There has been an ever growing concern about the way the people are looked and managed in an organisation. It is about how much value or importance is really being given to the mankind. Most of the business organisations today are merely concerned about their business plan which is only about increasing their employee's output levels in order to have increased profits. Most of the managements in the business organisations does not really care a damn about its employees, be it about knowing their culture, values, families, interests, ideas etc. and all they treat their employees is like someone who is not really valuable and one who can always be replaced whenever they wish to do so. Such managers usually show their power to their subordinates by dictating work responsibilities and threatening to do the assigned job in the ways the firm wants to it to be done and do not bother to hear any concerns or thoughts about it from their employees, like if whether they are satisfied with it or have any new ideas in doing the same work in a better way by implementing new technique in their approach etc.. Most of the managers, expect their employees to only work by keeping away all of their emotions and values at home only to accomplish their (Organisational) targets. Human beings here are treated like machines, where they only expect work from them even though if the person working on such a job is not really satisfied in doing it. It only shows they expect a mechanistic human approach. This kind of behaviour makes the people in the organisation feel very monotonous and leads to dissatisfaction among them self's as there is no room for any individual ideas and thoughts. Performing a job impersonally will lead to frustration and denial within the individual (Graham and Radha 2007). All this tells us that this ways of management culture from the western world has been put in place in most of the business firms operating today.
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Work today is looked upon something which is detached from the personal life. Which makes an individual not able to put in their special skills and ideas in use as there is nothing which promotes dedication towards work. "Creativity, emotions and spirituality are largely ignored" (Graham and Radha 2007). Peoples problems are not largely accepted in most of today's organisations although there are some exceptions. The managers do not care about their workers personal problems and expect the workers to keep them away from their working place and are only worried about accomplishing their business tasks. Since they only give importance to human activity and not the human beings, the outputs derived with such approach are generally poor and lack new ideas, interests, goals, innovations etc. only because there is no importance given to emotions, spirituality and thought of any individuals. Employees today are being selected not only based on their merit but also on how they (employee) can adjust to the requirements of the business organisation, although it is crucial and is the duty of the employees to be flexible towards their organisations, as they are in need of someone who works to how the organisations changing demands. This shows they only want someone who is flexible towards the organisations needs likewise it makes sense if the organisation also is flexible towards their employees.
There has been a very high influence of the Western Styles of Management in most parts of the world today. It has propagandised the way in how we approach the Human Resources in the organisations, just by blindly implementing their ways of management styles. Due to higher costs in the west, mechanistic labour there has decreased and is in raise in the other part of the world in the form of outsourcing, in order to get the advantage of cheap labour available elsewhere in developing countries like India and China. This concept has also made the developing countries to adopt such western managing styles in order to meet their expectations like high quality, timely delivery etc. one good example is the spread of call centres in India where employees are expected to work longer hours, night shifts, monotonous work etc., where they are only expected to speak and deal with their clients queries in a trained manner. This makes the job very tiring and boring as they are isolated to perform the job in a specific way. The design of call centres is done in such a way, that the workers are expected to fit the technology and not the technology to fit the workers (Sudhashree et al., 2005). As the process of call centres is designed this way, the same pattern is followed all over the world. The other example is about the fast food outlets where the employee's interactions with the customers are only limited to a checklist which is planned and put down by the managers of such firms. (Morgan 1996). Such kind of management practices will be the same in all of their outlets operating in the different parts of the world. Like in case of the call centres, where the job is outsourced to another country, its forces the outsourced company to adopt the western styles of management in order to comply with their requirements and high expectations. This only shows how we are so inclined towards the western management styles even in our home countries. These approaches have forced the other countries to follow it blindly without realising the need of giving importance to the precious human values.
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Due to these Styles in Management, People today don't really enjoy working in organisations where there is no respect given to them as human beings for their values, emotions, relations, thoughts, families, etc., which makes them feel very lost and away from their personal life where they are only supposed to work for maintaining their work outputs in order to get paid. Although some may have better ideas in doing the same job, the managers are not open minded to adopt or discuss such matters. This makes the employees frustrated for not able to see any new growth or future prospects among themselves as individuals, which is one of the most reasons why people shift their jobs frequently. Some have also tried to bring up their own business so as to manage in a way which they felt was lacking in their previous work place. This is making the people aware about the changes required in the management styles.
Also from my personal work experience in an export firm in India, I noticed that the firm I was working was also influenced largely by such styles of management mainly because of having to deal with organisations in the west, those which had high target expectations like consistency of products, instant deliveries and fast service, all at a very low price. This directly or indirectly force employees to work longer hours in order to accomplish the firm's business responsibilities. Although the export company was paying for the extra work to its employees, we could notice a strain and tiring effects on the workers, specially the labourers who were into tedious part of the job. Also due to the low price squeezing from the clients abroad, it was impacting the employees pay as well. Although the management was trying its best to keep up with both the ends, that is the clients (Buyers) and the workers, especially when there was an economic downturn, it was forced to cut jobs in the factory level invariable as it was very crucial for its survival in the market. Though the management from the export firm did not like such move, it was forced to, in order to keep up with its low pricing. It shows the export firm was forced to comply with the ways the western businesses demands. This shows how the western styles of business influence in countries like India or any other country as firms today are only concerned about increasing the profits over neglecting its employee's importance.
