Consumer Behavior And Marketing Research Business Essay

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Plastic money is how the credit card is referred to in the western world. The credit card culture which is dominant in US has caught up with many parts of the world and now it's getting popular in India too. India has about 18-20 Million Credit card users. The banks are happy to promote credit cards as they believe that credit economy in India is booming and that the card management and merchant fee is a good stream of revenue. The other key reason is that the interest rates that the credit cards earn for the banks are much higher than the normal interest rates that they earn from other loans. Since the exposure per capita is also lower in terms of credit risk, it seems an obvious choice for banks to expand their credit card customer base. Aggressive marketing activities of credit cards have resulted in multiple credit cards with the youth of India giving them immense power to buy…. Sometimes in excess of their capacity to repay!!

The subject of mismanagement of credit cards is very wide. It pans not only into misuse by the end user, it also touches aspects of technology frauds and other human frauds cased by fraudsters which impacts the end user and the credit card companies. Hence in this paper we are restricting our study to only the end user aspects of mismanagement.

In this research we have attempted to establish the relationship with impulsive buying behavior and credit card mismanagement as a subject. We have done this through a structured research design by administration of questionnaire on a large sample of different demographic groups, analyzing the results of the survey responses through application of statistical tools. We have also tested different hypothesis on the relationship between buying behavior and credit card usage with the help of statistical tools.

The work covers all aspects such as Impulsive buying behaviour, Self perception of consumer, Effect of brand image on social identity, variance related to demographics and Credit card management.

A good example impulsive buying can be observed at the cash counters in a departmental store. We generally notice people in the queue picking up objects which are stacked close to the cash counter. These items are generally chocolates, short eats, toys, etc which are just picked up while waiting in the queue for paying the bills. While we buy these goods, they are not the goods for which we came to shop in the department store. This happens because this act of buying is influenced by many factors such as attractive packaging, "I see others picking it up", "I saw a nice advert of this product yesterday on TV, let me try", price tag is attractive etc..etc which are impulse buying behaviour.

It is very interesting to note that while human brain is designed to act rationally, in reality it behaves completely differently sometimes. In a buying decision making process the brain is supposed to - identify the need, process various alternatives that meet the need, evaluate the merits, features, price value equation of the alternatives and finally buy the best alternative…… However, in reality sometimes the behaviour is completely different. The external influences such as brand communication, point of purchase inducement, peer pressure, self esteem, and spending ability sometimes completely distort the rational behaviour and lead to impulsive buying.

While on one hand we talk about impulsive buying of small value items the question is about buying behaviour when it comes to use of credit cards. Is there a buying behaviour which is influenced by the power of having a credit card? Yes… this study has proved this in many ways in the following pages.

Background

Credit card usages have been increased in urban India. There are several reasons for the same. Few of them are listed below.

Credit cards are very convenient to use.

There is no need to carry cash.

Transaction details are immediately sent to mobile phones using SMS.

Transactions can be tracked online or calling customer service

If stolen then can be stopped immediately for making further transaction hence very secure.

Generally charges are transparent and informed by credit card companies in advance.

Many banks in India are proving life time free credit cards without any annual fees.

If users can plan their purchases and payments it is a one of the best and safe payment mode. If users do not miss payment due dates there are no penalty.

Few companies nowadays reimburse bills based on credit card transaction record. They provide credit cards to employees for official use and foreign trips for official expenses.

Listed below are few disadvantages for using credit card.

Credit card frauds are increasing, sometimes without the knowledge of actual user credit cards are issued and used.

Users sometimes get themselves into situation where they just buy but cannot afford.

If payment due dates are missed then there are heavy penalties.

Users indulge themselves into impulse buying

Having multiple credit cards or a credit card with high value may lead to mismanagement of credits. It can bring users to heavy debt. It keeps accumulating because of high interest rate and charges of defaulting on payment.

Many researches show that using if user uses credit card instead of cash they tend to purchase more.

