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This assignment is about Human Resource. In this assignment discusses the concepts and theory of HR and applies them in the organisation. We discuss the different aspect of the HR Strategy, Department, and Legal Requirements in an organisation.
Every organisation is different and so is the way their HR function operates. From generalist roles to specialist positions, there are many different functions, depending on the organisation's size and needs. Here, we describe just some of the varied roles in HR. Rather than just give you the theory; we've also talked to real people about what they actually do (CIPD, 2010).
Organizational Background and Department:
Introduce the organisation
M/s Matracon Pakistan (Pvt) Limited is apparently in its nascent stage as a corporate entity but the fact is that it is being managed by talented businessmen, with ability to guide the organization to a leading position in the Construction Industry. Supported by a team of seasoned managers, highly qualified and experienced engineers and finance managers, the company has the potential to rapidly rise to the ranks of the construction giants of the country.
The Managing Director, Mr. Muhammad Abdul Qadir has to his credit, the mega construction projects of NHA (1.6 Billions), large size water supply schemes (1.31 billion) of Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB), Reconstructive training of natural streams (Like Leih Nullah), Khanpur Water Supply Scheme, bridge construction and urban development projects including Morgah City Islamabad (1.5 Billions).
M/S MATRACON started its operations as a Sole Proprietorship firm in 1985 and after completing 19 years of successful business, by the grace of Allah it was converted into a private limited company as MATRACON PAKISTAN (Pvt.) LIMITED . The Company has undertaken on its own as well as in partnership with renowned companies of Pakistan, civil engineering contracts of varying nature and magnitude as management contractors and as their sub-contractors. It is today one of the leading upcoming Civil Engineering companies in the private sector at the National level.
The company has to its credit construction of several commercial / residential building complexes in Pakistan, water supply work comprising large diameter pipelines, bridges, roads, siphons, canal regulators, airport facilities, factories, office buildings, pre-fabricated structure and other civil engineering works.
Company's senior management includes some of the most outstanding engineers of the country, whose expertise and experience encompass designing and execution of a wide variety of civil engineering projects. It is a professionally managed company, whose business philosophy and operational policies are geared towards qualitative performance. The company has received letters of appreciation from clients and consultant on a number of occasions, for its effective professional financial management and execution, The Company is fully competent in terms of financial resources, expertise, skilled manpower and construction equipment to undertake all types of civil engineering projects. Company has progressive approach towards the avenues of expanding its business especially in infrastructural and telecommunication fields.
Give departmental overview:
Analysis of Human Resource Strategy:
An organization is always in dilemma regarding use of financial, technological and human resources. According Porter (1985) an organization must use resources which are valuable, inimitable and rare. In this context there has been a shift in focus from financial aspect to human resources. An organization is said to have sustained competitive advantage when the strategies applied by it are not applied by any of its competitors and are hard to implement. Now it is necessary to understand what strategy is? And which aspect of strategy gives importance to human resources? Strategy can be defined as plans and methods deployed by a company to achieve competitive advantage and operate profitably. It is related to the long term plans of the company. The resource base view of strategy sees it as a way to create opportunities using the organizations internal resources and competences (Johnson, Scholes, & Whittington, 2005). According to this theory employees are considered as resource with knowledge, skills and experience present with them as the core of organizational performance. Now, human resource management (HRM) is the branch of management which deals with managing employees in an organization and using their knowledge to gain effectiveness. The resource based view looks employees as valuable resource, which is rare, their knowledge is hard to imitate, which provides organization to get competitive advantage (Pfeffer, 1994). Strategic human resource management can be defined as predetermined steps of human resource development activities undertaken to achieve organizational goals (Jackson, & Schuler, 2003). The strategic approach makes it necessary for organizations to focus on improvement of Human resource capability (HRC). This helps the organization to improve its competitive position by improving human skills, knowledge and experience. The strategic approach to various human resource practices like staffing, performance management, training and development, career planning, etc helps in improvement of human resource capabilities.