In a country like India where there are many traditional values still present and is where people are regarded to be together as a whole group than individually. Unlike the western world which emphasis individualistic approach and promotes independent way of living, in India importance is given more towards family, respect, harmony, generosity, etc. which builds relationships among each others. According to Sinha (1978) the works performance done in the organisation are not really appreciated and is only performed to cultivate good relations with the managers and are more sentimental on the workplace with each other and are not really concerned about performance in their work as what the western ways of management styles emphasis on. It has been found many dissimilarity in the how the management practices are being carried out in the country, that is what kind of behaviour is really being in place today as to what has been project to being in practise (Virmani and Guptan, 1991). During the olden days in India, the work or businesses were carried among the family, a tribe or within a kingdom and was never regarded as something which is detached from the personal life. Their idea of extended family was given importance for them to carry out their work, where they always used to consult the head of the family to take out any decisions, which ensured collective opinions by all the family members, which was open to individual thoughts and ideas. But after the invasions by the foreign leaders, which made an influence on the way the people started managing their work force.
It is noticed that large number of people working in such organisation goes through high level of stress in their daily lives. Because of the kind of work atmosphere present, that is restrictive as there is no room for having human relations. It is like losing the precise movements of every individual, which could have otherwise been used more lovingly and creatively to accomplish the same economic goals better. The full use of individual's creativity towards the work is not achieved as there is no personal approach entertained. According to a study, most of the employees are not able to bring in their emotions and feelings to their workplace, but are only bringing in their brains (Mitroff 2003). There are growing evidence that many people working in such organisations can go through much health related problems like mental sickness, high stress levels, and other related health issues. Due to the fact of these, there can be problems in the near future in finding the people willing to work in such organisations. The cost of working in a mechanised way can be very harmful (Graham and Radha 2007).This is because there has been growing concerns on how such mechanistic ways of working is affecting the lives of individuals, which over the period affects our health.
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Soon after the Indian independence, the leaders in India were confused as to which management's styles to adopt. This situation made them reproduce their own styles of management incorporating both the western and the traditional Indian approach. Today "In many successful organisations in India, 'Paternalism' has been the ethos in workplace"(Graham and Radha 2007). It helps is guiding, nurturing, motivating and securing the people in the organisation. It is generally found among the old people and helps in spreading formal and informal approaches in the organisation. Organisations which give importance to human values, that is which are personality centred and having their policies laid with keeping in mind the peoples interpersonal relations is called as Organic organisations. Organisation like Tata, Hero Honda, Infosys and Wipro are known to be organic in their approaches, which is following the people centric models. Infosys is a globally known software company in India, Its speedy growth both in the domestic and the international market made it the first company from India to be listed on the NASDAQ and is one of the most respected software firms of India. Mr. Narayan Murthy, the CEO of the company took in the values of 'public good before private good' from his parents, which stresses importance being good to public which was to hold responsibility of their employees and the community. It is a company which is driven by its principles. The stakeholders are treated with fairness, transparency and honesty. They have implemented the importance of treating the company's resources as their own to their employees and expect them to make a valuable contribution to the company. Periodically opinions are taken from their employees regarding their job satisfaction. It offers them the flexibility of working from their homes and also the flexible working hours. 'Powered by intellect and driven by values' is the slogan of company. which attracts the best talents
Due to the responsibilities the company has towards the society, it has helped in rebuilding many old schools in the rural areas along with setting up of thousands of libraries. Along with education it has also offered support in improving the health and living conditions of the people in the rural areas. According to the study carried out by Sharma and Sharma (2003) with the managers from highly performing companies, showed that the driving forces for achieving motivation and commitment from employees in the organisation was offering the safety and security along with the scope of employee growth. This shows that people are more satisfied working in a people centric organisation which leads to increased commitment and performance in the company.
Therefore there has been an ever growing need of transforming the way the organisations operate. What really lacks here is the use of spirituality in workplace, which can go a long way in managing the Human Resources in a respectable way. There is a need for transformation in order to adapt to the ever growing organisational demands, to ensure practical leadership and flexibility in the workplace (Judith et al., 1999). It is a known fact that people enjoy being in an atmosphere which is joyful and friendly. There are indications about individuals wanting to make use of their special skills on the work front. The lack of emotions, relationships and other human values are being expected. Due to the competition and other changes in the organisations, it has made the employees to seek their importance and meaning to their existence in their workplace. The use of spirituality in the workplace has been preferred, due to the fact of its positive impact on the full use of human potentials. According to a research, though the transformation benefit is not economic, it is one of the very important aspects for the organisational, societal and individual success (Torbert 1991; Whyte 1994). Its importance of using spirituality in the workplace has made the adoption of western styles of management to fail. It is primarily because they are solely concerned about the organisations profitability with neglecting the real human values. On the other hand spirituality is been seen as the perfect way to manage the human resources optimally. Since this approach does only give importance to the economic goals but also the importance to human relationships as well. This has shown to be more effective and useful in today's business organisations.
The diagram below shows how human values are related for seeking individual potentials.
(Integration & perspective)
(Passion & compassion)
(Vision & Inspiration)
(Reflection & responsibility)
Source: Cowan. D (2005)
The above 4, that is Mental, Spiritual, Emotional and Physical formed as a whole is crucial to reach the full potential of any individuals. Each of them is co related to one another and cannot be put to use separately. That is the people are supposed to bring in their Emotional, Spiritual, Physical and Mental capacities to their work place in order to really attain their full potentials. This way the purpose of doing the work in the workplace turns satisfying and joyful, reason is when an individual has the freedom to be what they want, that's is free to speak out among the organisation, it builds relationship with each other and also with the organisation itself and helps in more contribution by the employees. This makes the individuals to also grow by putting forward their ideas and in turn also helps the business firm to accomplish its goals. Therefore it is necessary to adopt the people centric strategic model along with incorporating the spirituality. This makes the people more satisfied and motivated towards their work which will in turn lead to achieving greater success individually as well as organisationally. This way the full potential of an individual is achieved.
Spirituality and consciousness has been found to be the most important change in the system and therefore very essential to incorporate it in our organisational model (Ackerman 1984; Banner and Gagne 1995).