Impulse buying is behavior of user to buy something immediately by seeing that without analyzing much. This behavior can be a reason of some external trigger that might look interesting or useful or a worth deal of that moment.

With this assignment we will study impact of credit card mismanagement on consumer impulse buying behavior.

Literature Review

Many researchers strongly suggests "the wasteful extravagance of impulsive spending and purchases as behavioral choices that would not have been made had they been considered in terms of long term consequences rather than their immediately gratifying benefits" (Stigler & Becker, 1977; Strotz, 1956).

Economists have observed and described people "who myopically and foolishly discount the future" (Jevons, 1871/1911; Mill, 1848/1909; Samuelson, 1937; Strotz, 1956), and "the psychological conflict often resulting from consumers'choices between saving and impulsive spending" (Thaler & Shefrin, 1981).

Impulse buying was described to be reason of "impulse control disorders...such as chemical substance abuse, binge-purge eating behavior, spending sprees, pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, and sexual compulsiveness" (Dell'Osso, Hadley, Baker, Chaplin, & Hollander, 2008; Rook, 1987, p. 195; Schmitz, 2005).

One definition of a psychological impulse describes it as "a strong, sometimes irresistible urge; a sudden inclination to act without Deliberation" (Goldenson, 1984, p. 37, as cited in Rook, 1987). The Dictionary of Behavioral Science described impulse as "a behavior not consciously planned, but arising immediately upon confrontation with a certain stimulus. Once triggered, an impulse encourages immediate action, and the urges may be powerful, persistent, and to some, irresistible" (Wolman, 1973).

The DuPont (1965) Consumer Buying Habits Studies, defined impulse buying "as an unplanned purchase". Kollat and Willet (1969) implied unplanned and impulse buying is synonymous terms.

Stern's (1962) suggests four categories of impulse buying: (a) planned impulse buying; (b) reminder impulse buying; (c) fashion-oriented impulse buying; and (d) pure impulse buying.

In 1985, Rook and Hoch identified characteristics of impulse buying as follows "Impulse buying occurs when a consumer experiences a sudden, often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. The impulse to buy is hedonically complex and may stimulate emotional conflict. Also, impulse buying is prone to occur with diminished regard for its consequences" (Rook, 1987).

Several studies across the disciplines of sociology, psychology, and marketing have suggested a correlation of impulsive behavior with specific demographic characteristics (e.g., Han et al., 1991). Sociologists have studied patterns of "deferred gratification" (Schneider & Lysgaard, 1953), "impulse renunciation" (Davis & Havinghurst, 1946), and "instrument orientation" (Parsons, 1951) that are learned and developed in childhood.

Early sociological studies concluded that "the failure to learn effective impulse control is more prevalent among the lower classes" (Hollingshead, 1949; Whyte, 1943), while later studies indicated "the findings to be inconclusive" (Phypers, 1970; Strauss, 1962).

A positive correlation has been indicated between "impulsiveness and age, intelligence, social responsibility, and impulse buying susceptibility" (Kolat & Willett, 1967).

"Testing a theoretical model linking the acquisition of material symbols with personal and social identity factors", Dittmar and colleagues (1996) found "gender, mood, and self-image" are important in impulse buying behavior. "Impulse buyers differed in product choices according to gender and self-perception concerns."

Problem Definition/Objectives of the Research

Primary purpose of this research is to perform a market research on credit card mismanagement and study the impact of this mismanagement on different groups of consumers.

Approach to the Problem

To achieve the objective, we conducted the survey on different consumer groups with relevant questions to understand consumer behavior. Results of survey were analyzed and discussed closely with all group members. After seeing results we also took interviews of people to understand and conclude the research. This research is result of extensive brainstorming and discussions on survey results and interviews by all of us.