Table 1.1:- Analysing the HR Strategy
Overall Corporate Strategy (proposed)
To construction projects of NHA (1.6 Billions), large size water supply schemes (1.31 billion) of Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB), Reconstructive training of natural streams (Like Leih Nullah), Khanpur Water Supply Scheme, bridge construction and urban development projects including Morgah City Islamabad (1.5 Billions)
Functional Strategy (proposed)
To tackle such issues and keep on a tight schedule, the construction team held weekly meetings with subcontractors and created computerized schedules as well as a weekly plan to monitor task completion.
Human Resources Strategy (proposed)
In case of the strategic involvement, the construction companies can take up the Strategic Human Resource Management policies to fulfill their long term perspectives
. In the day to day operations, there is also a need for the organization to take great care to balance organizational and individual needs of the employees' in-order to successfully fulfill the strategic needs. But the biggest issue is the trend amongst the Industrialists to bestow the responsibilities of all the operations to line managers instead of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). Hereby, SHRM looses all the control and rely on the policies and practices of autonomous line managers. Hereby, line managers have the role to balance their staff needs to those of the organization.
The main feature of Construction Industry is its inherent ability to adhere to the outside forces that exerts a powerful force on its everyday growth. Here also Human Resource Management strategy comes into play whereby it capitalizes the opportunities and mitigates the threats through their management policies. For e.g. a company captured an opportunity in a government sponsored infrastructure project coming in next five years. And it needs more skilled labor for heavy civil engineering work but has extra labor for general building construction. By utilizing the human Management Resource it can proactively retrain its managers and operatives with the requisite skills and exploit the new market opportunities.
Human Resource Management develops strategy according to the labor market situation in which it is operating. The practice of the manual labor in the construction industry performs according to the 'hard models' of Human Resource Management whereas non-manual employment goes more according to the conditions of 'soft' HRM models. According to John Storey, Human Resource Management works according to the relations to the performance on line management responsibility, performance management, and values and beliefs of personnel managers.
A dynamic manager balances two sets of forces: the firm's external advantages on one hand and its internal strengths and weaknesses on the other and here the Importance of Human Resource Management cannot be ignored.
Human Resources Plan for Matracon Pakistan Pvt limited:
According to Decenzo and Robbins, "Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and right kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives". The main aim of Human Resource Management is to ascertain the manpower needs of the organization both in right number and right kind. And it's quite true with the Construction Industry. (ARTICLESGRATUITS.COM, 2010).
The casual nature of the employment in the construction Industry makes planning a vague exercise. This is the Human resource information systems(HRIS) that presents number of measures to cope with these problems ensuring reliability, accuracy and accessibility of the human resource information.
The construction industry is one of the largest sectors employing large number of people, providing work to significant proportion of the labor market and providing significant share of the world Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Any construction project involves skilled manual labor which gets support from management. It is a duty of the management to coordinate many professional, construction and supplier organizations whose involvement can change through the course of the project. The dynamism that involves in the process and the need to integrate a wide range of occupational cultures, gives the construction one of the most complex project related Industry in which there is a need to apply good
Human Resource Management (HRM) practices.
1. Participate in the preparation and presentation of training sessions on personnel issues in order to promote the awareness of HR Policies/initiatives to management and staff.
2. Assist in research for ad-hoc projects, new HR Policies and Procedures and developing and reviewing written policies and procedures as required.
3. Ensure the maintenance of confidentiality at all times in respect of the Association's work.
4. Keep up to date on relevant guidance, legislation, practices and procedures and undertake training as required.
5. To establish, develop and maintain effective working relationships with all work colleagues to ensure an integrated approach to service delivery and quality.
