it is imperative that bold and independent decisions should be taken to exploit any opportunities. For this purpose, a clear mindset is required in by the Pakistani marketers.

From this long discussion, it is quite clear that culture has a direct impact on consumer behavior as well as on their choices, buying behavior and so on. As it is impacting buying process so it has a great impact on international marketing as well. An international marketer must have to think first which product he is offering for whom and their cultural background. Because of different parts of the world possess different cultural behavior, different tests, choices, norms, values and attitudes. It just copes with the culture where the marketer is offering the product. Know in-depth of local history and culture and offer them accordingly to have their attention. Whatever the culture think face the fact about it and just cope with the local thinking up to the permitted level. That means be Pakistani when a marketer is in Pakistan.

7-Conclusion:

So above all, the actual position that is undertaken in this position paper is: Thus for a successful international marketing, proper understanding of the culture is essential. Without this understanding, no marketing strategy can be successful. From this long discussion, it is quite clear that culture has a direct impact on consumer behavior as well as on their choices, buying behavior and so on. As it is impacting buying process so it has a great impact on international marketing as well. An international marketer must have to think first which product he is offering for whom and their cultural background. Because of different parts of the world possess different cultural behavior, different tests, choices, norms, values and attitudes and which strategy will appeal the most to the targeting nation and what are their likes & dislikes. In Pakistani context, as an Islamic nation they are attracted towards the marketing strategies but which are more prevailing Islam. In Pakistan, every segment of the class focuses towards each strategy e.g.; upper upper class focuses more towards the more global brands strategy, leading strategy, pioneers strategy, porter's differentiation strategy. So for targeting upper class in Pakistan a marketer need to develop such kind of the strategy. In Pakistan, Middle class usually focuses on the market segmentation strategy, close followers and challengers.

Concludingly, to enclose with an anthropological insight, scientific culture as an organization of diversity creates countless situations in which people must deal with other peoples' meanings . . at times, perhaps, one can just ignore them. Often enough however, one may comment on them, object to them, feel stimulated by them, take them over for one, suspend to them, or take them into account in any of a number of other ways (Hannerz, 1992). Such a disciplinary situation may not always be comfortable or comforting, but it can be energizing, thought provoking, and inspiring, and it can provide a fruitful intellectual ground for theoretical innovations and advancements. It is human nature that, everything want to judge according to self learning process and Cultural measurement. But a single thing can have different meaning in different culture. For example showing thumb carries the signal of all right to the western but it carries a serious negative meaning to the Bengali rural people.

For this reason, a marketer in international market must have to convert his all thoughts into the culture of the local people. Sometime marketer fails to make this conversion successfully, as a result they fail to have local people attention and make huge loss. It just copes with the culture where the marketer is offering the product. Know in-depth of local history and culture and offer them accordingly to have their attention. Whatever the culture think face the fact about it and just cope with the local thinking up to the permitted level. That means be French when a marketer is in France.

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