Research Design

Many researches over the time in many countries have indicated that the number of credit cards used regularly and the "amount of credit debt are few variables that are directly linked to the compulsive buying of consumers" (Dittmar, 2005; Edwards, 1992, 1994; Joji & Raveendran, 2008; Norum, 2008; Park & Burns, 2005; Schmitz, 2005). Buyers with the tendency of compulsive buying have used multiple credit cards to maximize their buying power in comparison to the non compulsive buyers. Impulse driven consumers use the act of shopping as a mode of uplifting their self-esteem, improving their relations with other members of the society as well as finding a "high" or emotional uplift (Faber & O'Guinn, 1992; O'Guinn & Faber, 1989; Schmitz, 2005).

Similarly, Dittmar (2005) and Dittmar and colleagues (1996) found that "buyers purchase out of impulse as a mode of achieving material goods of individual and social identity. There have been studies conducted that have concluded that impulsive buying has improved the self image concerns and mood of individuals".

The research design will cover:

Marketing Research Problem

Measuring the buying behavior of the demography

Measuring the impact of brand's perceived effects on social identity resulting in impulsive buying

Finding out the relationship between self-perception and buying behavior and how self-esteem results in impulsive buying

Lastly, the major area of research will be the impact of credit card mismanagement on consumer impulse buying behavior

In this study report we will try to find the answers to the following questions by logically concluding the hypothesis developed below:

RQ1: What is the relationship between brand image and social identity leading to impulsive buying?

HYPO1: Consumers for their social identity do not purchase brands which their friends like

RQ2: What is the relationship between self-perception and impulsive buying behavior of consumers?

HYPO2: Consumers with low self-esteem do not indulge in more impulsive buying behavior

RQ3: What is the relationship between impulsive buying behavior and credit card mismanagement?

HYPO3.1: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior never use their credit cards at their maximum limit

HYPO3.2: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior never use their one credit card to make payment of another credit card.

HYPO3.3: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior always pay their credit card bills on time.

HYPO3.4: Consumers do not tend to be impulsive while purchasing if they are using their credit cards.

Verbal Model

Consumers with low self-esteem indulge in impulsive buying to boost their self-perception and social identity which in turn leads to credit card mismanagement and credit debt.

Graphical Model

Mathematical Model

Y = a1 + b1X

Z = a2 + b2Y

Where Y = Impulsive buying Behaviour

Z = Credit Card Mismanagement

a1, a2 = Constant

b1, b2 = Model parameters or coefficients

X = Self-esteem

Fieldwork/Data Collection

The study was conducted to study the impact of credit card mismanagement on consumer impulse buying behavior and how purchasing power of the consumer uplifts his self-esteem. Subsequent hypothesis are formulated to test the above relationships

Measurement

In order to find out the consumer behaviour on the credit card mismanagement, a survey was conducted comprising of nominal questionnaire that was based on the findings of the topic to be reviewed. The survey was distributed and filled by a wide range of demography. The survey had following parts to be answered:

(1) Impulsive buying behaviour

(2) Self perception of consumer

(3) Effect of brand image on social identity

(4) Demographics.

(5) Credit card management

The very first few questions were based on demography to find out the age, gender, income and occupation of the respondents. In the impulsive buying behaviour section, 9 questions were asked to find out the way consumers react while shopping (planned or impulsive). In the next section of Self perception of consumer, 10 questions were asked to find out what consumer think about him and another 8 questions were asked to gather information about how a brand uplifts a person's self-esteem and status. The credit card management behaviour of consumer was studied by gathering answers to 11 questions that intended to find out how it impacts the purchasing power, credit bill payment etc. Measurement of "Impulsive buying behaviour", "Self-perception of consumer", "Brand image and its effects" and "Credit card management" was questioned out using a five-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The questions in the survey are presented in Table I

Impulsive buying behaviour (IMP_BB)

(IBTV1) I often buy things spontaneously

(IBTV2) 'Just do it' describes the way I buy things

(IBTV3) I often buy things without thinking

(IBTV4) 'I see it, I buy it' describes me

(IBTV5) 'Buy now, and think about it later' describes me.