6. To maintain awareness of Tenant Participation as a commitment by MATRACON to its Tenants.
7. To observe and continually promote equal opportunities and customer care in compliance with Association policy.
8. Carry out any other duties appropriate to this post, as necessary or as requested.
Legal Requirements and HR:
In the past decade, diversity management has grown from a compliance-based offshoot that only examined racial and gender diversity in the workplace and was primarily housed in HR departments to what organizations increasingly consider the most vital aspect of their ability to be competitive in the war for talent and for customers/clients, suppliers and vendors.
The definition of diversity "The basic concept of managing diversity accepts that the workforce consists of a diverse population of people. The diversity consists of visible and non-visible differences which will include factors such as age, sex, background, race, disability, personality and work style. It is founded on the premiss that harnessing these differences will create a productive environment in which everyone feels valued, where their talents are being fully utilised and in which organisational (company) goals are met."
(Kandola & Fullerton, 1998)
Often the reasons for embracing diversity are conceptualised in the following three ways:
The benefits of diversity at work are often called the "business case". This describes the organisational benefits or impact thought to arise from investing in, developing and sustaining a diverse workforce. Such benefits are as follows:
Attracting the best person for the job
Being an employer of choice where workers are encouraged to achieve their full potential
Having a ready supply of people power for your workforce
Attracting a wide variety of customers and previously untapped markets
Having a creative, innovative and competitive workforce
A harmonious workforce; reducing costly employment tribunals and disputes
Having staff that can act appropriately and relate to a diverse customer base
Developing your reputation with suppliers, customers, stakeholders and the community
Being able to develop productive partnerships, and relationships with new suppliers and sources
Being ready to meet the demands of procurement policies in the public sector
Creating a chain reaction by influencing other organisations in your supply chain, to address diversity issues too
Your competitors are already working on diversity- (BATH, University of, 2007)
Equal opportunities has been driven upon a legislative structure such as the Race Relations Act (1976). It treats everyone as if they are the same, ensuring fairness. It can sometimes be seen as having little to do with the needs of businesses and specifically focussing on certain groups of people/ minority groups. It can also be thought of as being reactive to problems rather than proactive. However it remains a useful tool to ensure employees can find redress from discrimination at work but also ensure compliance within the law.( Bassett-Jones, N. Berman Brown, R. & Cornelius, N ,2007)
The management gives due consideration to the diversified HR and always emphasis on equal opportunities for all . there is no discrimination at all.
Assessment of Recruitment:
"Is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization. Flippo." (BOSE, D. Chandra, 2006)
"It is the process of finding and attracting applicants for employment. the process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.Werther & Davis."
Process comprises five integrated steps: 1. Planning,Â 2. Strategy Development,Â 3. Searching, 4. Screening, 5. Evaluation & Control. An ideal recruitment program is one that attracts larger number of applicants able to survive screening process & accept positions in organisation.
Recruitment and selection of best possible HR is every Organization dream. An Organization should select right people for the right job and in the right qualification, a big Organization having diversified assets and capital cannot run the show effectively with a B. COM. Pass Accountant, rather it would need a chartered Accountant who would have the requisite qualification and experience to effectively utilize the resources of the Organization.
Table 1.3 - Assessing the Recruitment Process
The Recruitment Process
Position of Engineering Director
Plan on how to find and attract candidates
The plan is to talk to people in the industry who matters in the selection people of this post.
To advertise it in print media
Decide where to advertise
All national dailies of bigger circulations
Write the advertisement
An Engineering Director for a big construction firm is required who has the expertise and required qualification to manage big construction projects.
Min Exp:- 20 Years
Qualification: Msc civil Engineering
Draw up a short-list of candidates
Mr A - 25 YEARS EXPERIENCE
Mr B - 20 Years Experience
Mr c - 15 years experience
Reply to candidates
We have received your application for this post.
You are shortlisted for test and interview.
Pl report at the following address at 8 o clock on 11 Nov,2010.
Preparation for selection
Assessment of Selection:
The way staff is selected varies greatly from one employer to another.
The selection process may involve several stages. Every stage of the process should be designed to clearly assess your ability and aptitude for the job which you are applying for.