(IBTV6) Sometimes I feel like buying things on the spur of the moment

(IBTV7) I buy things according to how I feel at the moment

(IBTV8R) I carefully plan most of my purchases

(IBTV9) Sometimes, I am a bit reckless about what I buy.

Brand image and its effects (CSIVA)

(CSIV1) I rarely purchase the latest fashion styles until I am sure my friends approve of them.

(CSIV2) It is important that others like the products and brands I buy.

(CSIV3) When buying products, I generally purchase those brands that I think others will approve of.

(CSIV4) If other people can see me using a product, I often purchase the brand they expect me to buy.

(CSIV5) I like to know what brands and products make good impressions on others

(CSIV6) I achieve a sense of belonging by purchasing the same products and brands that others purchase.

(CSIV7) If I want to be like someone, I often try to buy the same brands that they buy

(CSIV8) I often identify with other people by purchasing the same products and brands they purchase.

Self perception of consumer (ESTEEMA)

(V23A) On the whole, I am satisfied with myself

(ESTEEMV2) At times I think I am no good at all

(V26A) I feel that I have a number of good qualities

(V28A) I am able to do things as well as most other people

(ESTEEMV5) I feel I don't have much to be proud of

(ESTEEMV6) I certainly feel useless at times

(V32A) I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on a equal plane with others

(ESTEEMV8) I wish I could have more respect for myself

(ESTEEMV9) All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure

(V36A) I take a positive attitude toward myself

Credit card max usage (CCMXU)

Credit card to pay another card (CCTPAC)

Credit Card Payment (CCPAY)

Credit Card Impulse Buying (CCIMB)

(CARDV1) My credit cards are usually at their maximum credit limit (i.e. credit card spending touches the maximum credit limit available)

(CARDV4) I worry how I will pay off my credit card debt

(CARDV9) I rarely go over my available credit limit

(CARDV11) I have too many credit cards

(CARDV2) I frequently use available credits on one credit card to make a payment on another credit card

(CARDV10) I seldom take cash advances on my credit cards

(CARDV3) I always pay off my credit cards at the end of each month

(CARDV5) I often make only the minimum payment on my credit card bills

(CARDV8) I am seldom delinquent in making payments on my credit cards

(CARDV6) I am less concerned with the price of a product when I shop with credit cards

(CARDV7) I am more impulsive when I shop with credit cards

Table I - Questionnaire

Data collection and analyses

Sample Profile

The questionnaire was spread among the respondents through the internet using social network. 210 responses were collected excluding the incomplete responses. Of a total sample of 210 respondents, 72.9 percent (153) were male and 27.1 percent (57) were female. A large majority of respondents' ages were in the ranges 25-40 (73.3 percent), 18-24 (7.1 percent) and 40 above (19 percent). The majority of the respondents (76.7 percent) had a monthly income of more than 30000 INR. In addition, the majority of the respondents' occupation (74.3 percent) was students meaning that they were pursuing higher education. The detailed demography data of the survey respondents is presented in Table II.

Gender

Characteristic

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Male

153

72.9

72.9

Female

57

27.1

27.1

Total

210

100.0

100.0

What is your age

Characteristic

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

18-24

15

7.1

7.2

25-40

154

73.3

73.7

40 Above

40

19.0

19.1

Total

209

99.5

100.0

Missing

System

1

.5

Total

210

100.0

What is your occupation

Characteristic

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

Student

156

74.3

74.6

Service

38

18.1

18.2

Business

15

7.1

7.2

Total

209

99.5

100.0

Missing

System

1

.5

Total

210

100.0

What is your income

Characteristic

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Valid

0 to 10000

19

9.0

9.0

10001 to 30000

30

14.3

14.3

more than 30000

161

76.7

76.7

Total

210

100.0

100.0

Table II - Demographic characteristics of Respondents

SPSS tool was used for analysis of the data. In order to analyze the relationship between customer's impulsive buying behaviour and credit card mismanagement the various questions asked were re-coded into new variables as shown above in Table I. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find out the degree of association among the dependent and independent variables. To find out that the variables are in relationship Chi-square analysis was used with significance (p < .05) to reject the null hypothesis.

HYPO1: Consumers for their social identity do not purchase brands which their friends like

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

1

.595a

.354

.351

a. Predictors: (Constant), Social Identity

The above Model summary shows that R Square as .354 which means that 35.4% of the criteria variable (impulsive buying behavior) measured outcome is equal to success on stats test that can be accounted by this model. Adjusted R Square here is .351 which means that if the sample is changed then there will be shrinkage of .351or amount of predictive loss from .354 to .351.

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Impulsive buying behaviour

2.7762

.92927

Social Identity

2.9571

1.06401

Correlations

Impulsive buying behaviour

Pearson Correlation

Impulsive buying behaviour

1.000

Social Identity

.595

Sig. (1-tailed)

Impulsive buying behaviour

.

Social Identity

.000

N

Impulsive buying behaviour

210

Social Identity

210

Result 1: The relationship between the brand and social identity was examined using Pearson's coefficient and it was found that the significant level was far less than .01 for a single tailed test. Thus we reject the null hypothesis which means that the Indian consumer consider brand to add to their social identity and a leveraged status among his friends. A positive correlation (.595) was administered between the two variables (0.01 significance level). The kind of result may be due to the fact that most of the consumers believe that if they also endorse the brands which their friends and society around them is using then they would be considered of higher status and will be welcomed to be a part of that society

HYPO2: Consumers with low self-esteem do not indulge in more impulsive buying behavior

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

1

.429a

.184

.180

a. Predictors: (Constant), Self- Esteem

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Impulsive buying behavior

2.7762

.92927

Self- Esteem

2.3619

.67241

Correlations

Impulsive buying behavior

Impulsive buying behavior

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

180.481

Covariance

.864

N

210

Self- Esteem

Pearson Correlation

.429**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

Sum of Squares and Cross-products

56.010

Covariance

.268

N

210

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Test Statistics

Impulsive buying behavior

Chi-Square

102.810a

df

4

Asymp. Sig.

.000

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 42.0.

b. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 52.5.

Result 2: The above statistics show that the correlation coefficient between self-esteem and impulsive buying behavior is positively related with a value of .429 where correlation is significant at 0.01 significance level for a two-tailed test. The p-value is .000 which is far less than .05 and thus we reject the null hypothesis. This may be due to the fact that consumers with low self-esteem tend to incline towards impulsive buying behavior to make themselves feel good and to elevate their emotional levels and building positively on their self-perception.

HYPO3.1: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior never use their credit cards at their maximum limit

Correlations

Impulsive buying behavior

Impulsive buying behavior

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

210

Credit Card max usage

Pearson Correlation

.628**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

210

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Credit Card max usage

2.5714

.94192

Impulsive buying behavior

2.7762

.92927

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

73.094

1

73.094

135.343

Residual

112.334

208

.540

Total

185.429

209

a. Dependent Variable: Credit Card max usage

b. Predictors: (Constant), Impulsive buying behaviour

Result 3.1: From the above results it is quite clear that there exists a very strong correlation between credit card usage up to maximum limit and impulsive buying behavior as the correlation coefficient is 0.628 which is quite significant at 0.01 level. Also the p-value is .000 which is far less than 0.05 thus rejecting the null hypothesis. This behavior may be due to the fact that consumers with impulsive buying behavior have no control over their impulse that they shop till they drop without really bothering about their credit card limit. The impulsive buyer tends to maximize their purchasing power by acquiring multiple credit cards and utilizing them to their maximum limit.

HYPO3.2: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior never use their one credit card to make payment of another credit card.

Correlations

Impulsive buying behavior

Impulsive buying behavior

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

210

Credit Card to pay another card

Pearson Correlation

.211**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

N

210

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Credit Card to pay another card

2.6714

.89209

Impulsive buying behavior

2.7762

.92927

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Pearson Chi-Square

23.389a

16

Likelihood Ratio

30.358

16

Linear-by-Linear Association

9.304

1

N of Valid Cases

210

a. 13 cells (52.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .09.