CV and Application Form
Employers will look for a match between your experience and qualifications and the requirements of the job. Remember that interviewers are likely to ask you questions based upon the information which you have included in your CV so it is essential to be relevant, honest and succinct wherever possible. Remember that potential employers usually have at least several CVs to read through and that they will often check the accuracy of the information you have provided.
Questions are likely to be based around your experience as well as the job competencies and requirements that should have been detailed in the advertisement. The key is to remember to be honest and to use relevant examples from your career, studies or private life that provide evidence to the interviewers of any skills being discussed.
Ability tests look at the extent to which you are able to carry out various aspects of a job; for example, your verbal reasoning and numerical reasoning abilities. Often employers are interested in your potential to do a task. In this case, they may use assessment methods that aim to simulate aspects of that task (see Simulation Exercises below)
Personality Questionnaires look at behavioural preferences, that is, how you like to work. They are not concerned with your abilities, but how you see yourself in terms of your personality; for example, the way you relate to others, and how you deal with feelings and emotions. There are no rights or wrongs in behavioural style, although some behaviours may be more or less appropriate to certain situations.
These exercises are designed to simulate a particular task/scenario needed for the target job and it should be clear what kinds of skills are being assessed.
- Group Exercises
- Role Plays
Where many selection and assessment methods are used together, this can be referred to as an 'Assessment Centre. (SHLDIRECT.COM, 2010)
Basically, organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is one of those terms that's difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For example, the culture of a large, for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different that that of a university. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. -- similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone's personality.
Corporate culture can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from, e.g., society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. The process is based on our assumptions, values and norms, e.g., our values on money, time, facilities, space and people. Outputs or effects of our culture are, e.g., organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc.
The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Practitioners are coming to realize that, despite the best-laid plans, organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes, but also changing the corporate culture as well.
There's been a great deal of literature generated over the past decade about the concept of organizational culture -- particularly in regard to learning how to change organizational culture. Organizational change efforts are rumored to fail the vast majority of the time. Usually, this failure is credited to lack of understanding about the strong role of culture and the role it plays in organizations. That's one of the reasons that many strategic planners now place as much emphasis on identifying strategic values as they do mission and vision.
The present organizational culture is employee friendly and it is a source of satisfaction for employees. Thus employees remain in the organization and do not look for other opportunities outside.
THE GRIEVANCE, DISCIPLINE AND DISMISSAL PROCESS:
Identify the process to be followed in a grievance procedure
An employee's formal complaint regarding working conditions or failure by management to stick to its contract with the employee
1. Statement of grounds for action and invitation to a meeting
The employer must send the employee a written statement setting out the reasons why they are considering dismissing or disciplining the employee, (for example the alleged misconduct; the reasons why the employer thinks an employee is not doing their job properly; or the reasons why the employer is proposing to make the employee redundant or not to renew their fixed term contract).
The employer must invite the employee to a meeting to discuss the issue.
2. The meeting
The employer must hold a meeting to discuss the reasons why they are considering disciplining or dismissing the employee
The employee has the right to be accompanied at the meeting.
The employee should have had a reasonable opportunity to consider their response to the employer's statement before the meeting. The employer must have informed the employee of the basis of any allegations or reasons why the employer is considering disciplining or dismissing the employee. No dismissal or disciplinary action should take place before the meeting.
The meeting should be organized at a reasonable time and in a convenient location and both the employer and the employee must take all reasonable steps to attend. The employee must be given the opportunity to state their case at the meeting.
After the meeting the employer must inform the employee about the decision and of their right to appeal if they are not satisfied it.
3. The appeal
If the employee chooses to appeal, they must inform the employer who must invite them to a further meeting. The employee has the right to be accompanied and both the employer and employee must take all reasonable steps to attend this meeting.
The appeal meeting need not take place before any dismissal or sanction takes effect. Where possible, the appeal should be dealt with by a more senior manager than attended the first meeting (unless the most senior manager attended the first meeting).
After the meeting the employer must inform the employee of their final decision
Describe the stages of a discipline issue that results in dismissal:
Many potential disciplinary or grievance issues can be resolved informally. A quiet word is often all that is required to resolve an issue. However, where an issue cannot be resolved informally then it may be pursued formally. This Code sets out the basic requirements of fairness that will be applicable in most cases; it is intended to provide the standard of reasonable behavior in Most instances.
Employers would be well advised to keep a written record of any disciplinary or grievances cases they deal with. Organisations may wish to consider dealing with issues involving bullying, harassment or whistle blowing under a separate procedure
Clear rules benefit employees and set standards of conduct. They also help employers to act fairly and consistently. Employers should also set standards of performance so that employees know what is expected of them. This is usually done as part of an organization's performance management which will involve agreeing objectives and reviewing performance on a regular basis
Different organisations will have different requirements but rules often cover such matters as:
Health and safety
Use of organisation facilities
Discrimination, bullying and harassment
The types of conduct that might be considered as 'gross misconduct'
A disciplinary procedure is the means by which rules are observed and standards are maintained. The procedure should be used primarily to help and encourage employees to improve rather than just as a way of imposing punishment. It provides a method of dealing with any apparent shortcomings in conduct or performance and can help an employee to become effective again. The procedure should be fair, effective, and consistently applied
Employees should be given the opportunity to challenge the allegations before decisions are reached and should be provided with a right to appeal. Good disciplinary procedures should:
Be in writing
Provide for matters to be dealt with speedily
Allow for information to be kept confidential
Tell employees what disciplinary action might be taken
Say what levels of management have the authority to take the various forms of disciplinary action
Require employees to be informed of the complaints against them and supporting evidence, before a disciplinary meeting
Give employees a chance to have their say before management reaches a decision
Provide employees with the right to be accompanied
Provide that no employee is dismissed for a first breach of discipline, except in cases of gross misconduct
Explain the role of ACAS, employment tribunals and other external agencies that could be involved in grievance, discipline and dismissal processes.
The importance of the UK and European Legislative framework and its relevance to policy, Procedures and practices in grievance, discipline and dismissal processes and practices
The role of various employee relations institutions, including ACAS and Employment Tribunals and the importance and significance of case law to grievance, discipline and dismissal decision-making. The concept of organizational justice and the legal terms of Fairness, unfairness, wrongful dismissal and tests of 'reasonableness' in employment decisions Nature of dissatisfaction and the origins of grievances within organisations
The role of organizational and statutory procedures for grievance and discipline handling. The constructive use of such procedures and relevant training in bringing about changes in employee conduct, capability and performance. Undertaking investigations into grievance and disciplinary matters, preparing cases for and listening to claims for grievance claims and disciplinary actions.
Nature of employment tribunal functions, processes and procedures. Ability to defend a claim against unfair dismissal at an employment tribunal. The importance of deploying a range of inter-personal skills, including verbal and non-verbal communication, listening, influencing, persuading and conflict resolution in determining decision outcomes in respect of grievance, discipline and dismissal cases.
Employment tribunals are designed to deal with claims that may be brought against employers by employees relating to their employment or its termination.
Although the employment relationship is in large part governed by the law of contract, meaning that some disputes can be dealt with by the ordinary civil courts (usually the County Court in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Sheriff Court in Scotland), the majority of employment rights areÂ contained in statute law and can only be enforced by employment tribunals (called 'industrial tribunals' in Northern Ireland). Examples are:
unfair dismissal claims
discrimination claims (race, sex, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation, age)
equal pay claims
claims relating to deductions from wages
Of course, when faced with an employment dispute, employers and employees may attempt to resolve matters either:
Between themselves directly
By using the pre-claim conciliation service offered by Acas, or By the use of a private mediator or arbitrato.