Result 3.2: Taking into account the responses of the consumers regarding their impulsive buying behavior and their credit card payment habits it was statistically found that there is a very low correlation between the two variables with a mere correlation coefficient being 0.211 significant at 0.01 level. At the same time we reject the null hypothesis as the p-value in this case is 0.002 which is quite less than 0.05 thus concluding that impulsive buyers do pay off their one credit card bills with some other credit card. The two variables as seen are not highly correlated meaning that this behavior can be seen in only few consumers as shown through Pearson Chi-Square with value 23.389 and significance greater than .05. Another possibility might be that most of the consumers must be having only one credit card at hand.

HYPO3.3: Consumers with impulsive buying behavior always pay their credit card bills on time.

Correlations

Impulsive buying behavior

Credit Card Bill Payment

Impulsive buying behavior

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

210

Credit Card Bill Payment

Pearson Correlation

.413**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

210

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Credit Card Bill Payment

3.1619

.89254

Impulsive buying behavior

2.7762

.92927

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Pearson Chi-Square

101.352a

16

Likelihood Ratio

77.379

16

Linear-by-Linear Association

35.666

1

N of Valid Cases

210

a. 13 cells (52.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .09.

Result 3.3: Above figures indicate that there is a moderate relation between credit card bill payment and impulsive buying behavior with the correlation coefficient as 0.413 at a significance level of 0.01. The p-value in this analysis was 0.0001 which is far less than 0.05 and hence we reject the null hypothesis. The entire analysis concludes that the impulsive buyers do not pay their credit card bills on time. They are quite delinquent in making bill payments. This may be due to the fact that they so overshoot the budget that it becomes difficult for them to pay the bill and thus leading them to be in debt.

HYPO3.4: Consumers do not tend to be impulsive while purchasing if they are using their credit cards.

Correlations

Impulsive buying behavior

Impulsive buying behaviour

Pearson Correlation

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

210

Credit Card Impulsive buying behaviour

Pearson Correlation

.657**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

210

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Credit Card Impulsive buying behaviour

2.8524

1.19893

Impulsive buying behaviour

2.7762

.92927

Chi-Square Tests

Value

Df

Pearson Chi-Square

151.618a

16

Likelihood Ratio

143.605

16

Linear-by-Linear Association

90.306

1

N of Valid Cases

210

11 cells (44.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .60.

Result 3.4: The above results show that there is a very high correlation of 0.657 at a significance level of 0.01 meaning that the two variables Impulsive buying behaviour and impulsive buying if credit card is used are highly correlated. The null hypothesis that consumers do not show impulsive buying while using credit cards is rejected as the p-value 0.0001 is far less than 0.02 significance level.

Conclusion:

As defined at the beginning the credit card mismanagement has many aspects to it beyond the misuse by the end user… however our study is focused on the end user aspects of mismanagement of Credit card.

Our study has resulted in the following conclusions:

The credit card culture is quite popular in India though the number of credit cards is on a declining trend in the recent years.

The multiple credit cards are a common phenomenon in the younger population. However at the overall level in India single credit card is common.

The brand influence is quite high in decision making of Men where as it is not so much in women. However, both men and women would be influenced by brands that give them status and peer influences and societal influences do play a role in buying decisions. More importantly with a credit card the 'splurge' attitude is seen as an observed behavior.

The self esteem plays an important role in buying process and consumers with low esteem are more impulsive in their buying decisions.

The impulsive buyer tends to maximize their purchasing power by acquiring multiple credit cards and utilizing them to their maximum limit.

Though not a very common behavior, it is observed that Impulsive buyers use one credit card to pay off the other. This goes to show that the extent of buying is beyond their capacity to pay.

The resultant obvious is that the impulsive buyers do not pay their credit card bills on time.

The above outcomes clearly prove that the "Credit card mismanagement is clearly leading to consumer impulse buying behavior"

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